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Jon Fisher

Jon Fisher

Robert Fisher va uning rafiqasi Agnesning o'g'li Jon Fisher taxminan 1469 yilda Beverli shahrida tug'ilgan. Otasi merser (to'qimachilik matolari, ayniqsa ipak, baxmal va boshqa mayda buyumlar sotuvchisi) bo'lib ishlagan. U 1488 yilda Kembrij universitetini tamomlagan va 1491 yilda Yorkda ruhoniy etib tayinlangan.

Fisher 1494 yilda Genrix VII ning rafiqasi Ledi Margaret Beaufort bilan uchrashdi. "Uning iste'dodlari uni hayratga solgani aniq, chunki u o'z xizmatiga yollangan va o'z vaqtida uning ruhiy direktori bo'lgan. Ammo Fisher faol ishtirok etishda davom etdi. universitet hayotida, 1490 -yillarda ma'ruzalar o'qidi va 1501 -yilda ilohiyot fanlari doktori ilmiy darajasini oldi. O'sha yili u universitet prorektori etib saylandi - shubhasiz, uning xonim Margaret bilan ta'sirli aloqasi tufayli - va 1502 yilda u birinchi bo'ldi. u Kembrijda asos solgan ilohiyot professori. " (1)

1504 yilda Jon Fisher Rochester episkopi va Kembrij universiteti kantsleri etib tayinlandi. Uning ta'siri ostida xonim Margaret Masih kolleji va Sent -Jon kollejiga asos solgan. (2) 1507 yilda qirol Genri King kolleji ibodatxonasini tugatish uchun 5000 funt sterlingni vasiyat qilgan. Fisher, shuningdek, Desiderius Erasmusni Kembrijda o'qitishni tashkil qilgan (1511-1514). Aynan shu davrda Erasmus muallifi Tomas Morga yaqinlashdi Utopiya (1516) va gumanistik harakatning yana bir tarafdori. (3)

Fisherning biografi Richard Reksning aytishicha, u cho'ponlik ishida astoydil harakat qilgan. "Ko'pgina episkoplardan farqli o'laroq, u yeparxiyadagi deyarli barcha farmonlarni bajargan, bundan tashqari, abbatiy saylovlarda muntazam ravishda shaxsan raislik qilib, episkoplari sufraganlarga topshirgan ko'plab maxsus marosim va marosimlarni shaxsan bajargan. U hurmatga sazovor bo'lgan. ruhoniylik idorasi uchun va uning ruhoniylarni tayinlash masalasida hushyorligi, uning yeparxiyasining diplomli ruhoniylarning o'rtacha ulushidan yuqori bo'lganligi va o'zi yeparxiyada yig'ilgan ruhoniylarning deyarli barcha olimlari bo'lganligi dalolat beradi, odatda Kembrij va asosan Fisherning o'zi bog'liq bo'lgan kollejlardan. " (4)

Jon Fisher Martin Lyuterning eng kuchli raqiblaridan biri edi. U 1521 yil may oyida kardinal Tomas Volsi tomonidan Angliyada Lyuter kitoblari birinchi marta yoqilgani haqida va'z qildi. Yangi ta'limotlar oqimini to'xtatish uchun juda kech edi. Tomas Mor, bid'atchilar o'z ta'limotlarini tushuntirib beradigan har bir uy va tavernada "band" bo'lishidan shikoyat qilishdi. Ko'proq u ta'kidlaganidek, u yosh advokatlar "yarim tunda palatada o'z o'qishlariga murojaat qilmaydilar". (5)

Jon Fisher 1526 yilda Robert Barnsga qarshi sud jarayonlarida ham qatnashgan. Uning lyuterizmga qarshi va'zlari lotin va ingliz tillarida chop etilgan va pravoslavlikni himoya qilishda "ulkan hissa" sifatida tasvirlangan. (6) Devid Starki o'z va'zlari tomoshabinlarga cheklangan ta'sir ko'rsatganini da'vo qildi: "Fisher, ruhoniy edi. U ruhoniy kabi yozgan va o'ylagan, hatto ingliz tilida va hatto o'z asarlarida. Oddiy tomoshabinlar, masalan, uning va'zlari. Bu lotin tilidan olingan iqtiboslar bilan o'ralgan, tan olingan tarjima qilingan. Va ularning barcha argument tuzilishi o'xshashlik, o'xshashlik va obro'ga bog'liq. (7) Boshqalar hamdardlik bildiradilar: "Uning barcha va'zlari, sxolastlar tomonidan ma'qullangan uch tomonlama tuzilmani, gumanizm ta'siri tufayli, zamonaviyroq bo'lib borayotgan, muqaddas kitobning tegishli tafsirini tashvishga soladi. Garchi uning nasri biroz bezatilgan bo'lsa -da. Zamonaviy ta'm uchun ishlab chiqilgan, bu o'z davrining didiga mos edi va uning to'g'ri va ta'sirli tasvirlari chinakam ijodiy intellektdan dalolat beradi ". (8)

Genrix VIII bir necha yillar davomida Ketrin Aragon bilan ajrashish haqida o'ylardi. Ketrin qiyin ahvolda edi. Endi 44 yoshda, Genrixning bekasi Enn Boleyn bilan raqobatlashish qiyin kechdi. "Endi uning bir paytlar ingichka qiyofasi bir necha marta tug'ish bilan to'yingan edi va uning chiroyli sochlari qoramag'iz jigarranggacha qoraygan edi, lekin tashrif buyurgan elchilar hali ham uning rang-barangligini ta'kidlashdi. Yumshoq, yumshoq ovozli, hech qachon bo'lmagan U ajdodlar g'ururidan kelib chiqadigan begona urg'u izini yo'qotdi va u o'zining haq irodasi va o'z irodasi irodasi bilan qurollangan dushmanga duch keldi. (9)

Ketrin nikohni bekor qilishga rozi bo'lishi taklif qilindi. Muallifi Alison Veyr Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007), agar u bu choraga rozi bo'lsa, Genri unga yaxshi munosabatda bo'lardi, deb hisoblaydi. "U bir necha bor unga qarshilik ko'rsatdi, vorislik borasidagi haqiqiy ikkilanishiga ko'r bo'lib tuyuldi va Genri to'sqinlik qilganda, shafqatsiz bo'lib qoldi." (10)

Elison Plouden Ketrin uchun ilgari surilgan bitimni qabul qilishning iloji yo'qligini ta'kidlaydi: "Genrixning partizanlari uning birinchi xotinini ma'naviy takabburlikda, mutaassiblikda va qonli fikrda ayblashdi va u, shubhasiz, o'lishi mumkin bo'lgan noqulay odamlardan biri edi. Hech qanday shubha yo'qki, u g'ururli va o'jar ayol edi, lekin agar u butun umrini nikohsiz zinoda o'tkazganligini tan olsay edi. "Qirolning fohishasi" dan ko'ra, malika qizi hech kimga befarq tug'ilmagan pichanga o'xshamaydi; va bu uning o'rnini boshqa ayol egallaganini ko'rishni anglatar edi. Ketrinning kelib chiqishi va fe'l -atvori aql bovar qilmas edi. " (11)

Jon Fisher bu masala bo'yicha 1527 -yilda maslahatlashgan. U dastlab qirolning xohish -irodasini tushungan. "Garchi u vafot etgan birodarining xotini bilan turmush qurishga oid yozma dalillar noaniq ekanini tan olgan bo'lsa -da, u Muqaddas Yozuvlar haqidagi shubhalarni hal qilishda, shuningdek, barcha qarindoshlik munosabatlaridan tashqari, nikohdan voz kechish uchun ham papa hokimiyatining ishonchiga ishonmas edi. cheklovlar ... Fisher borgan sari ko'proq ilohiy va tabiiy qonun va papa hokimiyati haqidagi ilmiy savollarga e'tiborini qaratdi. (12)

Agar siz ushbu maqolani foydali deb bilsangiz, iltimos, Reddit kabi veb -saytlarda baham ko'ring. Siz Jon Simkinni Twitter, Google+ va Facebook -da kuzatishingiz yoki har oylik axborot byulletenimizga obuna bo'lishingiz mumkin.

Kardinal Tomas Vulsiga ajrashishni tashkil qilish vazifasi topshirildi. Genri Papa Klement VIIga xat yubordi, uning aragon Ketrin bilan nikohi, u ilgari akasi Arturga uylangani kabi, haqiqiy emas edi. Genri vaziyatni tartibga solish uchun Volsiga ishondi. Muzokaralar paytida Papa Genriga Rimda qaror qabul qilinmaguncha yangi nikoh tuzishni taqiqlab qo'ydi.

Ikki yillik diqqatli diplomatik muzokaralardan so'ng, 1529 yil 18 -iyunda Blekfriarsda Volsi va Kardinal Lorentso Kempegjio boshchiligidagi nikohning noqonuniyligini isbotlash uchun sud ochildi. Ketrin o'z pozitsiyasini jasorat bilan himoya qildi. Jorj Kavendish sudda o'z guvohi bo'lgan. U ayolning so'zlaridan iqtibos keltiradi: "Hazrat, yolvoraman, bizga xiyonat qilgan barcha sevgilar uchun va Xudoning sevgisi uchun menga adolat va huquq berishga ruxsat bering. Menga achinish va rahm -shafqat qiling, chunki men kambag'al ayolman va sizning hukmronligingizdan tug'ilgan begona. Menda bu erda na ishonchli do'stim, na befarq maslahatim bor. Men sizga bu sohada adolat boshlig'i sifatida qochaman. Afsuski, ser, men sizni qayerda xafa qildim? Yoki sizda qanday imkoniyat bor? Men Xudodan va butun dunyodan guvohlik beramanki, men sizning xohishingiz va zavqingizga mos keladigan haqiqiy, kamtar va itoatkor xotin bo'ldim. Siz zavqlangan va xursand bo'lgan hamma narsada, men hech qachon so'zga ham, yuzga ham xafa bo'lmaganman, norozilik uchqunini ham ko'rsatmaganman. Men siz sababchi bo'lganmi yoki yo'qmi, ular mening do'stlarimmi Yigirma va undan ko'p yillar davomida men sizning haqiqiy xotiningiz bo'ldim va siz ko'p farzandli bo'ldingiz Ren, garchi men ularni bu dunyodan chaqirish Xudoga ma'qul kelgan bo'lsa -da, menda ayb yo'q ". (13)

Yepiskop Jon Fisher Blackfriarsdagi sud jarayonida Aragonlik Ketrinni hayratda qoldirdi va endi Genrix VIIIning ajrashish urinishlariga qattiq qarshilik ko'rsatdi. Qirol Fisherga va uning tarafdorlariga "uning nikoh ishlari bo'yicha kelishib olishlari" uchun bosim o'tkazdi. Tomas Kromvell parlamentda turli ruhoniy xatoliklarni tartibga solish uchun bir qator qonun loyihalarini kiritdi. Fisher bu qonunga qarshi bahs yuritib, bu "imonsizlik" (bid'at) ishi ekanligini da'vo qildi. Jamoat palatasi a'zolari bu izohlardan g'azablanishdi va qirolning aralashuvidan so'ng, Fisher kechirim so'rashga majbur bo'ldi. Jon Klerk (Vann va Uells episkopi) va Nikolay Uest (Eli episkopi) bilan birgalikda ularga qarshi papaga murojaat qilishdi. "Qisqa bo'lsa ham, barcha uchta episkop zudlik bilan ta'qib qilindi." (14)

Ketrin Aragonning sud jarayoni 30 -iyul kuni Lorentso Kempegjo tomonidan uning iltimosini Rimga etkazish uchun qoldirildi. Bu Uolsi uchun jiddiy muammolarni keltirib chiqardi: "Bu Uolsining pozitsiyasini bir zumda va sezilarli darajada zaiflashtirdi, bu esa Ennaning atrofida to'plangan saroy xizmatchilariga uni ag'darish uchun kerakli vositalarni berdi. Shunday bo'lsa -da, u o'z lavozimini saqlab qolish uchun qattiq kurashdi va qirol hokimiyatni yo'qotishni istamadi. Xizmatlar unga kuzgacha hokimiyatni ushlab turishga imkon berdi. 18 oktyabrgacha Volsi buyuk muhrdan voz kechdi va Genri uni butunlay halokatdan himoya qildi. (15)

Anne Boleynning rag'batlantirishi bilan qirol Genrix VIII Uolsining sodiqligi Angliyaga emas, balki Papaga tegishli ekanligiga ishonch hosil qildi va 1529 yil oktyabr oyida u lavozimidan chetlatildi. (16) U o'rniga Fisherning eski do'sti Tomas More lord -kantsler etib tayinlandi. Piter Akroydning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu ayyor siyosiy harakat edi. "Ko'proq bid'atchilarning ashaddiy ovchisi sifatida tanilgani uchun, Genri pravoslav cherkovidan voz kechishni xohlamasligining aniq isboti edi. Aslida, Mor o'z pozitsiyasini egallaganidan keyin bir oy ichida o'z izlanishlarini boshladi, u London fuqarosi Tomasni hibsga oldi. Fillips, bid'atda gumon qilinib ... Bu yangi kantslerning bid'atchilarga qarshi terror kampaniyasining boshlanishi edi ». (17)

Endi u kuchini bid'atchilarni quvg'in qilishga qaratdi. 1530 yilda u bir nechta nashrlarni taqiqlovchi ikkita e'lon e'lon qildi va ingliz asarlarining xorijiy izlarini olib kirishni taqiqladi. Ko'proq erkaklar taqiqlangan kitoblarga ega bo'lgani uchun qamalgan. Ko'proq, shuningdek, uch bid'atchini qatl qilishni buyurdi va boshqalarning qatl qilinishini ochiqchasiga ma'qulladi. "Ko'proq bid'atchilarni sud orqali quvg'in qilgani, ular bilan kurashgan tinimsizligidan dalolat berdi ... Vaqt qat'iylikni talab qildi, u bir necha bor bahslashdi, chunki bahslar juda baland edi. More hayotining boshqa jihatlari bundan buyon katta tortishuvlarga olib kelmagan. Tanqidchilarning fikricha, Evropaning etakchi ziyolilaridan biri, ayniqsa gumanistik qarashlari kuchli bo'lganlar uchun, ko'proq bid'atchilarga o'lim jazosini rad etishlari kerak edi. u eng hayratga tushdi ... noliydi, lekin bid'atchilarni qatl qilish amaliyotini zarur deb qabul qildi. " (18)

Bishop Jon Fisher Genrix VIIIning kuchli raqibi bo'lib qoldi. 1531 yil fevral oyida episkopning sho'rvasini zaharlashga urinishdi, lekin u muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi. "Zohid baliqchi butun ovqatni to'g'ridan -to'g'ri xizmatkorlariga va darvozalarida ovqatlanishga odatlangan kambag'allarga topshirdi, ikkitasi o'lik, qolganlari kasal bo'lib qoldi. Boshqa payt noma'lum kimsa" Lambeth "da unga optimistik nuqta bilan qaradi. Temrining narigi tarafidagi uy. Genrining bu fitnalarda ishtirok etganiga ishonish uchun hech qanday asos yo'q. Uning zaharlanish dahshati shundan iboratki, u javoban u zaharlanishni tirik qaynatish bilan jazolaydigan qonunni qabul qildi, bu esa baliqchining omadsiz oshpazini qatl qilish usuli edi. , kim bilmasdan bu ishga aldangan edi. " (19)

Genri Anne Boleyn homilador ekanligini aniqladi. Bolani noqonuniy deb tasniflamaslik muhim bo'lgani uchun, Genri va Ennining turmushga chiqishi uchun zarur choralar ko'rildi. Ispaniya qiroli Charlz V, agar nikoh bo'ladigan bo'lsa, Angliyaga bostirib kirishini aytdi, lekin Genri uning tahdidlariga e'tibor bermadi va nikoh 1533 yil 25 yanvarda davom etdi. Genri uchun xotini o'g'il tug'ishi juda muhim edi. O'lganidan keyin o'g'li bo'lmaganda, Genri Tudor oilasi Angliya ustidan nazoratni yo'qotib qo'yishdan qo'rqardi. Tomas More shohning cherkov siyosatiga qarshilik kuchayganiga qaramay, Genrixning Anne Boleyn bilan bo'lgan nikohini Xudoning vasvasi sifatida qabul qilganini va "na pichirlab na bahslashmasligini" tushuntirish uchun ehtiyot bo'ldi. ayol "qirollik moylangan malikasi" edi. (20)

Yelizaveta 1533 yil 7 sentyabrda tug'ilgan. Genri o'g'il kutgan va Edvard va Genri ismlarini tanlagan. Genri boshqa qiz tug'ganidan g'azablansa -da, uning birinchi xotini Ketrin Aragonning tarafdorlari xursand bo'lishdi va bu Xudo Genrini Anne bilan noqonuniy turmush qurgani uchun jazolayotganini isbotladi, deb da'vo qilishdi. (21) Retha M. Warnicke, muallifi Anne Boleynning ko'tarilishi va qulashi (1989) ta'kidlaganidek: "Yelizaveta qirolning yagona qonuniy farzandi sifatida, shahzoda tug'ilgunga qadar uning merosxo'ri bo'lgan va o'z martabali urg'ochisiga bo'lgan hurmat bilan munosabatda bo'lishi kerak edi. Bolasining jinsidan qat'i nazar, Xudo nikohni barakali qildi deb bahslashish uchun ham malika xavfsiz etkazib berilishi mumkin edi, hamma narsa chaqaloqning kelishi haqida xabar berish uchun qilingan ". (22)

1533 yil dekabrda Genrix VIII Tomas Kromvelga papaning obro'sini tushirish uchun davlatning barcha resurslarini ochishga ruxsat berdi. "Ingliz tarixidagi eng shafqatsiz va xunuk tuhmat kampaniyalaridan birida, vazir targ'ibot usullarini o'zlashtirganini ko'rsatdi, chunki papa butun mamlakat bo'ylab va'z va risolalarda hujumga uchradi. Yangi yilda parlamentning yana bir sessiyasi chaqirilib, zarur qonunlarni qabul qildi. Angliyani Rim bilan bog'lagan qolgan aloqalarni rasmiy ravishda Kromvelning qattiq nazorati ostida uzing. (23)

Bu davrda Bishop Fisher Aragonning eng qat'iyatli siyosiy tarafdori Ketrin, uning jiyani, Ispaniya qiroli Charlz Vning Angliyadagi elchisi Eustas Chapuys bilan yaqin aloqada bo'lgan. U Angliyadan, Fisherning ajrashish haqidagi adabiy korxonalaridan yashirincha olib chiqib ketishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Fisher, shuningdek, Elizabet Bartonga tomoshabinlar berishini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Barton, agar Anne Boleynga uylangan bo'lsa, bir oy ichida qirolning o'limini bashorat qilgan. (24).

1534 yil mart oyida Papa Klement VII yakunda o'z qarorini qabul qildi. U Genrixning Anne Boleyn bilan nikohi haqiqiy emasligini e'lon qildi. Genri bunga javoban Papaning Angliyada hokimiyati yo'qligini e'lon qildi. 1534 yil noyabrda parlament ustunlik aktini qabul qildi. Bu Genriga "Angliya cherkovining oliy boshlig'i" unvonini berdi. Xiyonat to'g'risidagi qonun ham qabul qilindi, bu har qanday yo'l bilan, jumladan yozish va gapirish, Podshoh va uning merosxo'rlarini bid'at yoki zulmda ayblashga urinishni jinoyatga aylantirdi. Barcha sub'ektlarga buni qabul qilib, qasamyod qabul qilish buyurilgan. (25)

Jon Fisher va ser Tomas Mor qasamyod qilishdan bosh tortdilar va London minorasida qamoqqa tashlandilar. 1535 yil may oyida Papa Pol III Fisherga kardinal yaratdi. Bu Genrix VIIIni g'azablantirdi va 11 iyun kuni u Vestminster zalidagi hakamlar hay'ati oldida paydo bo'ldi. Bunga Tomas Kromvel, Charlz Brandon va Tomas Audli kirgan. Sadoqatini sinab ko'rish uchun Gertruda Kurten va uning eri Genri Kurteny hakamlar hay'atiga joylashtirildi. Ikkalasi ham uni qatl qilish kerak degan fikrga kelishdi. (26)

1535 yil 22-iyun, seshanba kuni Tower Hill tepasida yetmish olti yoshli Fisherning boshi kesildi. Shokka tushgan jamoat uning o'limida qirolicha Enn Boleynni aybladi va shu sababdan ham uning farzandining o'lik tug'ilishi haqidagi xabarni tiyib qo'yishdi, chunki odamlar buni Xudoning irodasining belgisi sifatida ko'rishgan. Enerning o'zi Fisherni qatl qilish kunida vijdon azobidan aziyat chekdi va "ruhini tinchlantirish" marosimiga qatnashdi. (27)

Eng buyuk ingliz dinshunosi va munozarachisi Rochester episkopi Jon Fisher edi. Fisher Lyuterga qarshi jangga erta qo'shilgan, uchta muhim lotin kitobini yozgan, shuningdek, 1521 va 1526 yillarda ikkita va'zni lotin va ingliz tillarida chop etgan.

Chunki Fisher, ruhoniy edi. Va ularning butun dalil tuzilishi o'xshashlik, o'xshashlik va hokimiyatga bog'liq.

1521 yilda u Londonda Papa buqasi Martin Lyuterga qarshi e'lon qilinganida va 1526 yilda Robert Barnsning retsidatsiyasida va'z qilgan. Uning barcha va'zlari, gumanizm ta'siri tufayli, tobora modaga aylanib borayotgan, muqaddas yozuvning to'g'ri izohlanishi bilan bog'liq, sxolastikalar tomonidan ma'qullangan uch tomonlama tuzilmani birlashtiradi. Garchi uning nasri biroz zamonaviy uslubda bezatilgan va bezatilgan bo'lsa -da, bu o'z zamonasining didiga mos edi va uning to'g'ri va ta'sirli tasvirlari chinakam ijodiy intellektdan dalolat beradi.

Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)

Genrix VII: Aqlli yoki yovuz hukmdor? (Javob sharhi)

Xans Xolbeyn va Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)

Shahzoda Artur va Ketrin Aragonning nikohi (Javob sharhi)

Genrix VIII va Kliv Annasi (Javob sharhi)

Qirolicha Ketrin Xovard xiyonat qilishda aybdor bo'lganmi? (Javob sharhi)

Anne Boleyn - diniy islohotchi (javob izohi)

Anne Boleynning o'ng qo'lida oltita barmog'i bo'lganmi? Katolik targ'ibotini o'rganish (javob izohi)

Nega Genrix VIIIning Anne Boleynga uylanishiga ayollar dushmanlik qilishdi? (Javob sharhi)

Ketrin Parr va ayollar huquqlari (Javob sharhi)

Ayollar, siyosat va Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)

Kardinal Tomas Vulsi (Javob sharhi)

Tarixchilar va yozuvchilar Tomas Kromvel haqida (Javob sharhi)

Martin Lyuter va Tomas Myuntser (Javob sharhi)

Martin Lyuter va Gitlerning antisemitizmi (Javob sharhi)

Martin Lyuter va islohot (javob izohi)

Meri Tudor va bid'atchilar (Javob sharhi)

Joan Bocher - anabaptist (javob izohi)

Anne Askew - qoziqda yonib ketgan (javob izohi)

Elizabet Barton va Genrix VIII (Javob sharhi)

Margaret Cheyneyning qatl qilinishi (Javob sharhi)

Robert Aske (Javob sharhi)

Monastirlarning tarqatib yuborilishi (javob izohi)

Inoyat ziyoratlari (Javob sharhi)

Tudor Angliyada qashshoqlik (Javob sharhi)

Nega qirolicha Yelizaveta turmushga chiqmadi? (Javob sharhi)

Frensis Uolsingem - Kodlar va kodlarni buzish (Javob sharhi)

Kodlar va kodni buzish (javoblar sharhi)

Ser Tomas More: Azizmi yoki gunohkormi? (Javob sharhi)

Xans Xolbeynning san'ati va diniy targ'iboti (Javob sharhi)

1517 yil 1 -may g'alayonlari: tarixchilar nima bo'lganini qaerdan bilishadi? (Javob sharhi)

(1) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(2) Rojer Lokyer, Tudor va Styuart Britaniya (1985) 128 -bet

(3) Jasper Ridli, Davlat arbobi va fanatik (1982) 60 -bet

(4) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(5) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 29 -bet

(6) Nabil Samman, Kardinal Uorslining yuksalishi davrida Genrix sudi (1989) 386 -bet

(7) Devid Starki, Olti xotin: Genrix VIII malikalari (2003) 378 -bet

(8) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(9) Alison Plouden, Tudor ayollar (2002) 54 -bet

(10) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 228 -bet

(11) Alison Plouden, Tudor ayollar (2002) 54 -bet

(12) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(13) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 200 -bet

(14) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(15) Devid Starki, Olti xotin: Genrix VIII malikalari (2003) 430-433-betlar

(16) Xovard Leytxed, Tomas Kromvel: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(17) Piter Akroyd, Tudorlar (2012) 56 -bet

(18) Seymur Beyker uyi, Tomas More: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(19) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(20) Antoniya Freyzer, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (1992) 190 -bet

(21) Patrik Kollinson, Qirolicha Yelizaveta I: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(22) Retha M. Warnicke, Anne Boleynning ko'tarilishi va qulashi (1989) 168 -bet

(23) Xovard Leytxed, Tomas Kromvel: Oksford milliy biografiyasi lug'ati (2004-2014)

(24) Richard Rex, Jon Fisher: Milliy biografiyaning Oksford lug'ati (2004-2014)

(25) Rojer Lokyer, Tudor va Styuart Britaniya (1985) 43-44 betlar

(26) Jasper Ridli, Genrix VIII (1984) 231 -bet

(27) Alison Veyr, Genrix VIII ning olti xotini (2007) 281 -bet


Sent -Jon Fisher kolleji 1948 yilda Basiliya otalari tomonidan erkaklar kolleji sifatida va Rochester Rim -Katolik Yeparxiyasining episkopi Jeyms E. Kirni yordamida tashkil etilgan. Kollej 1968 yilda mustaqil bo'lib, 1971 yilda birgalikda ta'lim oldi. Bugungi kunda Fisher Amerika oliy ta'limining katolik an'analaridagi mustaqil, liberal san'at institutidir. U 2020 yilda ro'yxatga olish joyi sifatida ro'yxatga olingan. [2]

Fisher beshta maktabdan iborat. U 35 ta bakalavriat yo'nalishlari, shuningdek, turli xil magistrlik va doktorlik dasturlarini taklif etadi.

San'at va fan maktabi tahrir

San'at va fan maktabi Sent -Jon Fisher kollejidagi eng yirik maktabdir. U bakalavriatning 20 dan ortiq ilmiy fanlari bo'yicha ilmiy daraja va voyaga etmaganlarni taklif etadi. [6]

Ralf C. Uilson, Jr. ta'lim maktabi tahriri

Maktab NFL Buffalo Xarajatlarining asoschisi Ralf C. Uilson nomidagi. U o'qituvchilar ta'limini akkreditatsiya qilish milliy kengashi tomonidan akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan va inklyuziv o'smirlik ta'limi va inklyuziv bolalik ta'limi bo'yicha bakalavr darajasini taklif etadi. Shuningdek, u ushbu sohalar uchun magistrlik va dastlabki sertifikatlashtirish dasturini taklif etadi. Dastlabki attestatsiyadan o'tgan o'qituvchilar savodxonlik ta'limi (B-6 va 5–12), maxsus ta'lim va ta'lim rahbarligi bo'yicha magistrlik darajalari va professional sertifikatlarga ega bo'lishlari mumkin, shuningdek, ijro etuvchi rahbarlik bo'yicha tezlashtirilgan ta'lim doktori.

Ta'lim maktabi jamoatchilik bilan muloqot dasturlarida faol qatnashadi, shu jumladan o'rta maktab o'quvchilari uchun savodxonlik bo'yicha repetitorlik va kichik guruhlarda o'qitishni ta'minlaydigan savodxonlik markazi. Ta'lim maktabi mahalliy maktab tumanlari bilan, shu jumladan, Rochester Siti maktab okrugi bilan yaqindan hamkorlik qiladi, u erda bir qancha kasbiy rivojlanish saytlari joylashgan bo'lib, u erda amaliyotchi o'qituvchilar va o'qituvchilar o'qituvchilar bilan birgalikda eng yaxshi tajribalarni ishlab chiqish uchun ishlaydi. [7]

Biznes maktabi tahrir

Fisherning biznes dasturlari kollejning ilgari maktablari assotsiatsiyasi (AACSB International) tomonidan akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan. Ushbu akkreditatsiyadan so'ng, kollejdagi barcha biznes dasturlari 2003 yilda Kollejning birinchi professional maktabi - Biznes maktabini tashkil qilish uchun birlashtirildi.

Wegmans farmatsevtika maktabi tahrir

Wegmans farmatsevtika maktabi - Nyu -York shtatidagi beshta dorixona maktablaridan biri va Buyuk Rochester jamoasidagi birinchi dorixona maktabi. U 2006 yilning kuzida ochilgan va 2010 yil may oyida to'liq akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan. U to'rt yillik professional o'qishni muvaffaqiyatli tamomlagan nomzodlarga farmatsevtika doktori ilmiy darajasini beradi.

Maktab ko'p yillar davomida "Wegmans Food Markets" kompaniyasi prezidenti bo'lib ishlagan marhum Robert Vegmanning 5 million dollarlik sovg'asi hisobiga mumkin bo'lgan.

Wegmans hamshiralik maktabi tahrir

Bu maktabga hamshiralik maktabini yaratish uchun kollejga 8 million dollar ajratgan Robert Vegman nomi berilgan. Fisherning hamshiralik dasturlari Nyu -York shtati ta'lim boshqarmasi va kollejlik hamshiralik ta'limi komissiyasi tomonidan to'liq akkreditatsiyadan o'tgan.

Kollej shuningdek BSN -dan RN -ga onlayn dasturini, hamshiralik va ruhiy salomatlik bo'yicha maslahat bo'yicha magistrlik darajasini va hamshiralik amaliyoti doktori (DNP) darajasini taklif qiladi.

Grantlarni tahrirlash

Deyarli barcha birinchi kurs talabalariga moddiy yordam ko'rsatiladi. Muvaffaqiyatli talabalar uchun ehtiyojlar va imtiyozlarga asoslangan stipendiyalar, shuningdek, grantlar, kreditlar va yarim kunlik ish joylari mavjud. Yangi kelganlarga ikkita noyob stipendiya beriladi.

Sent -Jon Fisher kolleji kardinallari
UniversitetSent -Jon Fisher kolleji
KonferensiyaEmpire 8, Sharqiy kollejning sport konferentsiyasi, Ozodlik ligasi, Birlashgan voleybol konferentsiyasi
NCAAIII bo'lim
Sport direktoriBob Uord
ManzilRochester, Nyu -York
Har xil jamoalar24
Futbol stadioniGrowney stadioni
Basketbol arenasiManning va Napier Varsity gimnaziyasi
Beysbol stadioniDugan Yard
TaxallusKardinallar
RanglarOltin va kardinal
Veb -sayt yengil atletika .sjfc .edu

Kollej Empire 8 atletika assotsiatsiyasining asoschisi va boshqa to'liq a'zo maktablar bilan raqobatlashadi. U NCAA III bo'limida musobaqalashadi va Sharqiy kollej sport konferentsiyasi (ECAC), Empire 8, Ozodlik ligasi (erkaklar va ayollar eshkak eshish) va Birlashgan voleybol konferentsiyasi (erkaklar) a'zosi. Uning talismani kardinal hisoblanadi.

2014-15 yilgi mavsumda Sent -Jon Fisher kolleji erkaklar uchun yopiq trek va amp maydonlari, erkaklar basketboli, ayollar basketboli, erkaklar ochiq trek va amp maydonlari, erkaklar golf va ayollar lakrosi bo'yicha Empire 8 chempionligini qo'lga kiritdi. [8]

"Gronni" stadionida Fisherning futbol, ​​chim ustida xokkey, futbol va lakros jamoalari joylashgan. Stadionning har doim ob-havo uchun mo'ljallangan maydonida yorug'lik va 2500 o'rinli tribuna o'rnatilgan. Manning va Napier Varsity gimnaziyasida erkaklar va ayollar basketbol jamoalari joylashgan. Dugan Yard - Fisherning beysbol maydoni. Boshqa ochiq inshootlarga Polisseni yengil atletika kompleksi, regulyativ o'lchamdagi mashg'ulot maydonlari (uy regbi maydonlari bo'lib xizmat qiladi) va softbol olmosi kiradi.

2006 yilda Fisherning futbol jamoasi mavsumni umumiy hisobda 12: 2 hisobida yakunladi va Empire 8 konferentsiyasi unvonini bo'lishdi. Fisher NCAA Division III turniriga katta taklif oldi va unda Union College, Springfild kolleji va Rowan universitetini mag'lubiyatga uchratib, milliy yarim finalga yo'l olishdi, u milliy chempion chempioni Mount Union kollejiga yutqazdi. 26-14.

2007 yilda Fisherning erkaklar basketbol jamoasi 5 yil ketma -ket Empire 8 konferentsiyasi g'olibi bo'ldi va etti yil ichida 6 -marta. 2006 yilda Fisher basketbol bo'yicha NCAA erkaklar bo'linmasi III chempionatining elita sakkizligiga yo'l oldi.

Ayollar basketbol dasturiga 34 mavsum davomida Fil Kaxler rahbarlik qildi, u 797 g'alaba (III divizion tarixidagi eng ko'p) va 175 mag'lubiyatlari borasida rekord o'rnatdi. 821. Qahler davrida ayollar basketbol dasturi NCAA III divizion chempionatida 14 marotaba etib kelgan va 1988 va 1990 yillarda NCAA ayollar bo'linmasi III basketbol chempionatida qatnashgan. Kaxler 2008–09 yilgi basketbol mavsumi boshlanishidan ko'p o'tmay nafaqaga chiqqan va uning o'rnini zaxiraga olgan. Marianne O'Konnor Ermi, uning 20 mavsum davomida bosh murabbiy yordamchisi. Ayollar basketbol jamoasini endi 2017-18 yilgi mavsum oldidan bosh murabbiy sifatida ishga yollangan Melissa Kuberka boshqaradi.

Buffalo Bills o'quv lagerini tahrirlash

2000 yildan buyon Sent -Jon Fisher kollejida Buffalo Billsning NFL yozgi o'quv -mashg'ulot yig'ini joylashgan.

Talabalar uchun ko'plab kampus klublari va tashkilotlari mavjud. [9] Talabalar shaharchasidagi to'rtta yirik tashkilotga Talabalar hukumati uyushmasi, Talabalar faolligi kengashi, Turar joylar uyushmasi va Shaharlararo kengash kiradi.

Boshqa klublarga musiqa guruhlari, til klublari, madaniy tashkilotlar, talabalar nashrlari va maktab ichidagi sport turlari kiradi. Ko'pgina ilmiy bo'limlar ham klublarga homiylik qiladi. Baliqchi talabalar turli xil xizmat ko'rsatuvchi tashkilotlar orqali jamiyatga o'z hissalarini qo'shishlari mumkin, shu jumladan ko'rish qobiliyatiga ega bo'lgan talabalar va saraton kasalligiga qarshi kollejlar. Har yili ko'plab xizmatlar loyihalari bo'lib o'tadi, ular orasida "Jamiyat konvergentsiyasi", "Hayot uchun o'z o'rni", "Gigant o'qish" va "Sevgilim to'pi" bor.

Sevgi uchun yillik Teddi raqsi-bu Lou Buttino tomonidan 1983 yilda boshlangan 24 soatlik raqs marafoni bo'lib, u Camp Good Days va Special Times, Inc kompaniyalariga foyda keltiradi. tashkil etilganidan buyon. [10]

2015 yilda Sent -Jon Fisher kolleji Karnegi Jamoatchiligi bilan Ta'limni Karnegi Jamg'armasi tasnifini oldi va O'qitishning Yangi Angliya Resurs Markazi (NERCHE). [11]


1535 yil: Kardinal Sent -Jon Fisherning boshini kesish

U Angliyadagi Rochester katolik episkopi bo'lgan va o'zini Angliya cherkovining boshlig'i deb e'lon qilmoqchi bo'lgan qirol Genrix VIII davrida qatl etilgan.

Genrixning birinchi xotini bilan ajrashganini tan olmagan katoliklar, shuning uchun u Anne Boleynga uylanishi mumkin edi, va cherkov primatlari nuqtai nazaridan Papaga sodiq qolganlar asosan ta'qib qilinar va hatto shahid sifatida qatl etilar edilar.

Sent -Jon Fisher 1469 yilda Yorkshir tumanida tug'ilgan. U Nikolko Makiavelli va Rotermdam Erasmusining zamondoshi edi, Albrecht Dyurer va Nikolay Kopernik ham uning avlodiga mansub edi. Bu mashhur gumanistlar va Uyg'onish davri rassomlari davri edi.

Qizig'i shundaki, Sent -Jon Fisher Evropaning bilimli gumanistlari bilan muloqot qilgan. Aynan u Erasmusni Kembrijga tashrif buyurishga undagan.

1504 yilda Sent -Jon Fisher Temza dengizga oqadigan joy yaqinida joylashgan Rochester episkopi bo'ldi. Bu Kanterberidan keyin Angliyadagi ikkinchi eng qadimgi yeparxiya edi va Sent-Jon Fisher 30 yil davomida vafotigacha boshqargan.

Seynt Jon Fisher Kembrij universitetiga juda ishtiyoqli edi, u o'sha yili (1504) episkop bo'lganida kansler bo'ldi. U 30 yildan keyin vafotigacha Kembrij universiteti rektori etib tayinlandi.

Qirol Genrix VIII episkop Seynt Jon Fisher bilan muammoga duch kelgan, chunki ikkinchisi doimiy ravishda katolik cherkovining ta'limotini qo'llab -quvvatlagan. Yepiskop hibsga olindi, keyin undan Genri Angliya cherkovining oliy boshlig'i bo'la olmaydi, degan da'vo olindi.

Sent -Jon Fisher o'lim jazosiga hukm qilindi, bu eng dahshatli tarzda - gutting va chorakda bajarilishi kerak edi. Aziz Yuhanno qamoqda bo'lganida, Papa uni shohni kechirishga majbur qiladi degan umidda uni Muqaddas Rim cherkovining kardinali deb e'lon qildi. Biroq, bu Genrix VIIIni yanada g'azablantirganga o'xshaydi.

Qirol o'sha yilning 24 -iyunida, suvga cho'mdiruvchi Yuhanno bayramidan oldin, Sent -Jon Fisherning boshini iloji boricha tezroq kesib tashlashni buyurdi.

Aniqrog'i, odamlar, Hirod Antipas davrida boshi kesilgan, suvga cho'mdiruvchi Yuhanno va uning ismli Avliyo Jon Fisher o'rtasida o'xshashlik topishi ehtimoli bor edi, chunki ular hukmdorlarning nomaqbul nikohlariga qarshi chiqishgan.

Sankt -Jon Fisher haqiqatan ham shu kuni iskala tomon yo'l oldi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, u o'zini juda mardonavor va vijdonli tutdi, bu esa yig'ilganlarni qoyil qoldirdi. Uning boshini oldirishdi, keyin jasadini echib, kechgacha iskala ustida qoldirishdi.

Keyinroq boshi ustunga mixlangan va yalang'och jasad qabrga tashlangan. Avliyoning boshi London ko'prigida namoyish etildi, lekin ikki haftadan so'ng Temza shahriga tashlandi va uning o'rniga ser Tomas Morning kesilgan boshi qo'yildi (6 iyulda qatl qilindi).

Papa Leo XIII Jon Fisherni katolik cherkovidan muborak deb e'lon qildi, 1935 yilda Fischer Papa Pius XI tomonidan avliyo deb e'lon qilindi. Sent -Jon Fisher bilan birga Sent -Tomas More ham Genrix VIII (uning kansleri bir paytlar) ga qarshi chiqqanligi uchun qatl qilingan. edi) ham kanonizatsiya qilingan.

Qizig'i shundaki, hatto Anglikan cherkovi ham avliyolar va shahidlar ro'yxatiga Avliyo Jon Fisher va Avliyo Tomas Morni qo'ygan.


Sent -Jon Fisher

Sent-Jon Fisher 1459 yilda Beverlida (Yorkshir) tug'ilgan va Kembrijda ta'lim olgan, undan 1491 yilda san'at magistri unvonini olgan. U Northallerton vikarligini egallagan, 1491-1494 yillar keyin Kembrij universitetining prorektori bo'lgan. 1497 yilda u Genrix VII ning onasi Margaret Beaufortning e'tirofchisi etib tayinlandi va u Kembrijdan ajratilgan mablag 'bilan chambarchas bog'liq bo'lib, u stipendiyalar yaratdi, o'quv dasturiga yunon va ibroniy tillarini kiritdi va dunyoga mashhur Erasmusni ilohiyot professori sifatida olib keldi. va yunon. 1504 yilda u Rochester episkopi va Kembrij kansleri bo'ldi, u shuningdek Genrix VIII bo'ladigan shahzoda Genriga dars berdi. Sent -Jon o'zining yeparxiyasi va universitetining farovonligiga bag'ishlangan. 1527 yildan boshlab, Xudoning bu kamtar xizmatkori, qirolning xotini Ketrinni Xudo oldida ajrashish jarayoniga faol qarshi chiqdi va Genrixning Cherkovga tajovuziga qat'iyat bilan qarshilik ko'rsatdi. Boshqa yepiskoplardan farqli o'laroq, Sent -Jon merosxo'rlik qasamini qabul qilishdan bosh tortdi, bu Genri va Enn masalasini taxtning qonuniy vorisi deb tan oldi va 1534 yil aprelda minora qamoqqa tashlandi. Pol III tomonidan Kardinal yaratildi va Genri bir oy ichida uning boshini kesib tashlash bilan qasos oldi. Qatl qilinishidan yarim soat oldin, fidoyi olim va cherkov xodimi Yangi Ahdini oxirgi marta ochdi va uning ko'zlari Avliyo Yuhanno Xushxabaridagi quyidagi so'zlarga tikildi: "Abadiy hayot bu: yagona haqiqiy Xudoni va Seni bilish. Sen yuborgan Zot - Iso Masih. Men senga topshirgan ishni tugatib, Senga er yuzida ulug'vorlikni berdim. Endi sen qil, ota, menga yoningda ulug'vorlik ber ". Kitobni yoparkan, u shunday dedi: "Menga umrimning oxirigacha yetadigan bilim etarli". Uning bayram kuni - 22 iyun.

Hamma o'quvchilarimizga, iltimos, buni o'tib ketmang.

Bugun biz sizdan kamtarlik bilan Katolik Onlayn mustaqilligini himoya qilishingizni so'raymiz. O'quvchilarimizning 98 foizi boshqacha ko'rinishga ega emas. Agar siz atigi 5,00 dollar yoki xayr -ehson qilsangiz, Katolik Online yillar davomida gullab -yashnashi mumkin. Ko'p odamlar xayriya qilishadi, chunki Katolik Onlayn foydali. If Catholic Online has given you $5.00 worth of knowledge this year, take a minute to donate. Show the volunteers who bring you reliable, Catholic information that their work matters. If you are one of our rare donors, you have our gratitude and we warmly thank you. Help Now >

Fisher was born during October 1853 in Collin County, north of Dallas, Texas, to Jobe Fisher and the former Lucinda Warren. His brothers were Jasper and James Fisher. Fisher's mother died when he was two years old, and his father married a woman named Minerva. After the Civil War ended, the family moved to Williamson County, near Austin, where his brother James was then residing.

Jobe Fisher was a cattleman who owned and operated two freight wagons. After the death of his stepmother Minerva, the Fishers moved to Goliad, west of Victoria, Texas, where they were joined by his paternal grandmother, who helped her son raise his children. King Fisher was restless, handsome, popular with the girls, and prone to running with a tough crowd. His father sent him to live with his brother James taxminan 1869. Some two years later, Fisher was arrested for horse theft and sentenced to two years in prison. However, because of his youth, he was released after only a short time that same year. [1]

Cowboy and outlaw Edit

After his release from prison, Fisher began working as a cowboy, breaking horses. Because of the incessant raids, lootings, and rapes of Texas ranch and farm families by bandits, he soon found himself taking part in posse activities. As a result of his successes in this arena, he fancied himself as a gunman. Fisher began to dress rather flamboyantly and carried ivory handled pistols. He became quite proficient with a gun and began running with a band of outlaws which carried out frequent raids into Mexico. [1]

However, after only a short time, a dispute arose over how the spoils of their loot would be divided. One of the men drew his pistol, and Fisher immediately pulled his guns and managed to kill three of the bandits in the ensuing shootout. He then took over as leader of the gang, and over the course of the next several months killed seven more Mexican bandits. In 1872, he bought a ranch on the Rio Grande near Eagle Pass, in Maverick County on the Mexican border. He used this ranch as his gang's base of operations and even was so brazen as to place a sign that read "This is King Fisher's road. Take the other one." [1]

During this time, King Fisher rarely committed acts of violence or theft against other Texas settlers, instead opting to raid and rustle cattle across the Mexican border. This was a time of massive raids, pillaging, looting, raping, and murder by United States and Mexican bandits. In response to feelings of alleged lack of reprisal or defense by authorities, the Texans formed more groups of bandits. This activity only fueled disputes and ill will from the Mexican side and generated substantial problems for Texas Ranger battalions, who were trying to quell Mexican bandit raids into Texas. The Texas Rangers, under Leander H. McNelly, opposed the Mexican rebel leader Juan Cortina. The Rangers also raided the Fisher Ranch and arrested Fisher. However, he was released after a "gentleman's agreement"' was reached that his cattle rustling into Mexico would end. Pressure from the Texas Rangers caused Fisher to retire from this trade, and he began legitimate ranching. [2]

Gunfighter Edit

By the late 1870s, Fisher had a reputation as being fast with a gun. In 1878, an argument between Fisher and four Mexican vaqueros erupted. Fisher is alleged to have clubbed the nearest one to him with a branding iron, then as a second drew a pistol Fisher drew his own pistol and shot and killed the man. He then spun around and shot the other two, who evidently had not produced weapons and merely sat on the fence during the altercation. [1]

Fisher was arrested several times for altercations in public by local lawmen and had been charged at least once with "intent to kill". The charges were dropped after no witnesses came forward. Although well known as a trouble maker, Fisher was well liked in south Texas. He married the former Sarah Vivian on April 6, 1876, and the couple had four daughters. [3]

With his new family, he began a more settled life by working in the cattle business. He served briefly in 1883 as acting sheriff of Uvalde County, Texas. During this service he trailed two stagecoach robbery suspects, the brothers Tom and Jim Hannehan, to their ranch near Leakey in Real County, Texas. The Hannehans resisted, and Fisher shot and killed Tom. Jim then surrendered and was taken into custody along with the stolen loot from the robbery. For years after Fisher's death, Tom Hannehan's mother would travel to Fisher's grave on the anniversary of Tom Hannehan's death. She would build a fire on top of the grave and then dance around it. [1] According to reporter Carey McWilliams, when asked about how many notches he had on his gun (how many people he had killed), he replied, "thirty-seven, not counting Mexicans."

In 1884, while in San Antonio, Texas, on business, Fisher came into contact with his old friend, gunfighter and gambler Ben Thompson. Thompson was unpopular in San Antonio, since he had earlier killed a popular theater owner there named Jack Harris. A feud over that killing had been brewing since between Thompson and friends of Harris. Fisher and Thompson attended a play on March 11 at the Turner Hall Opera House, and later, about 10:30 p.m., they went to the Vaudeville Variety Theater. A local lawman named Jacob Coy sat with them. Thompson wanted to see Joe Foster, a theater owner and friend of Harris's, and one of those fueling the ongoing feud. Thompson had already spoken to Billy Simms, another theater owner, and Foster's new partner. [1]

Fisher and Thompson were directed upstairs to meet with Foster. Coy and Simms soon joined them in the theater box. Foster refused to speak to Thompson. Fisher allegedly noticed that something was not right. Simms and Coy stepped aside, and as they did Fisher and Thompson leapt to their feet just as a volley of gunfire erupted from another theater box, a hail of bullets hitting both Thompson and Fisher. Thompson fell onto his side, and either Coy or Foster ran up to him and shot him in the head with a pistol. Thompson was unable to return fire and died almost immediately. Fisher was shot thirteen times, and did fire one round in retaliation, possibly wounding Coy, but that is not confirmed. Coy may have been shot by one of the attackers and was left crippled for life. [1]

Foster, in attempting to draw his pistol at the first of the fight, shot himself in the leg, which was later amputated. He died shortly thereafter. The description of the events of that night are contradictory. There was a public outcry for a grand jury indictment of those involved. However, no action was ever taken. The San Antonio police and the prosecutor showed little interest in the case. Fisher was buried on his ranch. His body was later moved to the Pioneer Cemetery in Uvalde, Texas.


Fisher, John

Fisher, John (1469�). Bishop. Fisher was educated at Cambridge, became fellow of Michaelhouse, and took priestly orders in 1491. Through the patronage of Lady Margaret Beaufort, whom he served as confessor, he was made reader in divinity in 1502, and two years later bishop of Rochester. At Cambridge he promoted Renaissance humanist studies, especially at Christ's and St John's Colleges he recruited teachers of Greek (including Erasmus between 1510 and 1514) and Hebrew. His Renaissance outlook was combined with a profound respect for the church's traditions. He wrote copiously against Martin Luther, his works including the Assertionis Lutheranae confutatio (1522/3), the Defensio regiae assertionis (1523), and the Sacri sacerdotii defensio (1525). When Henry VIII sought to repudiate his first wife, Catherine of Aragon, Fisher was one of the king's most public and prolific opponents. He led resistance to the attacks on the status of the clergy in the Reformation Parliament and in convocation, and was imprisoned in 1533. In 1534 he refused the oath of supremacy. In 1535, just after his elevation to the cardinalate by Paul III, he was put on trial for treasonably denying the king's supremacy over the church, and was executed on 22 June 1535. He was canonized in 1935.

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Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.

JOHN CANNON "Fisher, John ." Britaniya tarixining Oksford sherigi. . Entsiklopediya.com. 18 Jun. 2021 < https://www.encyclopedia.com > .

JOHN CANNON "Fisher, John ." Britaniya tarixining Oksford sherigi. . Retrieved June 18, 2021 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/fisher-john

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The Execution Of John Fisher & Sir Thomas More

The account at right was written by the Tudor chronicler Edward Hall.

The summer of 1535 was one of the bloodiest of King Henry VIII’s reign. The deaths of John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, and Sir Thomas More shocked and appalled Europe. Henry’s reputation never recovered and was further blemished when he later executed two wives.

This year on 11 June were arraigned in the king’s bench at Westminster three monks of the Charterhouse of London, and there condemned of high treason against the king, and sentenced to be drawn, hanged, disemboweled, beheaded and quartered. One of them was called Francis Nitigate, another Master Exmew, storekeeper of the same place, and the third was called Master Middlemore, vicar of the same place. This year also on 17 June was arraigned at Westminster in the king’s bench John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, for treason against the king, and he was condemned there by a jury of knights and esquires (the lord chancellor sitting as high judge), who passed this sentence on him – that the said John Fisher should go from thence to the place where he came from, which was the Tower of London, and from thence to be drawn through the City of London to Tyburn, there to be hanged, cur down alive, his bowels taken out of his body and burnt before him, his head cut off, and his body be divided into four parts and his head and body be set in such places as the king should assign. The effect of the treason was denying the king to be Supreme Head of the Church of England, according to a statute, The Act of Supremacy, made in the last session of Parliament.
On 19 June, a Saturday, the three monks of the Charterhouse, aforementioned, were drawn from the Tower to Tyburn, and there executed according to their sentence, and their heads and bodies hung at different gates around the city.

Also on 22 June, Tuesday, John Fisher, bishop of Rochester, was beheaded at Tower Hill, and the rest of his execution pardoned. His body was buried in Barking churchyard, next to the Tower of London, and his head was set on London Bridge.

This year also on 1 July, being Thursday, Sir Thomas More, sometime chancellor of England, was arraigned at Westminster for high treason and there condemned, and the Tuesday after, being 6 July, he was beheaded at Tower Hill and his body was buried within the chapel in the Tower of London, and his head was set on London Bridge. The effect of his death was for the same cause that the bishop of Rochester died for.

Ko'proq ingliz tarixi mavzularini o'qing

Ushbu sahifaga havola/havola

Agar siz o'z ishingizda ushbu sahifadagi har qanday tarkibdan foydalansangiz, iltimos, ushbu sahifani tarkib manbasi sifatida ko'rsatish uchun quyidagi koddan foydalaning.


John W. Fisher

John W. Fisher earned a B.S. in Civil Engineering from Washington University before coming to Lehigh and earning an M.S. and Ph.D. in the same field. During his 45-year career, Fisher, the former Joseph T. Stuart Professor of Civil Engineering at Lehigh, won nearly every medal and distinction in his field, and has examined most of the major failures of steel structures in America throughout the last four decades. One of his most recent endeavors was serving on a panel of national experts that investigated the collapse of the World Trade Center following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attack.

ATLSS Center

In 1986, along with some of his students and colleagues, Fisher founded The Advanced Technology for Large Structural Systems (ATLSS) Center at Lehigh. The ATLSS Center was originally funded with a grant from the Engineering Research Centers (ERC) program of the National Science Foundation. Funding from the ERC program concluded in 1997 after completion of the maximum 11-year life cycle. The ATLSS Center remains engaged in ERC program activities, and now receives funding from a wide range of sources. Under Fisher's direction the ATLSS center has developed over $17 million in research facilities and equipment. After founding the ATLSS Center, Fisher served as director to establish its goals of conducting cross-disciplinary education and research programs focused on advanced structural materials and systems, intelligent infrastructure systems, and innovative joining systems. He also helped develop technological innovations leading to high-performance large structural systems in partnership with industry and public agencies. Fisher also worked to disseminate knowledge through courses, seminars, publications, and presentations to assist the engineering profession in delivering high-performance infrastructure systems.

Research and Publications

Throughout his career, Fisher has focused his research on structural connections, fatigue behavior of welded components, fracture analysis of steel structures and the behavior and performance of steel bridges. He has been published in more than 250 journals, books, and magazines, including an article titled, ""High-Performance Steels for America's Bridges," published in Welding Journal. Other publications include "Construction Technologies in Japan," in the JTEC Panel Report, "Corrosion and Its Influence on Strength of Steel Bridge Members," in the Transportation Research Record and a book titled Guide to Design Criteria for Bolted and Riveted Joints.

Recognition and Awards

In 1999, Fisher was named by ENR Magazine, the leading journal in the construction industry, as one of the "Top 125 People" of the 125 years since ENR's founding. Of Fisher, the magazine wrote, "After helping to conduct post-mortems on nearly every major failure of a steel structure, from the Hartford Civic Center to the Mianus River Bridge, Fisher campaigned for research to advance technology and prevent failures. Fisher's research has advanced the knowledge of fatigue and brittle fractures of steel." In 2000, Fisher received the Roy W. Crum Award for outstanding achievement in transportation research, from the Transportation Research Board (TRB).

He was cited for "outstanding contributions to bridge engineering and research…His pioneering work on detection and repair of fatigue cracking in steel bridges has advanced the art of bridge engineering, and his research and guidance on fatigue and fracture resistance have informed standard bridge design codes in the United States and abroad." Other awards include the John Roebling Medal by The Engineer's Society of Western Pennsylvania (1995), the Frank P. Brown Medal by the Franklin Institute (1992), elected as Honorary Member, American Society of Civil Engineers (1989), named Construction's Man of the Year by Engineering News Record (1987), Engineering Alumni Achievement Award by Washington University (1987) and Engineer of the Year, Lehigh Valley Section PSPE (1980). He also received the Lifetime Achievement Award for Education from the American Society of Civil Engineers in April 2007. Fisher is also a member of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineers, the National Society of Professional Engineers, the transportation research board of the American Welding Society, and the American institute of steel construction.

A Legacy at Lehigh

Fisher recently retired as professor emeritus of civil engineering, after serving as the Joseph T. Stuart professor for almost 20 years. At the John W. Fisher Tribute and Symposium, Fisher was honored for two days for his work, research, and professorship at Lehigh, particularly involving the ATLSS center. Fisher still resides in Bethlehem with his wife, Nelda. They have four grown children.


Tarix

ST John Fisher

John Fisher is usually associated with Erasmus, Thomas More and other Renaissance humanists. His life, therefore, did not have the external simplicity found in the lives of some saints. Rather, he was a man of learning, associated with the intellectuals and political leaders of his day. He was interested in the contemporary culture and eventually became chancellor at Cambridge. He had been made a bishop at thirty-five, and one of his interests was raising the standard of preaching in England. Fisher himself was an accomplished preacher and writer. His sermons on the penitential psalms were reprinted seven times before his death. With the coming of Lutheranism, he was drawn into controversy. His eight books against heresy gave him a leading position among European theologians.

In 1521 he was asked to study the problem of Henry VIII’s marriage. He incurred Henry’s anger by defending the validity of the king’s marriage with Catherine and later by rejecting Henry’s claim to be the supreme head of the Church of England.

In an attempt to be rid of him, Henry first had him accused of not reporting all the “revelations” of the nun of Kent, Elizabeth Barton. John was summoned, in feeble health, to take the oath to the new Act of Succession. He and Thomas More refused because the Act presumed the legality of Henry’s divorce and his claim to be head of the English church. They were sent to the Tower of London, where Fisher remained fourteen months without trial. They were finally sentenced to life imprisonment and loss of goods.

When the two were called to further interrogations, they remained silent. Fisher was tricked, on the supposition he was speaking privately as a priest, and declared again that the king was not supreme head. The king, further angered that the pope had made John Fisher a cardinal, had him brought to trial on the charge of high treason. He was condemned and executed, his body left to lie all day on the scaffold and his head hung on London Bridge. More was executed two weeks later.

Excerpted from Saint of the Day, Leonard Foley, O.F.M.
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Frequently bought together

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridan eng yaxshi sharhlar

Sharhlarni filtrlashda muammo yuz berdi. Iltimos keyinroq qayta urinib ko'ring.

Naval policy before the First World War and the so-called Dreadnought revolution is a fascinating case study in strategic defense policy and there are many notable pieces of historiography on the subject (Marder, Sumida, Massie, etc.). Nicholas Lambert's contribution to the debate, "Sir John Fisher's Naval Revolution," is a daring revision of just about everything you've read before, so hold on to your seats.

The author begins by emphasizing that insufficient government finance was the overriding problem for defense planners. The challenge was created by the rapidly increasing cost of modern navy ships combined with the capital depreciation resulting from the shortened service lives of the new platforms. (The cost of building a Dreadnought class battleship doubled and that of cruisers went up fivefold while the service life of the new ships dropped by fifteen years.) The situation was exacerbated by liberal British governments of the early nineteenth century that were committed to massive domestic social programs. And the modern reader needs to remember the deficit spending was out of the question to the fiscally responsible governments of this period. There simply wasn't enough money to go around, especially for the already bloated naval budget.

The author argues that previous histories have got this period completely wrong, mostly because they have taken the direct, obvious approach: that Fisher's sole aim was to prepare the British Navy for the looming war with Germany. Lambert rejects this thesis entirely. He writes that Fisher was not unduly concerned by the High Seas Fleet and held on to the goal of the British Navy as guardian of the empire via the two power standard. He sought to do this, Lambert says, by building a "new model navy" of sorts, one that could achieve the traditional ends of the British Navy (global imperial defense) via new means (namely battle cruisers and submarines). This is exactly the opposite of what has traditionally been ascribed to Fisher, which was to leverage the traditional means of decisive sea battle between capital ships to achieve a new end, the defeat of the German High Seas Fleet.

What is most shocking, to this reviewer at least, is that Lambert claims that Fisher intentionally misled the Liberal governments of Asquith and later Lloyd-George as to the threat posed by the German fleet to keep Navy budgets elevated. Along this same line, the author stresses that Fisher never put his thoughts down in writing for fear that his true ideas on naval policy would be used against him. Lambert believes that Fisher harbored truly revolutionary ideas, focused on using fast battle cruisers directed centrally from London by wireless to defend the global sea lanes, while a new generation of submarines provided the main defense to home island invasion. This was the concept of "flotilla defense" that was dropped when Fisher departed the Admiralty in 1910 and was picked up again by Churchill in 1913.

For all the ink spilled on the Dreadnought battleship and the fast battle cruisers, the foundation of the impending revolution, according to Lambert, was the submarine. The British wrestled with the implications of the new platform, but according to Lambert were more forward leaning and imaginative than traditionally appreciated. Should they invest in smaller patrol submarines for coastal defense? Or larger, faster fleet submarines that could fulfill offensive tasks from battle fleet support to close in blockade? The 1913 Royal Navy fleet maneuvers did much to shape opinions, especially concerning the usefulness of submarines in solving the so-called North Sea dilemma. In short, the channel was too narrow to deploy the full battle fleet, but leaving that strategic waterway under defended exposed the east coast of England to raids or invasion. In 1913, the Blue Fleet wasn't even able to find the Red Fleet (commanded by the rather unimaginative Admiral Jellicoe) in the North Sea. The Naval Board concluded that it needed to keep the main fleet in northern waters and pursue a distant blockade of Germany. Lambert claims that these maneuvers convinced the British that the overseas "fleet submarines" were for real - they could inflict massive damage on the opposing fleet and could even achieve close-in blockade.

The author stresses that the mainstream on the Navy saw the potential for submarines before WWI, contrary to collective historical opinion. Indeed, when the war broke out the British were on the verge of a large submarine construction program. Their strategic blind spot wasn't the potentially disruptive technical nature of the platform, but rather failed to foresee that it would be used primarily against unarmed merchant ships, not as a critical actor in the fleet-on-fleet engagement.

Generally speaking, I like authors that take on the conventional wisdom, iconoclasts offering up a new and innovative interpretation to age old questions. But this book didn't deliver for me for two reasons. First, the basic premise of the book is that Jackie Fisher kept his true intentions secret and that Lambert, after nearly a century, has miraculously decoded the puzzle. It's like some sort of naval policy version of "The Da Vinci Code." Second, and perhaps more damning, this book just isn't a good read. I found it long, convoluted and often dull. Even if mainstream academics might wrinkle their noses at Lambert's revisionist interpretations, I'd give him a pass if he delivered a fun, lively narrative on a familiar tale with an alternative ending. But it's not, and thus the three stars.


Videoni tomosha qiling: One of the Greatest Speeches Ever. Jeff Bezos (Yanvar 2022).