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Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3

Curtiss A-3-bu mavjud bo'lgan O-1 Falcon kuzatuv samolyotini o'zgartirish orqali AQSh armiyasi havo korpusi uchun ishlab chiqarilgan er usti hujum samolyoti. O-1 po'latdan yasalgan bog'ichlar bilan bog'langan alyuminiy quvurli ramka bilan qurilgan, ikki o'rindiqli bitta dvigatelli biplan edi. Qanotlari yog'ochdan yasalgan va mato bilan qoplangan. Qanotlari qimirlab turardi, uzun qanoti pastroqdan pastroq oldinga qo'yilgan edi. Uchuvchilarning ko'rinishini yaxshilash uchun yuqori qanotning markazi yaxshi oldinga joylashtirilgan, uchlari to'qqiz gradus orqaga burilgan.

Standart O-1B, pervanel yoyi orqali o'q otish uchun sinxronlashtirilgan ikkita oldinga o'q otish qurolini va orqa kokpitda ikkita egiluvchan qurolni olib yurardi. Yuqori tezlikda o'q otish uchun pervanel kamonining pastki qanotida joylashgan A-3 ga yana ikkita oldinga o'q otish qurollari qo'shildi. A-3-ga, shuningdek, pastki qanotlar ostidagi bomba tokchalari berildi. A-3 Curtiss V-1150-3 (D-12D) dvigateli bilan jihozlangan va O-1B ga o'xshash ko'rsatkichlarga ega edi.

A-3 prototipi standart O-1B (no. 27-243) o'zgartirish orqali ishlab chiqarilgan. Bu samolyot keyinchalik O-1B standartiga aylantirildi. Hammasi bo'lib 66 ta A-3s uchun uchta buyurtma keldi. Bu samolyotlarning oltitasi keyinchalik qurolsizlantirildi, ularga ikkilamchi boshqaruv berildi va A-3A belgisi bilan o'quv samolyoti sifatida ishlatildi.

1928 yilda AAK oddiy manevralar o'rniga armiya xizmat maktablarida bir qator havo operatsiyalarini o'tkazdi. Birinchi A-3 samolyotlari ushbu mashg'ulotlarda qatnashish uchun o'z vaqtida yetib kelishdi, ularning to'qqiztasi o'n oltita O-2 bilan birgalikda hujumchi eskadronini tuzishdi.

A-3B

1930 yilda yana 78 ta A-3 samolyotlariga buyurtma berildi. Bu samolyotlar Falconda O-1B va O1-E o'rtasidagi barcha yaxshilanishlarni o'z ichiga olgan va A-3B deb nomlangan. Bu o'zgarishlar Frize aileronlari, shoxli balansli liftlar va oleo-pnevmatik amortizatorlardan foydalanishni o'z ichiga oladi. 1931 yilga kelib, yetmishta A-3B samolyotlari o'sha yilgi manevrlarda ishlatilgan, qolganlari esa oz sonli A-3lardan iborat edi.

Havo korpusi A-3 samolyotidan unchalik mamnun emas edi. Qabul qilinadigan samolyotlar "standart"-ya'ni havo korpusining standart bombardimonchi yoki standart qiruvchi samolyoti sifatida belgilandi, lekin A-3 "cheklangan" yoki "o'rnini bosuvchi" standarti sifatida belgilangan. A-3B samolyotlarining oxirgi qismi 1937 yil oktyabr oyida bekor qilingan.

A-3B (Curtiss Model 44)
Dvigatel: Curtiss D-12E (V-1150)
Quvvat: 426 ot kuchi
Balandligi: 38 fut 0in
Uzunligi: 27ft 7in
Balandligi: 10 fut 3 dyuym
Bo'sh vazn: 2,902 lb
Yalpi Og'irligi: 4,476lb
Maksimal tezlik: 139.4 mil / soat
Yurish tezligi: 111 mil / soat
Tepaga chiqish tezligi: 948 fut/ soniya
Shift balandligi: 14 400 fut
Quvvat diapazoni: 647 mil, 100 gallon yoqilg'i bilan
Qurol: to'rtta sobit va ikkita moslashuvchan avtomat
Bomba yuki: 200 funt

Tavsiya etilgan o'qish
Curtiss samolyoti, 1907-1947, Piter M Bowers (Amazon.co.uk)
Curtiss samolyoti, 1907-1947, Piter M Bowers (Amazon.com)


XA-8 Model 59, bitta prototip, seriya raqami 30-387, uzunligi 32 va 160 fut 6 va 160 dyuym (9,9 va 160 metr), qanotlari 44 va 160 fut (13,4 va 160 metr), yalpi og'irligi 5,413 va 160lb (2,455) 160kg) Curtiss V-1570-23 to'g'ridan-to'g'ri boshqariladigan dvigatel va#914 ]

YA-8 xizmat ko'rsatuvchi sinov samolyoti, 5 ta qurilgan, seriya raqami 32-344 dan 32-348 gacha, yalpi og'irligi 5,706 va 160 lb (2,588 va 160 kg), va#914 va 93 raqamli samolyotlar 625 va YA-10 prototipi sifatida qayta ishlangan. #160 ot kuchi (466 va#160kVt) Pratt va amp Uitni Hornet radial dvigateli va#912 ] Y1A-8 xizmat ko'rsatuvchi sinov samolyoti, 8 ta, umumiy og'irligi 5,710 va#160 lb (2,590 va#160 kg) va#914 va#93 A-8 12 dizaynlari qayta ishlangan. YA-8 va Y1A-8 samolyotlari va#914 ] Y1A-8A oxirgi Y1A-8, Curtiss V-1570-57 tishli dvigateli, uzunligi 33 va 160 fut 7 va 160 dyuym (10,24 va 160 metr), umumiy og'irligi 6,287 va#160lb (2,852   kg) va#914 ] A-8A qayta ishlangan Y1A-8A samolyotlari va#914 ] A-8B bekor qilindi, uning o'rniga A-12 Shrike Β ]


Ish imkoniyatlari

Curtiss-Rayt barqaror o'sish tarixiga ega, innovatsion texnologiyalarga e'tibor va tadbirkorlik ruhiga ega. Ijodiy qiyinchiliklarni, global muhitda ishlash imkoniyatlarini va mijozlarimizga raqobatbardosh bozorda muvaffaqiyat qozonishga ko'maklashishni taklif qiladigan martaba imkoniyatlari tashkilot bo'ylab mavjud. Iltimos, imkoniyatdan foydalanib, Kurtis-Rayt bilan tanishing, ish imkoniyatlarini o'rganing va jamoamiz a'zosi bo'lishni o'ylab ko'ring.

Iltimos, hech qanday agentlik yuborgani yo'q. ESLATMA: Curtiss-Raytning ishga yollash guruhi bilan amaldagi, imzolangan va amaldagi shartnomasi bo'lmagan har qanday Curtiss-Rayt xodimiga topshirilgan rezyumelar Curtiss-Raytning mulkiga aylanadi va hech qanday qidiruv to'lovi to'lanmaydi.


Cruisable Amerika

Aviatsiya kashshofi Glenn Kurtiss uchun Nyu -York shtatining Finger Lakes mintaqasi maxsus murojaat bilan chiqdi. "Kurtiss suvdan tushganidan zavqlandi", deydi Trafford Doherti, Keuka ko'lining janubiy chekkasida joylashgan Kurtisning tug'ilgan shahri Hammondsportdagi Glenn H. Curtiss muzeyining ijrochi direktori. 1908 yilda aeroportlar yo'q edi, shuning uchun suvdan ko'tarilishi va qo'nishi mumkin bo'lgan samolyot quruqlikdagi samolyotga qaraganda ancha ko'p qirrali bo'lar edi.

Bu Hikoyadan

Qachonki, ikkita dvigatelli Amerika kuchsiz bo'lsa, Curtiss uchinchi dvigatelni qo'shdi. U Keuka ko'lida ishlagan, ammo yoqilg'i sarfi Atlantikani kesib o'tish uchun juda yuqori bo'lgan. (NASM (SI Neg. #83-8674)) Kurtiss muzeyi dvigateli mutaxassisi Norm Brush, chapda va Li Sackett, reproduktor, oldingi o'rindiqlarga ega. Amerika suvga cho'mish marosimiga tortiladi. (Jeyms Ueynbrandt) Yangi reproduktsiya ishga tushganda, Curtiss ixlosmandlari 1914 yilda asl nusxada suvga cho'mish marosimini qayta yaratadilar Amerika. Oq kiyimdagi ayol chashmani korpusga sindira olmagan christenerni o'ynaydi. Ekipaj shishani dastgohga mahkamlab qo'ydi va balyozni qo'lladi. (Jeyms Uinbrandt) Salon keng bo'lsa -da, ozgina asboblarni olib yurgan. (Jeyms Uinbrandt) Qayta ishlab chiqarish tezyurar taksi harakatini amalga oshirdi, lekin suv tutqichidan ucha olmadi. (Jeyms Ueynbrandt) Glenn Kurtiss boshqaruv elementlari bilan Amerika U 1914 yilda Keuka ko'li ustida suzib o'tdi. "Men o'tirgan eng yaxshi uchuvchi kema - toshdek mustahkam", - dedi u, lekin tez orada u ko'plab takomillashtirishlarni amalga oshirdi. (NASM (SI NEG: #A-4813-A)) 1914 yilning yoz kunida baxtli olomon yig'ilishga chiqdi Amerikaning Keuka ko'lida ishga tushirilishi. Curtiss gidroaeroplani samolyot orqasiga o'rnatiladi Amerika. (NASM (SI NEG: #94-18))

Fotogalereya

Doherti, Elmira yaqinidagi Schweizer Aircraft korporatsiyasining sobiq uchuvchisi va ishlab chiqarishni nazorat qilish bo'yicha mutaxassisi, yaxshi sayyohlik yo'riqchisi. U muzeyni beshinchi marotaba o'tkaziladigan dengiz samolyotining uyga qaytish bayrami bayramiga tayyorlayotganda, u Kurtisning ixtirochi dahosidan dalolat beruvchi artefaktlar va ko'rgazmalarni ko'rsatadi: velosipedlar, mototsikllar, dvigatellar, uy treyleri va, albatta, samolyotlar. (pervanel samolyotning orqa tomoniga qaragan holda) mashhur JN "Jenny" seriyasi orqali Oriole va Robinni o'z ichiga olgan keyingi modellarga.

1911 yilga kelib, Kurtiss dengiz samolyotlarida ishlash uchun zarur bo'lgan texnologiyani takomillashtirganida, u o'zi ishlab chiqargan V-8 dvigateli bilan mototsiklni boshqarib, soatiga 136 mil tezlikda haydab, "Er yuzidagi eng tez odam" unvoniga sazovor bo'lgan edi. U, shuningdek, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarida oldindan e'lon qilingan birinchi umumiy parvozni amalga oshirgan (Amerika Aero Klubidan 1-raqamli uchuvchi litsenziyasini olgan), birinchi xalqaro havo poygasida g'olib bo'lgan (F éd ération A va 2-sonli uchuvchi litsenziyasini olgan). #233ronautique Internationale Louis Bl ériot 1-raqamli) va AQShning ikki shahri o'rtasida birinchi uzoq masofali parvozni Albanydan Nyu-York shahriga parvoz qilib amalga oshirdi. Dengiz samolyotining korpuslari va suzuvchilarining suvdan chiqib ketishiga to'sqinlik qiladigan gidrostatik ishqalanish va#8212a singdiruvchi kuchni yengish uchun u "qadam" ni ixtiro qildi, bu korpus tubida va suzishda, dengiz samolyotining suvdan ko'tarilishiga imkon beradigan burchakli tanaffus. Bu qadam uning suvda uchish faniga qo'shgan eng muhim hissasi hisoblanadi. Birinchi bo'lib 1912 yildagi E modelida takomillashtirildi (dunyodagi birinchi muvaffaqiyatli uchuvchi qayiq deb hisoblanadi), ixtiro unga ikki yil ichida ikkinchi marta nufuzli Collier kubogini berdi (birinchisi "gidroaeroplan" ixtirosi uchun). Bu orada u o'z shahrini dunyoning aviatsiya poytaxti qilib qo'ydi. Mehnat muhandisi va muzey restavratsiya sexining direktori Art Uaylder shunday deydi: "Hammondsportda 1908-1914 yillar orasida men samolyotlar tarixida o'rgangan boshqa davrlarga qaraganda ko'proq ishlar qilingan".

Sayyohlar Finger Lakes mintaqasini sevimli o'g'lining yutuqlaridan ko'ra, sharob zavodlari uchun ko'proq bilishi mumkin, lekin o'tgan yilning sentyabr oyida bulutli kunda tashrif buyuruvchilar Glenn Kurtisning ishidan yaxshi xabardor bo'lishgan. Ular muzeyning Kurtissning 1914 yildagi Amerikadagi uchuvchi qayig'ining birinchi parvozini ko'rish uchun kelgan edilar. Tadbir uzoq va keng taqvimlarda bo'lib o'tdi. "Biz buning uchun Virjiniyadan keldik", dedi Joys Miller, eri Gyugoning yonida, "Uilbur va Orvil kim?"

Amerika reproduktsiyasini yaratish uchun uch yil kerak bo'ldi. 1999 yilda muzeyning restavratsiya sexi ko'ngillilari 1913 yildagi Model E uchuvchi qayig'ini, 2004 yilda A-1 uchburchagining reproduktsiyasini tugatdilar va uchardilar. Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari 1911 yilda A-1 rusumli samolyotni sotib oldi. (Bu, Kertiss dengiz flotining birinchi uchuvchisini o'qitganligi bilan birga, unga dengiz aviatsiyasining otasi unvonini berdi.) Ammo muzey Amerikani qaysidir ma'noda muhimroq samolyot deb biladi. U teskari aylanuvchi pervanellarni va yopiq idishni o'z ichiga olgan va bu bir nechta dvigatelli birinchi uchuvchi qayiq bo'lib, dastlab ikkita, keyin uchta edi. Va 72 metrli qanotlari va 3000 kilogramm bo'sh og'irligi bilan, bu mamont edi. "Boshqa AQSh samolyotlari bilan solishtirganda, Amerika Starship Enterprise kabi edi", deydi Doherti.

Amerika London Daily Mail tomonidan taklif qilinadigan 50 ming dollarlik mukofot uchun uchish apparati bilan birinchi transatlantik o'tish joyi uchun kurashish uchun qurilgan. Filadelfiya savdo do'koni asoschisi Jon Uanamakerning o'g'li Rodman Vanamaker qurilishni topshirdi va Curtiss-Wanamaker America modelli qayiqni qurish uchun Curtissga 25000 dollar berdi. Wanamaker 1812 yilgi urushni tugatgan 1814 yilgi Gent shartnomasiga 100 yillik salom sifatida parvozni ikki baravar oshirishni niyat qilgan va u ingliz va amerikalik sharafni bo'lishishni xohlagan. Qirollik dengiz flotining Kiril Porti uchuvchi deb nomlandi, mexanik va Kertiss xodimi Jorj Xallet kopilot edi. Ikkala odam ham 1914 yil 22 -iyunda, Amerika Hammondsportda, 2000 tomoshabin oldida cho'mdirilganda, hozir bo'lgan. Xallettning eng qiyin ishlaridan biri bu uchish shamlarini almashtirish edi (shtamplar uzoq vaqt xizmat qilmagan). Kuchli havoda, yomon ob -havoda va kechqurun qorong'ilikda buni qilish ehtimoli haqida u qanday fikrda ekanligi qiziq.

1914 yilning yozida Amerika keng ko'lamli sinovlardan o'tdi. Parvoz boshlanishidan atigi bir oy oldin Birinchi jahon urushi avj oldi. Portni Angliyaga chaqirib olishdi va reys to'xtatildi.

50 yildan oshiq vaqt o'tgach, Xallet o'z xotiralarida tozalangan missiya haqida o'z fikrini bildirib o'tdi: "O'sha paytda hech birimiz parvozni muvaffaqiyatli amalga oshira olmasligimizga ishonmaganmiz, lekin bir necha yil va ko'p tajribadan so'ng, ortimizga nazar tashlasak, ko'rinadi. Menimcha, biz bunga erisha olmadik ". Xallet shunday xulosaga keldi: karbüratorli isitish tizimining yo'qligi, dvigatelning bo'shashgan sovutish liniyalarini silkitishga qodir tebranish yoki havo korpusining muzlashi parvozni halokatga olib keladi. (Oxir-oqibat Atlantika okeani bo'ylab birinchi parvozni amalga oshirgan samolyot, shuningdek, Kurtiss tomonidan qurilgan, NC9-4, 1919 yildagi urinishlarni amalga oshirgan uch yadroli samolyot edi.)

Britaniya armiyasi patrul samolyotlarini ishlab chiqish dasturi uchun Amerikani va ikkinchi Model H ni sotib oldi, H-4 Small America uchuvchi qayiqlari bilan. H modelidan na tirik qoldi. "Ular baxtsiz hodisalarda adashmagan", deydi Doherti. "Ular vayronagarchilik uchun sinovdan o'tkazildi. Bu og'ir muhit edi va dengiz samolyotlarining xizmat qilish muddati qisqa edi".
Ammo korpusning asosiy dizayni omon qoldi, u Buyuk Britaniyaning birinchi jahon urushidagi Feliksstowe F-1dan boshlab yirik qirg'oq va suv osti kemalariga qarshi patrul samolyotlariga moslashtirildi. Kurtis derivativlarni ishlab chiqdi va ularni AQShga ham, Rossiya imperatorlik flotiga ham sotdi. Va Amerika Pan Amning Boeing 314 Clippers-dan PBY Catalinas-ga Xovard Xyuzning bir parvozli mo''jizasigacha, tasodifan H-4 deb nomlangan samolyotlarning korpusida yashardi. Oilaning o'xshashligini ko'rish uchun Amerika avlodlarining keng va pastki qismini Amerika korpusidan chiqadigan jonsiz homiylar bilan solishtirish kerak. "Dunyodagi barcha buyuk qayiqlarda bitta samolyotga etib boradigan qon tomirlari bor", deydi Jim Poel, sobiq aviakompaniya kapitani, RC-3 Seabee respublikasi amfibiyasi va qayta ishlab chiqarilgan Amerika uchuvchisi.

Asl Amerika uchun chizmalarning to'liq to'plami mavjud emas. Muzey o'z nusxasini qisman rejalar, fotosuratlar va qurilish materiallari yozuvlariga asoslangan. Ramka kul va Sitka archa qanoti qovurg'alari qarag'ay. Asl nusxada bo'lgani kabi, qo'l san'ati ham to'q qizil rangga bo'yalgan. Hayvonlar uchun elimlar va ipak Curtiss o'rniga uning Model H-ni qayta tiklash guruhi Dacronga o'xshash sintetik samolyot matosi Polyfibre-dan foydalangan.


Buffalo tarixi gazetasi

*Milliy yong'indan himoya uyushmasining choraklik qismi, 36-jild, 2-son, 1942 yil oktyabr, 137-138-betlar.
"Samolyot tomidan qulab tushganda, korpus idishidan chiqarilgan benzin juda issiq olovni keltirib chiqardi. Zavod xodimlari darhol uchta shaxsiy yong'in signalizatsiya qutisiga signal berishdi va zavod yong'in brigadasining 90 a'zosi javob berishdi va yong'inni o'chirishda a'lo darajada ish qilishdi. 178 dyuymli sug'orish trubkasi va 6 dyuymli tijorat suv ta'minoti liniyasi to'xtatilgan bo'lsa-da, ularga nam quvurli tizimda 208 avtomatik sug'orish boshining ishlashi yordam berdi. Bu quvurlar katta miqdordagi suvni chiqarib yubordi va katta maydonni suv bosdi.
Zavod muhandisi Voqea sodir bo'lganini eshitgan navbatchi, darhol suv bosim o'lchagichiga murojaat qilib, bosim yigirma funtgacha tushganini payqadi. U 1500 g / s ni boshladi. elektr bilan ishlaydigan o't o'chirish pompasi va 1500 g / s ni isitishni boshladi. ishga tushirilgan bug 'turbinli nasos. Har ikkala nasosda kvadrat dyuym uchun 75 funt bosim saqlanib qoldi.
Tezkor ko'pik va karbonat angidridni qo'llash suv yuzasida yonayotgan benzinning olov tarqalishining oldini olishda yordam berdi. Taxminlarga ko'ra, yong'in 15 daqiqada nazoratga olingan va 30 daqiqada to'liq o'chirilgan.
“ Kuz yonayotgan samolyotni Buffalo aeroportida joylashgan Buffalo yong'in bo'limining 7 -sonli Dvigatel kompaniyasi a'zolari kuzatdilar. Bu kompaniya samolyot binodan tashqaridagi dalaga tushishini taxmin qilib, soat 17:15 da javob berdi. ko'pikli va karbonat angidridli uskunalar bilan jihozlangan avtohalokatli yuk mashinasi bilan va 1000 gallonli pumper bilan. Hech qanday asbob ishlatilmadi, lekin o't o'chirish kompaniyasi shlangdagi xususiy quvurlardan birini boshqarishda, jarohatlanganlarni birinchi yordam punktiga olib borishda, suv bosgan joyni er sathidan chiqarib tashlashda va shikastlangan tomni yopishda qimmatli xizmat ko'rsatdi. 8230. ” (Rayt. NFPA Har chorakda, 1942 yil oktyabr, 137.)

Boshqaruv bayonoti: "Kurtis ishchilarining qahramonligi haqida-men etarli darajada ayta olmayman. Ko'pchilik jarohat olishlari va hatto o'z hayotlarini xavf ostiga qo'yib, o'z hamkasblarini halokatdan keyingi olovdan qutqarishgan. Qutqaruvchilarning ba'zilari hozir kasalxonada bo'lganlardir". "Kurtiss qo'riqchilari, ko'ngilli yong'inga qarshi va havo hujumlari ehtiyot qismlari a'zolari va ofis va zavod xodimlari, bu qo'shimcha vazifalarni birdaniga xarajatlarni hisoblashda yoki shaxsiy xavf haqida o'ylashda ikkilanmasdan bajarishdi.
"O'sha paytdagi zavodning boshqa barcha ishchilari, to'g'ridan -to'g'ri ishtirok etmagan bo'lishi mumkin, ular o'zlarining xotirjamligi va o'z ishlarida o'zlarini tutish uslublari bilan jasorat ko'rsatdilar. Men hammaga rahbariyatning samimiy minnatdorchiligini bildirmoqchiman, Tashqi agentliklar, shu jumladan, o'z xohish -irodasi bilan yordam berishdi. Bu jang maydonida bo'lganlarga, Amerika ishlab chiqarishidagi jangovar ruh bilan bugun odatdagidek davom etmoqda.


Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. Junior tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrdagi & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik dvigatellari va pervanellari

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. Junior tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrdagi & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior dvigateli va pervanellari ko'rsatilgan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik dvigateli

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va bu davrning & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior dvigateli ajratilgan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik korpusi

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. Junior tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrdagi & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-ning korpusi tasvirlangan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va bu davrning & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. Junior tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrdagi & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli, qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli, qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyasidagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli, qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Foydalanish shartlari

Ushbu ommaviy axborot vositalarini qayta ishlatish uchun cheklovlar mavjud. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun Smitsonning Foydalanish shartlari sahifasiga tashrif buyuring.

IIIF tadqiqotchilarga madaniy meros kollektsiyalaridagi asarlarni taqqoslash uchun boy metadata va tasvirlarni ko'rish imkoniyatlarini beradi. Batafsil - https://iiif.si.edu

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3 silindrli Model O itargichli dvigatelli 2 o'rinli shamchir qanotli kumush va ko'k monoplan.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior Udvar-Hazy markazida

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur uchuvchi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik dvigatellari va pervanellari

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior dvigateli va pervanellari ko'rsatilgan.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik dvigatellari va pervanellari

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur uchuvchi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior dvigateli va pervanellari ko'rsatilgan.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik dvigateli

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillarning boshlarida eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior dvigateli ajratilgan.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 kichik korpusi

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur uchuvchi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi. Ushbu rasmda Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-ning korpusi tasvirlangan.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur uchuvchi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-Buyuk Depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. "Junior" tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrning "hamma" samolyotlari harakatida muhim bosqich bo'ldi.

Qayta tiklash sexida Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior

Displey holati:

Bu ob'ekt Chantilly, VA, Steven F. Udvar-Hazy markazidagi Boeing aviatsiya angarida namoyish etiladi.

Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Junior-bu depressiyadan oldin keng jamoatchilik uchun ishlab chiqarilgan o'rtacha narxli sport samolyoti. Uning arzonligi, dala maydonining qisqa sig'imi, mustahkam konstruktsiyasi, ishlov berish tezligining pastligi va yaxshi ko'rish qobiliyati samolyotni uchishni oson va xavfsiz qildi. Junior tez orada 1930-yillar boshidagi eng mashhur flivver tipidagi samolyotga aylandi va o'sha davrdagi & quoteveryman & quot samolyotlari harakatining muhim bosqichini anglatadi.

Karl Xayt Uayt, Uolter Bex va X. Lloyd Chayld Skayterni ishlab chiqishdi va ishlab chiqarishdi, keyinchalik Junior deb nomlanishdi, u 3 silindrli 45 ot kuchiga ega Szekely SR-3-O dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Muzey va#039s samolyoti ko'p yillar davomida "ko'rgazmali" samolyotni kulgili, ammo xavfsiz natijalar bilan uchishga urinayotgan "Uchuvchi dehqon" tartibini bajaradigan efir ko'rgazmasida boy tajribaga ega. 1959 yilda muzeyga topshirilgan.

CW-1-o'rtacha narxli, sport samolyoti, depressiyadan oldin ommaviy bozor talabi uchun ishlab chiqarilgan. Curtiss Robin kabinli samolyotlardan kichikroq va sodda, Curtiss-Wright Junior-ni, ayniqsa, kam byudjetli sportchi uchuvchi va o'rtacha uchuvchi aholiga mos keladigan tezlikda uchish vaqtini taklif qilmoqchi bo'lgan statsionar operator uchun mo'ljallangan. Sotib olish oson, uchish oson va ishlatish uchun arzon bo'lgan Junior tez orada kelgusi bir necha yil ichida flivver tipidagi eng mashhur samolyotga aylandi.

CW-1 1920-yillarning oxirida yog'ochli konstruktsiyadan, Buzzard deb nomlangan monoplanli soyabondan, Orval H. & quotBud & quot Snyder tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, u 2 silindrli ABC Scorpion dvigateli bilan jihozlangan. Qizig'i shundaki, Snayder Jan Rosh bilan Ogayo shtatining Dayton shahridagi McCook Field muhandislik bo'limida ishlagan va ikkalasi ham bo'sh vaqtlarida mustaqil ravishda yorug'lik samolyotlarini ishlab chiqishgan. 1930 yilda Curtiss-Wright korporatsiyasining Curtiss-Robertson bo'limi rahbarlari Ralf S. Damon va Walter Beech Aeronca C- bilan raqobatlashish uchun engil samolyot sotishga qaror qilishdi. 2, Roche 's dizayni va bozorga chiqmoqchi bo'lgan American Eaglet. Ular Buzzard -ga dizayn huquqini olishdi, lekin samolyotning ishlashi shunchalik yomon ediki, uni qayta loyihalash kerak edi.

The three persons credited with the certificated design of the Junior, Karl H. White, Walter Beech, and H. Lloyd Child, labored to first produce the Skeeter, powered by a 3-cylinder 45 hp Szekely SR-3-O engine. The Skeeter's only resemblance to the Buzzard was that it was a pusher-type monoplane. It was first test-flown in October 1930, but engineering problems had to be solved before it would be ready for production. Later in the year the Skeeter was renamed the Junior and by December the aircraft was again test-flown and pronounced ready for production. The production Juniors were two-place, open cockpit parasol wing monoplanes, powered by the Szekely SR-3-O engine. By June 1931, 125 Juniors, each priced at $1,494, had been sold. It is estimated that at least 270 were built through 1931 and that 261 of those were issued registration numbers.

Company promotional material attributed the aircraft's success to price ("built to sell for the price of an automobile in the medium price class") and quality. The Junior had many admirable qualities: easy and safe in flight, short field capability, low handling speed, sturdy construction, low wing loading, and good visibility for the pilot that gave "amateur pilots factors which have hitherto been lacking in available airplanes." A pilot could take off in a Junior in as little as 200 feet and land in 250 feet it cruised at 70 miles per hour and had an gentle stall speed of 35 miles per hour.

While much of this was true, the Junior had its problems. The Szekely engine was temperamental and had a habit of occasionally throwing a cylinder. This was solved by tying a steel cable around the cylinder heads, which although it could not keep the cylinder from being thrown, kept a thrown cylinder from being blown back into the propeller. Moreover, some accidents occurred on the ground when passengers in the rear cockpit walked into the propeller after deplaning. The Junior was modified as an amphibian and called the Duck, but an accident in which a pilot was killed after he put the aircraft into a shallow, inverted dive seriously damaged the aircraft's reputation.

That accident and decreasing sales put an end to the production of the Junior. Orders had fallen off drastically between the middle of 1931 and the end of the year, and by early 1932, sales came to a halt. Meanwhile, Karl White left for the Naval Aircraft Factory and Walter Beech went to Wichita, Kansas, to form his own company. Curtiss-Wright officials in Buffalo, New York, terminated design and production of the Junior and the St. Louis plant began producing the T32 Condor instead. Curtiss-Wright's brief foray into the private aircraft market ended.

Despite its brief history, the Curtiss-Wright Junior is a significant aircraft in the NASM collection because it represents a milestone in the so-called "everyman" aircraft movement in the United States. This movement, which began before the Depression and lasted over a period of two decades, sought to produce a mass-market, affordable, personal aircraft that would appeal to the average American citizen. The Junior also represented a significant diversion for the Curtiss-Wright Corporation, which was almost exclusively oriented to the production of military and heavy commercial aircraft during that time in its history.

This Junior, serial number 1143, NC 10965, was built in the summer of 1931 but the early years are unknown. In 1934, Les Maudlin of Brownsville, Texas, received a renewed license for the Junior after work was completed on the wing - fixing loose aileron hinges, nuts and bolts and drag wires. The total aircraft flight time was listed as 636 hours. G.C. Acord of Dallas, Texas, who owned the aircraft in 1945 and 1946, had the airframe nearly rebuilt and recovered. L.M. Angevine and R.C. Christopher of Bainbridge, Georgia, bought the aircraft in 1950 and noted in 1954 that it had 127 flight hours "since new" and that the original log book was lost. He apparently did not have access to the 1934 report with earlier recorded hours.

During these years, the owners flew the Junior on air show circuit performing the "Flying Farmer" routine, a stunt in which a "bystander" attempts to fly the aircraft with comical but safe results (i.e. easy-to-fly aircraft). For this routine, the aircraft was modified by removing the fuselage fabric, painting the wings in bright polka dots, and adding a 45 hp Lycoming engine.

Robert E. Maytag of the Maytag Company, Newton, Iowa, bought the Junior in 1954 and flew it as a private sport plane before storing it for several years. He donated it to the Museum on June 22, 1959. Upon donation the flight hours were listed as 137 however, when added to the hours listed on 1934 paperwork this Junior appears to have a minimum of 773 flight hours on the airframe or at least the remaining original parts.

A volunteer restoration team working one day a week restored the Junior to its original configuration from 2001 to 2012. Once again the wings needed rebuilding as did the nosebowl, mud flaps and more. Juniors originally came in red or blue, both with silver wings blue paint was found on the steel tube frame and so it was painted blue. Goodyear Aviation donated Goodyear balloon tires, Tom Murphy of Oregon donated seats belts, and aircraft restorer Ken Hyde donated a Szekely engine and Flottorp propeller several other parts or plans for them came from owners of the few remaining Curtiss-Wright CW-1 Juniors.


The first ship the SOC was assigned to was the USS Marblehead in November 1935 by the end of the decade, the SOC had replaced its predecessor throughout the fleet. Production came to an end in 1938. By 1941, most battleships had transitioned to the Vought OS2U Kingfisher and cruisers were expected to replace their aging SOCs with the third generation SO3C Seamew. The SO3C, however, suffered from a weak engine and plans to adopt it as a replacement were scrapped. The SOC, despite being a craft from an earlier generation, went on to credibly execute its missions of gunfire observation and limited range scouting missions.

Through the first six months of naval service, the SOC was known as the XO3C-1, ΐ] The designation was changed to SOC when it was decided to merge its scouting and observation roles. The SOC was not called the Seagull until 1941, when the U.S. Navy began the wholesale adoption of popular names for aircraft in addition to their alpha-numeric designations. The name 'Seagull' had earlier been given to two civil Curtiss aircraft, a Curtiss Model 18 and a Model 25, both converted Curtiss MF flying boats. Α]

When operating as a seaplane, returning SOCs would land on the relatively smooth ocean surface created on the sheltered side of the vessel as it made a wide turn, after which the aircraft would be winched back onto the deck. Β ]

When the SOC had been replaced by the OS2U Kingfisher, most remaining airframes were converted into trainers, and were used until 1945. Γ] But in a strange twist of history, with the failure of the Curtiss SO3C Seamew, many SOCs in second line service were returned to front line units starting in late 1943 and saw service aboard warships in the combat zone for the rest of World War II. This is one of the few instances in aviation history of an older aircraft type that was retired or sent to second line service, replacing the new aircraft type, that was supposed to replace it. Δ va#93


A Series (A-1 orqali A-8)

Between 1940 and June 1941, the USAAC used an A-for-Aerial Target designation category for radio-controlled aircraft used as gunnery targets. However, these designations could be easily confused with the A-for-Attack series, and therefore the A-series was replaced by two new categories: OQ for subscale target drones, and PQ for full-scale aircraft with provision for an on-board pilot. Existing A-series drones were redesignated in the appropriate new category with their model numbers unchanged. The redesignations affected only two models, the Radioplane A-2 (becoming the OQ-2) and the Culver A-8 (becoming the PQ-8). Both OQ- and PQ-series were then continued from their first members, leaving OQ-1 and PQ-1 through -7 unassigned. Because the PQ-series therefore started off from the last A-series target, the PQ-series was effectively a continuation of the A-series.

Fleetwings A-1

The A-1 was built around 1940 as a small aerial gunnery target, probably designed specifically for this purpose. It had a wingspan of around 6 m (20 ft), was powered by a 60 kW (80 hp) piston engine, and could reach a speed of 290 km/h (180 mph) at altitudes of at least 3000 m (10000 ft). The A-1 was flown unmanned and controlled by radio commands from the ground. There is no data available on the number of A-1s built or their service career, but the target was most likely no longer used by mid-1941.

Radioplane A-2

The A-2 was redesignated in June 1941 as OQ-2, q.v.

Kurtis A-3

In the late 1930s, the U.S. Navy converted a few surviving obsolete Curtiss N2C-2 Fledgling training biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These drones were modified with a tricycle landing gear, and could be remote-controlled either from a ground station or another aircraft. In 1940, the Army tested at least one of these conversions as the A-3 powered target.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
N2C-2 drone (A-3)

Duglas A-4

In 1940, the USAAC converted 15 BT-2B and two BT-2BI basic trainer biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. These aircraft were initially designated BT-2BR va BT-2BG, respectively, but these designations were eventually dropped in favour of A-4 for both types of conversions.

Photo: USAF
A-4

The rear cockpit was faired over, but for check-out flights the A-4 could still be flown as a single-seater. To facilitate landings under remote control, the A-4 was fitted with a tricycle undercarriage and a steerable nosewheel. The drone was controlled in flight by a BT-2CR (modified BT-2C) control plane. Photographic evidence suggests that some A-4s were still in the inventory as late as August 1941, when the PQ series for full-scale targets had already been introduced. Said photos are actually labeled "PQ-4" in some cases, but this was most likely not an official designation.

Boeing A-5

The designation A-5 was reserved in 1940 for the conversion of a single Boeing P-12E biplane fighter to a radio-controlled target drone. However, around that time the Army abandoned its plans to convert obsolete service aircraft to target drones, and therefore the A-5 never materialized.

Photo: Air Force Museum Foundation
P-12E

Duglas A-6

The designation A-6 was reserved for conversions of surplus Douglas O-38 biplanes to radio-controlled target drones. However, no O-38s were converted to A-6 configuration. The O-38 was very similar to the BT-2 trainer, and therefore the A-6 would probably have been similar to the A-4.

Photo: © Gene Palmer, Aerofiles
O-38B

Qo'ng'iroq A-7 Airacobra

The designation A-7 was reserved for conversions of Bell P-39 Airacobra fighters to radio-controlled target drones. No P-39s were converted to A-7s by the U.S. Army Air Force, but the U.S. Navy converted at least three P-39Qs to drone configuration and tested them under the designations XTDL-1 and F2L-1K.

Photo: The Aviation History On-Line Museum
P-39Q

Culver A-8 Cadet

The A-8 was redesignated in June 1941 as PQ-8, q.v.


P-40 Recovery in Russia

Dear Readers,
We present a report by Mark Sheppard on recovery efforts of P-40C and P-40E in Russia.
All material presented here is copyrighted and can not be reprinted and/or duplicated in any form without the written consent of their respective authors.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C (C/N 16194) Serial 41-13390

Nick Grey of the Fighter Collection sat in the cockpit of the Curtiss P40-C in Russia prior to it returning for restoration. (Fighter Collection)

Qurilish

The Curtiss-Wright model H81 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army Air Corps between March and May 1941. The order number was W-535, account 15802 and it cost the US Government $40,148.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 193 P-40Cs in the Curtiss construction block of 16104-16296. The Allison engine order was for a V-1710-33, which originally would have been in the 41.35. range as seen on other P40Cs in the same block. The P-40C described was completed in Olive Drab 41 to upper surfaces and Neutral Gray to the under-side. The pre-war star and meatball was on the upper surfaces, whilst the underside of the wings had a US ARMY marking in large black letters.

Curtiss-Wright P-40C factory number 16194 was the 90th P-40C manufactured at the main production facility in Buffalo, NY. It was completed in March 1941 with the serial 41-13390 and was then issued to Holabird, Central District, on 9 April 1941. It is thought that this P-40C did not have any previous USAAC service. To support this, there are no listings on the record card and no evidence on the recovered airframe of any previous markings or painted rudder.

It became the property of the Office of Defense Aid (ST-41-24390) on 11 June 1941. P-40C 41-13390 was one of ten P-40Cs purchased by the British to be included within their Tomahawk IIB order, of which the British ordered 1180 examples. (The ten were 41-13389/13390/13396-13401/13406/13407.) Serial 41-13390 was allocated to the Soviet Union as part of the Defense Aid Program in September 1941.

Recovery

The basically complete P40C at the Fighter Collection hanger at Duxford and still in its transportation cradle.
(Mark Sheppard)

The P-40C was located by satellite photography in a desolate part of Russia in 1993. It was recovered from behind Murmashi, a rail depot south of Murmansk, where it had crash-landed during WWII.

The pilot undertook an emergency wheels-up landing in the tundra. Very little damage occurred in the crash-landing, except to the radiator chin cowl assembly. The pilot, and possibly others, then removed the radio and gun sight.
The P-40C was recovered by helicopter, dismantled, and eventually returned to the UK, where the restoration was being planned by The Fighter Collection at Duxford.

The ID located on the tail oleo showed it is P-40C-CU Model 81A-3, serial 41-13390. The serial number was also located on the oil tank. The fuselage longerons, back armor, and other panels were stamped with the construction number 194. Other panels and components clearly stated B model and these are thought to be from the production line where the B models and Tomahawk IIBs ran into the C-model batch. There was very little difference between these models and parts certainly just ran through.

The early ‘star and meatball’ emblem (later replaced with just the standard American star) on the side of the P40C.
Over it can be the individual Russian aircraft number ‘53’. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40 was clearly marked up with a tactical number 󈧹’ on the faded camouflage. All upper surfaces had been scoured nearly down to bare metal during over 50 years of snow storms. The old-style American star was faintly visible on the fuselage side. The US ARMY on the underside of the wings was clearer and had been overpainted, and red stars had been applied. There was evidence also of brown and green camouflage and possibly the outline of an RAF roundel, also on the side of the fuselage. It is not known whether this was possibly added before being completed for the US Army or after it was taken over by the British Purchasing Commission. A number of the engine cowling panels had clearly come from a British Tomahawk IIB (with green and brown camouflage), and could have been added during its operational period in Russia.
The P-40C had clearly suffered combat damage and there were small-caliber bullet holes along the fuselage and to the wings. The oil tank was holed, which most likely led to the loss of the aircraft. It was clear, though, that repairs had been undertaken previously, particularly to one wing tip (according to V. Romanenko, it could be the result of a ramming attack).
The engine recovered from the airframe was a British-ordered Allison V1710-33 with UK War Office stamps and the number A.200541. This was one of 1,000 Allison V-1710 engines (A.199588 through to A.200587) ordered against Contract No A-196.

Tarix

The full fuselage and engine cowlings. Note how long the engine is.
Some of the cowling panels had clearly originally come from a British Tomahawk IIB (P40C)
and were camouflaged brown and green. (Mark Sheppard)

The Soviet Union received their first 47 Tomahawk IIBs in September 1941. They were assembled by an RAF team at Yagodnik airfield near Archangel and from here were flight- tested by USAAC pilot Lt. Zemke (later Col ‘Hub’ Zemke, 56 FG 8AF) and less so by Lt. Alison. The first two Tomahawks, serials AK300 with Allison A.200767 and AK242 with Allison engine A.200663, were handed over to the Soviet Air Force on 5 October 1941. Unfortunately, in both cases, within half an hour both had crashed/emergency landed. It was found that both had suffered gear, generator-drive gear, and accessory-drive gear failure. It appeared that the generator-drive gear on these aircraft had not received the necessary modification prior to being dispatched for the Soviet Union! As of 28 November 1941, the Soviets had suffered 19 failures with their Tomahawks due to no modification and they were not too happy! The Soviets grounded all their Tomahawks until it was all sorted out.

According to Soviet research data, the Curtiss-Wright P40C 41-13350 arrived at Murmansk in early 1942 by convoy. It was then most probably assembled and flight tested at Yagodnik airfield before being assigned to a fighter regiment. The Soviets recorded American-supplied P-40 aircraft by their construction (factory) number, so in the case of 41-13390 it was recorded as �’ as painted on the pilot’s back armor (the British-supplied aircraft were easier to inventory as they were recorded by the RAF serial). The first entry for �’ was the following:

P-40 �” was issued new to the 147 IAP VVS 14 Army (147th Fighter Regiment, 14th Army) in early 1942. On 5 February 1942, at 1340 CET (Central European Time) P-40 �’ suffered engine failure and had to make a belly-landing at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk. It was considered as “medium damaged” (30-50%). Pilot was Sr. Lt. N. V. Jurilin, who survived unhurt.

After repairs and with a new Allison engine fitted, it was issued to 20 GIAP (Guards Fighter Regiment) on 12 July 1942. This regiment had 20 P-40s on strength, 16 of which were operational. 147 IAP became a Guards Unit on 7 March 1942, becoming 20 GIAP. The records mention Tomahawk �” as powered by a British Air Ministry-ordered Allison C-15 No A.200541. Whether this was from a damaged Tomahawk IIB or a crated spare is still unknown. At this time, the 20 GIAP was a part of the 1SAD (Combined Air Division) of Soviet Air Force (VVS) and was on the Karelian Front as part of the defense of Murmansk.

A photo of P40C ‘58’ from 20gvIAP after a ‘Taran’ (intentional air collision to bring down another aircraft – often fatal). Note the ‘58’ is in the same style as the ‘53’. These marking type were often individual to each unit. (Carl Guest)

On 27 September 1942, the Soviet War Diary records the following combat activities:
1617 – 1723 hrs (CET), five Hurricanes of 837 IAP covered the air over own bases when nine P-40s of 20 GIAP and one P-39 of 19 GIAP were engaged in combat with eighteen Bf-109s at altitudes of 4000 – 5000meters. The air battle lasted 25 minutes. The Russians claimed three Bf-109s shot down (Luftwaffe records report undercarriage damage to a Bf-109F-4 of 7./JG5). Russian losses were two aircraft from 837 IAP and two aircraft from 20 GIAP (Jr. Lt. N. A. Fikljunin was shot down and killed in a Hurricane, Sr. Sgt. P. K. Prochan made a force landing in a Hurricane 3km east of Shonguj, Sgt A. P. Pakov was shot down and parachuted to safety from his P-40 and, finally, Major Ermakov belly-landed his P-40 �”.

The last available record for �” is on 5 January 1944, when it was written off from the inventory of 20 GIAP of the 1st Combined Air Division. It was a common Soviet practice not to strike off wrecked equipment immediately (the Soviet Navy did the same with ships and aircraft) until a period of time after the event. There is no evidence of P-40 �” being on the inventory list of 20 GIAP on 31 December 1942, or on the inventory of 7 VA (Air Army) on 1 June 1943. It can safely be assumed that 27 September 1942 was when �” was lost and 5 January 1944 was the date that �” was eventually written off from Soviet records.

Curtiss-Wright P40E (C/N 16814) Serial 41-13570

Up she comes. The P40E brakes through the surface with the remains of the red star
on the fin and the tactical number ‘51’. (Unknown copyright)

Qurilish

In late 1941, the new P-40E ‘Warhawk’, as the whole production was now named, began rolling off the production lines in Buffalo, NY. The Curtiss-Wright model H87 A-3 was manufactured for the US Army and to fill British contracts through 1941 and well into 1942. The US Army received 2320 models and 1500 were ordered by the British, who named this model the ‘Kittyhawk 1A’.

The P-40E in question was completed within the smallest batch of E models produced, towards the end of 1941. Many of the completed components were dated 󈫸.41”. This P-40E was supplied with the Curtiss construction number 16814 and the serial 41-13570. The order number was W-535 ac15802 and it cost the US government $39,628.00. Curtiss-Wright completed 79 machines within this block (construction numbers 16737-16815) and the serials 41-13521 to 41-13599 were assigned to them.

The Allison engine was a V-1710-39 that had the construction number 42-33729. The P-40E had been painted in Olive Drab 41 on the upper surfaces and Neutral Gray on the underside. It seems it had already been earmarked for the Soviet Union as it had been completed in nothing more than the serial number and stenciling. There was no sign of the American star having ever been applied.

Another photos of the P40E coming ashore. The tail unit has already been removed. Note damage to the starboard wingtip from when the aircraft hit the water. (Unknown copyright)

It was accepted by the USAAC on 23 January 1942 and on the same day 41-13570 was assigned to Defense Aid. It was then transported to one of the East-coast ports and loaded aboard a ship along with other Lend- Lease supplies bound for the Soviet Union.

Recovery

The P40E back on land. The white ‘51’ is very clear and also the damage to the cockpit area. (Unknown copyright)

The P-40E was recovered from its watery grave of 55 years on 31 August 1997. Although the lake was relatively shallow, the aircraft was brought to the surface using flotation gear and gradually brought to the shore. In shallower water the tail plane and fin were removed along with the ammunition boxes and covers to the wings. The P40-E seemed remarkably complete and well-preserved.

Once the P-40E was back on shore, other parts were recovered from the lake bottom, including the armored windscreen, canopy, and lower engine parts. The P-40E was then airlifted by Ka-25K helicopter to a site closer to civilization to be dismantled. Additional lifting support was required to the engine due to the damage which had occurred in the crash landing. Unfortunately, during the lift further damage was sustained to the port trailing edge by the use of lifting chains instead of webbing.

When lowered, the P-40E could be seen fully for the first time in 55 years. It could be clearly seen that it had not been overpainted and still retained the Olive Drab and Neutral Gray as it had been applied when it left the factory. A white painted number 󈬣” had been applied to the fuselage sides red stars had also been applied over the fin/rudder and also to the underside of the wings. Interestingly, there were no red stars on the upper surface of the wings that were often applied on Lend-Lease aircraft.

The damage to the cockpit skins and longerons can be clearly seem. This probably occurred from the crash landing and hitting the lake bottom. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E was clearly marked up with all the standard stenciling. It had the maximum weights and other technical stencils on the port side of the cockpit and also located there was the serial 41-13570, confirming it was an E model. The Curtiss construction number �” was located around the whole aircraft and seems to have been stamped on all of the fillets and removable panels. The most identifiable number was painted at the top of the pilot’s back armor.

The E model carried six .50-caliber (12.7mm) heavy machine guns and up to 280 rounds of ammunition. The corroded ammunition was removed and made safe. The ammunition boxes and guns themselves were in remarkably good condition and the etched panels were clearly readable. The cockpit instrumentation and control stick were all there. Generally the P-40E was recovered complete, albeit with some damage from the crash landing.

The P-40E had suffered only slight combat damage prior to its final flight. There were a couple of light-caliber bullet holes to the fin and tailplane, which had been patched. More recent combat damage consisted of two visible bullet holes that had occurred at a very shallow angle, skimming the skin. One hole was to the tail plane and another to the engine cowling. The only damage that seemed to have contributed to its loss was to the lower starboard side of the engine casing, which appeared to have resulted in the loss of coolant. The exhausts were of the early type-three sets of two through the cowling. They were of the round type, not the later flattened group of six exhausts carried on the majority of E models.

After being flown in by helicopter the P40 was ready to be dismantled. First to be removed was the Allison engine. (Unknown copyright)

The only effects from the water seemed to be corrosion to the ferrous elements. For example, the metal handles for the ammunition boxes had rusted away. Likewise, the magnesium cam covers and items on the rear of the Allison engine had literally dissolved to nothing. The wheel hubs that appeared to have been protected more by the silt looked to be intact and the tires were still inflated.

The P40E being flown out ready for dismantling. No comment on the methods or the damage inflicted to the trailing edges! (Unknown copyright)

It was probably the loss of engine coolant, leading to an overheating engine, that forced the pilot to undertake an emergency landing. Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev decided not to try to crash-land on the unforgiving tundra, which was covered by stunted trees and large rocks. Instead he opted to put the P-40E down on one of the numerous lakes in the area. Possibly still in combat, the P-40E seems to have hit the water at a steep ascent rather than a shallow glide. On hitting the water, the large radiator housing caused the P-40E to decelerate rapidly. The spinner received a long flat dent to one face and one propeller blade snapped completely off. The radiator probably dug in and acted as a brake, bending the fuselage along its axis to such an extent that it snapped both upper longerons on the canopy rail! Fifty odd rivets were also blown to the top skin above the port undercarriage rotation point due to the hard impact. The P-40E then skewed around, pivoting on its wing, a maneuver that produced the damage visible to the starboard wing tip. On gradually settling down, the pilot clambered out and made for shore whilst his P-40E sank below the surface.

The anodised ammunition boxes and instruction plate were in very good condition.
Only the steel handle had corroded. (Mark Sheppard)

According to Soviet records, the P-40E arrived in spring 1942 to a port, most likely Murmansk. The Soviet records list the loss by the aircraft type, construction, and engine number, which showed the following information:
P-40E �”, engine No 42-33729 of 20 GIAP, 14th Army.

Lost completely on 1 June 1942. Pilot Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev survived and returned to Soviet forces.
The 20 GIAP (20 Guards Fighter Air Regiment) was part of the 14th Army under the command of the Karelian Front. The unit was based at Murmashi airfield, south of Murmansk, as part of the defense of Murmansk and the Kola Peninsula.

The P40E on display on the Isle of White for a few months prior to being purchased by an American collector.
(Mark Sheppard)

According to the 14th Army Soviet War Diary for that day, this is what occurred:
On 1 June 1942, between 0452-0631 (Murmansk time) four P-39s and four P-40s of 19 GIAP escorted Soviet SB bombers to attack Petsamo airfield. Later, between 0519 – 0650 hours, six P40s of 20 GIAP escorted four more SBs to join in the attack on the German airfield. At the target the P-39s and P-40s were involved in air battle with Bf-109s of II/JG5. Soviet losses were listed as four P-40s and four SBs. No loses were recorded by II/JG5.

On this day, P-40E tactical number 󈬣” was being flown by Jr. Lt. A. V. Pshenev when it was involved in air combat during this mission. The Luftwaffe victor could well have been Uffz. Dцring of 5./JG5, who shot down one P-40 in the early morning of the 1 June 1942 at 0456 CET (0556MT). (Interestingly, this was the second P-40E loss with the 20 GIAP, the first E model being lost on 29 May 1942.)

The P40E engine bearers when on the Isle of White. These seemed to be in very good condition. (Mark Sheppard)

The P-40E crashed on Lake Kod Ozero, a small lake near Pja Ozero in the tundra west of Murmansk. The pilot survived the crash, swam to shore, and walked back to his own lines. He was treated in a hospital, where during an attack by the Luftwaffe on 13 June 1942 he was caught by bomb fragments and lost a foot.

Present Day

Photo looking into the P40E on recovery. Notice the construction number on the pilots back armour.
This was how lend lease (excluding British) were often identified. (Unknown copyright)

After being recovered in 1997, the P-40E was shipped to the UK in 1998 and put on display. At the time this article was written the aircraft was still for sale.

Rahmatlar

The author would like to acknowledge assistance of the following individuals in preparation of this article:
Stephen Grey of the Fighter Collection and the new owners.
Special thanks to Rune Rautio, Carl-Fredrik Geust, and Valeriy Romanenko for all their help with the Soviet combat records.
Thanks must go to the Peter Monk, Martin Cobb, Steve Vizard, and Rune Rautio for all their help.