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Kapilavastu

Kapilavastu


Kapilavastu munozarasi: II qism

Doktor Anton Fyurerning e'tirozlariga qaramay, buddaviy dunyo Peppe kashfiyotidan hayajonlanib, Budda qoldiqlarini mamnuniyat bilan kutib oldi. Ko'rinib turibdiki, doktor Fyurer ingliz sudyasi tomonidan tezda ochilgan, uning o'zi qazish ishlarida ishtirok etgan va firibgar bo'lib chiqqan. Uilyam Peppe Pipraxvadan topgan katta tosh kassa va uning qutilari Kolkata shahridagi Hind muzeyiga bordi. Bu kashfiyot haqida eshitgach, Tailand qiroli Chulalankara yoki V Rama Hindiston hukumatidan Budda qoldiqlarini ular bilan bo'lishishni so'radi. Buyuk Britaniyaning Hindiston noibi Viktoriya lord Curzon Relicning bir qismini Tailandga sovg'a qildi. Qirol Rama V, Phraya Suxum Naya-Winitni Budda qoldig'ini olib kelish uchun Tailand vakili sifatida yubordi. Keyin Yaponiya, Birma, Lanka va Sibir buddistlari ham Budda qoldig'idan ulush so'rashni boshladilar. Qirolicha Relikni shunga yarasha tarqatdi. Budda qoldiqlari 1899 yilda Bangkokdagi oltin tog 'cho'qqisidagi Phu-Khao-Thong, Vat Srakessa stupasiga o'rnatildi.

Doktor Anton Fyurerning haqiqiy sabablari aniqlanmagan bo'lsa -da va u firibgar deb topilgan bo'lsa -da, Budda qoldiqlarining topilishi va Kapilvastuning joylashuvi Hindistonda Pipraxvaga yaqin bo'lgan degan taxminidan norozi bo'lgan nepallik arxeologlar, u Fyurerdan maslahat oldi va Uilyam Peppning kashfiyotini Buddaning haqiqiy qoldiqlari sifatida qabul qilishdan bosh tortdi. Ularda bitta tarixiy dalil bor edi, bu esa Pipraxvani haqiqiy Kpilavastu deb rad etdi.

4-7 -asrlarda Hindistonga sayohat qilgan ikki xitoylik sayohatchining sayohatnomalaridan tasdiq bo'lmasa, qadimgi hind tarixining hech bir qismi haqiqat deb bo'lmaydi. 399-yilda Fa-Ssyen va 629-yilda Xien Tsang yozgan matnlarga tegishli bo'lgan muhim ahamiyatga ega. Bu ikki sayyoradan oldingi sayohatchimiz Fa-Ssien Kapilavastuni shu so'zlar bilan tasvirlab bergan. (Beal tarjimasi)

Bu sharqda yojana emas, ularni Kapilavastu shahriga olib keldi, lekin unda na podshoh, na odamlar bor edi. Hammasi tepalik va vayronaga aylandi. Odamlardan faqat bir nechta rohiblar va oddiy odamlarning bir yoki ikki oilasi bor edi. Qirol Suddhodhana eski saroyi turgan joyda shahzoda (Goutam Budda) va uning onasi tasvirlari, shuningdek, uning o'g'li onasining qorniga kirganda oq filga o'ralgan joylari tasvirlangan. u aravani aylanib, kasal odamni ko'rdi, shunda u sharqiy darvoza yonidan shahardan chiqib ketdi, tepalar (Stupa) o'rnatilgan. "

Lumbini Fa Ssien haqida juda aniq gapirgan

Shahardan 50 sharqda Lumbini nomli bog 'bor edi.

Hind arxeologi K.M. Srivastava bu masofani 50 Le deb taxmin qildi. Shunisi aniqki, Fa-Ssyen ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, Lumbini Kapilavastudan 9 mil sharqda joylashgan. Hind arxeologlarining ta'kidlashicha, Pipraxva haqiqiy Kapilvastu shahri, Fa Ssyenning kuzatuviga asoslanib.

Afsuski, bu kuzatuv taxminan 230 yil o'tgach, o'sha mintaqada sayohat qilgan Syuen Zangning hisobiga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Xuen Zang Kapilvastuda Buddaning hayoti bilan bog'liq bo'lgan barcha joylarni batafsil tasvirlab berdi va nihoyat shunday deydi: (Beal tarjimasi)

Shaharning janubiy darvozasi tashqarisida, yo'lning chap tomonida, stupa bor edi, bu erda qirol shahzodasi sakyalar bilan yengil atletika (san'at) bo'yicha bahs olib borgan va o'qlari bilan temir nishonlarni teshgan. Bu 30 li janubi-sharqdan kichik stupa. Bu erda favvora bor, uning suvlari a

oyna Umumiy urf -odatlarga ko'ra, bu o'q buloq (Sarakupa) deb nomlangan. Taxminan 80 yoki 90 li o'qning shimoli-sharqida biz Lumbini bog'iga keldik.

Xuen Zang ta'rifidan ko'rinib turibdiki, u o'qni quduqqa yetish uchun taxminan 30 Li janubi -sharqqa borgan. Bu quduqdan u taxminan 90 Li shimoli-sharqqa borib Lumbiniga etib keldi. Doktor Furer (1897) va P.C. kabi ba'zi arxeologlar. Muxerji (1899) Nepalning Taulixava tumanidagi Tilaurakot nomli qishloq Kapilavastu shahri bo'lishi mumkin, deb taklif qildi, chunki u Xuen Zang bergan masofalarga to'g'ri keladi. Tilarakot katta tuzilmalar ansambliga ega, ularni Xuen Zang tavsifi bilan solishtirish mumkin. Bu Tilaurkot ishini qo'llab -quvvatladi. Qoniqarli echim topilmadi va arxeologlar Kapilavastu uchun haqiqiy sayt haqida kelishmovchiliklarni davom ettirdilar.

Hindiston mustaqillikka erishgach, janjal davom etdi. Nepal 1960 ’ -yillarda bir qator qazish ishlarini boshladi va Tilaurakot atrofida boshqa inshootlarni topdi, ammo hech qanday qoldiqlarni topa olmadi. 1962 yilda Hindistonning Arxeologik tadqiqotlari xodimi D. Mitra Nepal tarayida yana bir tadqiqot va qazish ekspeditsiyasini boshqargan. Ish paytida u Kodan va Tilaurakotda qazish ishlarini olib bordi, lekin Tilaurakotni Kapilavastu bilan bog'laydigan hech qanday dalil topa olmadi.

Nepal dalillari, asosan, imperator Ashoka o'rnatgan ikkita tosh ustunga asoslangan. Niglixavada, Tilaurkotdan 8 km shimoli -sharqda, imperator Ashoka qurgan ustun topilgan. Ustunning pastki qismida Kanakmuni Buddaning tug'ilgan joyi bo'lgan joyni ko'rsatuvchi yozuv bor. (Gutama Budda emas, uni Shakyamuni Budda deb ham atashadi.)

Tilaurkotdan 5 km janubi -g'arbda Gotihavada yana bir singan ustun topilgan. Qolgan ustun ustuni ustida hech qanday yozuv topilmadi. Bu sayt Krakuchhanda Buddaning tug'ilgan joyi bo'lishi kerak.

Syuen Zang bu ikkala joyni ham tasvirlab beradi, bu so'zlarda Buddaning qoldiqlari saqlanib qolgan Stupa tasvirlangan.

Shahar janubida (Kapilavastu) 50 li yoki undan uzoqroqda, biz eski shaharga kelamiz, u erda stupa bor. Bu erda Krakuchchhanda Budda tug'ilgan joy. Budda Krakuchchhanda shahrining shimoli-sharqida, taxminan 30 l masofani bosib o'tib, biz eski poytaxtga (yoki katta shaharga) keldik, unda stupa bor. Bu Kanakamuni Budda tug'ilgan joyni xotirlash uchun. Shaharning janubi-sharqida Tathagataning qoldiqlari (meros qoldirilgan tanasi) balandligi 30 fut balandlikdagi tosh ustun o'rnatilishidan oldin stupa joylashgan bo'lib, uning tepasida sher o'yilgan. (yoki yon tomonda)-bu uning Nirvanasining holatiga taalluqli yozuv, uni Asoka-raja o'rnatgan.

Shunday qilib, bizda bu erda juda murakkab vaziyat bor. Bir tomondan, bizda Tilaurkot yaqinida Kanakamuni Budda va Krakuchchanda Buddaning tug'ilgan joylarini belgilash uchun imperator Asoka o'rnatgan ustunlar bor, lekin Buddaning qoldiqlari yo'q. Boshqa tomondan, bizda Pipraxva, Buddaning qoldiqlari bor, lekin Asoka ustunlari yo'q. Yana bir diqqatga sazovor joy: Xuen Zang tavsifida Asoka-raja tomonidan Stupa yaqinida qurilgan, Buddaning qoldiqlari saqlanib qolgan va hech qachon topilmagan ustun haqida aytilgan. Ammo u Kanakmuni va Krakuchchanda Buddaning tug'ilgan joylari yaqinida Asoka ustunlarini ko'rgani haqida gapirmaydi, faqat Stupalar.

Ammo Nepal qat'iy qaror qabul qilishni davom ettirdi va Tilaurkotni Kapilavastu deb qaror qildi va hatto Nepalning Taulixava tumanini Kapilavastu deb o'zgartirdi. Bu erda, 1971 yilda, Bihar shtatidagi Patna shahrida joylashgan Hindiston va#8217 arxeologiya bo'limi xodimi, Bosh vazirlikdan Pipraxvaning yomon saqlanishi haqida yuborilgan shikoyatidan so'ng, Stupani qayta ko'rib chiqishga qaror qilganida, voqealar shu erda edi.


Qadimgi Kapilavastuni qidirishda

Kapilavastu nomi, miloddan avvalgi 6 -asrda shahzoda Siddxarta va otasi qirol Suddxodxana boshqargan Shakiya sulolasining ma'muriy markazi va shohligini bildiradi. Bu erda haqiqat izlab, butun dunyoviy zavqlardan, shuningdek, oilasidan voz kechishdan oldin, Budda o'sgan. U to'lin oyning yarmida Sharqiy darvoza orqali jo'nab ketdi, u "lahquoMahabhinishkramana Dwara & rdquo" nomi bilan ham tanilgan. Bu arxeologik va tarixiy Tilaurakot, yoki qadimiy Kapilvastu, Kapilvastu tumanining bosh kvartalidan 3 km shimolda joylashgan. , Lumbini Nepalning Taray viloyatining markaziy qismida.

Mening tajribamga ko'ra, arxeologik qazishmalar juda mas'uliyat bilan bajarilishi kerak bo'lgan juda hayajonli va murakkab vazifadir. Mening hamma narsaga bo'lgan hayajonim, men xandaq yotqizishni boshlagan paytimdan boshlab, uni qazishni va g'isht konstruktsiyalari erning bir necha fut pastida paydo bo'lganida boshlangan. Bu juda sekin jarayon, qazish ishlari juda ehtiyotkorlik bilan bajarilishi kerak, shuning uchun tuproq ostidagi qoldiqlar shikastlanmaydi. Belkurak, qo'lda rasm, molga va boshqalar ishlatiladi va har safar g'ishtdan yasalgan konstruktsiyani ochish uchun qum, loy va ildizlarni cho'tkasi bilan tozalash kerak. Men qazishni davom ettirganimda va boshqa tuzilmalar ko'rilganda, bu tuzilmalar nima va ular qanchalik katta bo'lishi mumkinligi haqidagi qiziqishim avj oldi. Qimmatbaho xazinalarni topishdan hayajon doimo bo'ladi va ko'pchilik tashrif buyuruvchilar sizdan oltin va qimmatbaho toshlarni topishingizni so'rashadi? & Rdquo ular arxeologga sopol idishning ham oltin va qimmatbaho toshlar bilan barobarligini tushunishmaydi -ku! Shu bilan birga, terakota odamlari va hayvonlarining turli xil haykalchalari, terakota figuralarining singan qismlari, sopol idishlarning kilo va kilolari topilgan, ular xronologiyasini joylashtirish uchun tozalash va saralash va tahlil qilish uchun yuborilgan.

Sunga va ndashKushon davrining ko'plab me'moriy inshootlari topilmalaridan tashqari (miloddan avvalgi II asr - miloddan avvalgi II asr), bu yilgi qazishmalarning eng diqqatga sazovor joyi - qal'a devori devoridagi posterior teshiklar. Bir qator post -teshiklar palisad yasaydi. 300 dan ortiq turli xil ommaviy axborot vositalari, ularning ko'pchiligi post -teshiklarga qaratilgan bo'lib, bu yilgi qazish ishlarini yoritdi. Lekin post -teshik nima va nima uchun uni kashf qilish juda muhim? Teshiklar - bu erdagi bo'shliqlar va er yuzidagi to'siqlar uchun yog'och ustunlar o'rnatiladi. Bu teshiklarning topilishi bizni g'isht va betondan oldingi aneraga, yog'och va loy davriga, ehtimol miloddan avvalgi III asrga olib boradi. Albatta, yog'och uzoq vaqt chirigan, faqat bir qator teshiklarni qoldirgan. Bu qatlamlar va posttollardan olingan tuproqni Irlandiyaning Stirling universiteti taniqli geo-arxeologi doktor Yan Simpson OSL bilan tanishish uchun olgan. Tadqiqot natijalari shu yilning avgustida, boshqa tanishuv shakllari bilan hisob -kitob qilingandan so'ng e'lon qilinadi. Bu yilgi qazish ishlari Nepal arxeologiya departamentining sobiq bosh direktori Kosh Prasad Acharya va professor o'rinbosari professor Robin Konningem tomonidan olib borilgan. -Buyuk Britaniyaning Durham universiteti rektori.

O'tmishda turli tadqiqotlar va arxeologik qazishmalar olib borildi, 19 -asrning oxiridan boshlab hind arxeologi doktor P. Mukerji hozirgi Tilaurakotni qadimiy Kapilavastu shahri deb aniqladi. Tarix arxeologik tadqiqotlar va qazishmalarga asoslangan. Tadqiqotlar ikki xil - an'anaviy va ilmiy. An'anaviy tadqiqotlar mifologiya, afsonalar, qadimiy diniy matnlar va yozuvlar kabi folklor va adabiy manbalarga asoslangan holda olib boriladi. Boshqa tomondan, ilmiy tadqiqotlar har xil turdagi asboblar (geofizika, magnatometr, erga kiruvchi radar (GPR) va boshqalar) va metodologiyalar yordamida er osti ob'ektlarini er ostidan o'rganadi.

Butun dunyodagi tarixiy joylar hududning adabiy manbalaridan qo'llanma sifatida foydalanilgandan so'ng aniqlandi. Xuddi qadimgi Troya shahri nemis arxeologi Gyenrix Shlieman qadimgi yunon mifologiyasi "Iliada" dan ma'lumot olgandan keyin qayta kashf etilganidek, qadimgi Kapilavastu bilan ham shunday bo'lgan. Bu birinchi marta 1893 yilda mayor Jaskaran Singx tomonidan kashf etilgan bo'lsa -da, rasmiy tergovlar faqat 1895 yilda boshlangan, o'sha paytda Sharqiy Hindiston kompaniyasining arxeologik tadqiqotchisi doktor A. Furher bu hududni tekshirish uchun tayinlangan edi. Furher, Deegha Nikaya va Amatda Sutta singari qadimgi Seylon buddaviy yozuvlaridan, shuningdek, Bagilatha daryosi bo'yida Kapilvastu joylashgan Divyavadanadan maslahatlar oldi. Kapilavastu shimolda Himoloy tizzasida yotar, sharqda Rohini daryosi, g'arbda Lumbini bog'lari va Acchiravati daryosi (hozirgi Rapti) va janubda Kosala va Malla qirolliklari bilan tasvirlangan. Furher, shuningdek, miloddan avvalgi V va VII asrlardagi xitoylik sayohatchilarning sayohat hisoblarini ko'rib chiqdi. VII asrda VII asrda bu erga kelgan Xuyen-Tsangga tashrif buyurganida, xitoylik sayohatchining Fa-Szien xabar berishicha, Kapilavastu xarobalar kengligi sifatida tilga olingan.

O'sha paytdagi zamonaviy podshohliklarning poytaxtlari yoki Hindistonning shimolidagi 16 Mahajanapadalar, masalan, Anga, Magadha, Koshala, Kashi va boshqalar har birida mustahkam devor, bitta yoki ikkita xandaq, shuncha yo'nalishdagi to'rtta darvoza va aloqa bor edi. savdo yo'llariga. Olimlarning ta'kidlashicha, Tilaurakot shunga o'xshash xususiyatlarga ega, shuning uchun uni gipotetik jihatdan qadimgi Kapilavastu bilan bog'lash osonroq. Arxeologiyasiz tarix to'liq bo'lmaganligi va arxeologiya tarixni qayta tiklashga yordam bergani uchun Tilaurakotda yuqoridagi nazariyalarning to'g'riligini isbotlash uchun turli arxeologik qazishmalar olib borilmoqda.

Doktor Furherdan keyin hind arxeologi doktor P.C. Muxerji 1899 yilda qazish ishlarini olib bordi va Kapilvastu o'rnini iloji boricha aniqroq aniqladi. & Rdquo Doktor Muxerji tepalik, sharqiy darvoza, shimoli -sharqdagi ko'lmak va qal'a ichidagi boshqa xarobalar atrofidagi mustahkam devorni kashf etgani uchun xizmat qilishi mumkin. .

1962 yilda Tilourakotni Devala Mitra kashf etdi, u tepalikning g'arbiy qismida istehkom devori bo'ylab xandaq yotqizdi. Qozuvdan topilgan ba'zi topilmalar kulolchilik buyumlari, kumush va mis tangalar, odamlar va hayvonlarning terakota haykalchalari, tosh buyumlar, shisha munchoqlar, terakota bilaguzuklari, oltin va kumushdan yasalgan bezaklar va bezaklar, suyak va fil suyagi buyumlari va tom yopish plitalari edi. Ushbu kashfiyotlarga asoslanib, u sayt miloddan avvalgi III-II asrlardan oldin bo'lmaganligini e'lon qildi. Bu butun dunyodagi arxeologik hamjamiyatda ko'plab tortishuvlarga olib keldi va Nepalning Arxeologiya bo'limi (DOA) Mitra va rsquos xulosalariga qo'shilmadi.

1967 yildan boshlab Tilaurakotda Nepal hukumati va arxeologiya bo'limi tomonidan turli qazish ishlari olib borildi. DOA saytni qayta tiklash maqsadida 1967 yilda o'z arxeologi Tara Nanda Mishra boshchiligidagi arxeologik faoliyatni boshladi. 1974 yilda B.K. Rijal Tilaurakot xronologiyasini beshta davrga ajratdi-I davr (miloddan avvalgi 11-8-asrlar), II davr (miloddan avvalgi VI-V asr), III davr (miloddan avvalgi III-II asrlar, a. Mauryan davri), IV davr (miloddan avvalgi 2-asr). Miloddan avvalgi 1-asr Sunga davri) va V davr (milodiy 1-2-asr Kushon davri). 1976-78 yillar oralig'ida Yaponiyaning Risho universiteti ham qazish va tadqiqot ishlarini olib borgan. 2013 yildan buyon Arxeologiya bo'limi, Lumbini Development Trust, UNESCO Nepal va Buyuk Britaniyaning Durham universiteti Tribxuvan universiteti ishtirokida arxeologik qazishmalar olib bordi. Bu yil o'tkazilgan qazish ishlarida, shuningdek, Nepal tarixi, madaniyati va arxeologiyasi markaziy bo'limidan 13 talaba ishtirok etdi.

Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, bu arxeologik tadqiqotlar tarixiy joylar haqidagi tasavvurimizni kengaytiradi. Faqat 1996 yilda, ko'p yillik qazishmalardan so'ng, Lumbini Butunjahon merosi ob'ekti va Buddaning tug'ilgan joyi deb e'lon qilindi. Kapilavastu yoki hozirgi Tilaurakotni Jahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritish rejasi hali ham davom etmoqda. An'anaviy va adabiy manbalar Tilaurakot va rsquosning qadimiy Kapilavastu ekanligiga shubha qoldirmasa ham, tergov va tadqiqotning eng yangi uskunalari uni Shakya qirolligining poytaxti sifatida aniqlashda kengroq qadamlarni qo'ydi, bu erda Budda umrining 29 yilini shahzoda sifatida o'tkazdi. Siddxarta Gautama.


Kapilavastu munozarasi: I qism

Miloddan avvalgi 5 -asrda Goutama Buddaning o'limidan taxminan ikki asr o'tgach, O'rta asr Hindiston imperatori Asoka ziyorat qilish uchun Gutama Buddaning hayoti bilan bog'liq bo'lgan hamma joylarni ziyorat qilgan. Ziyorat paytida u tashrif buyurgan joylardan biri bu Nepalning Teray va Buddaning tug'ilgan joyi bo'lgan "Lumbini" qishlog'i edi. U erga tashrifini nishonlash uchun imperator Asoka yozuvli qumtosh ustun qo'ydi. Mashhur hind tarixchisi Ser Jadunath Sarkar bu yozuvni quyidagicha tarjima qilgan:

"Taqdirlanishidan yigirma yil o'tgach, xudoning sevgilisi, qirol Priyadasi Lumbiniga shaxsan tashrif buyurdi va u erda ibodat qildi, chunki u erda Sakiya donishmandlari Budda tug'ilgan. U bu erga tosh devor qurdi va tashrifini xotirlash uchun tosh ustunni o'rnatdi. Lord Budda o'sha erda tug'ilganligi sababli, u Lumbini qishlog'ini soliqlardan ozod qildi va odatdagi stavka o'rniga erdan tushgan daromadning sakkizdan bir qismini to'lashi kerak edi ».

Bu dalillar Goutama Buddaning tug'ilgan joyini, shubhasiz va qishloqda aniq belgilab beradi ‘Lumbini ’. Milodning I asrida Asvaghosh tomonidan yozilgan mashhur buddaviy matn ‘Buddha Charita ’, Goutama Budda Kapilavastu qirolligining qiroli Suddhodhana farovon sakiya qabilasida shahzoda bo'lib tug'ilganligini va Siddxartha Gautama deb nomlanganligini aytadi. Shahar Siddxarta Gautam Kapilvastut shahrida bo'lgan, Lumbini shahrida tug'ilganidan keyingi dastlabki yillarini o'tkazgan. 29 yoshida shahzoda Siddxarta haqiqatni izlab, tug'ilgan shahri Kapilvastudan chiqib, ma'rifatga erishdi. U hech qachon Kapilvastuda yashash uchun qaytib kelmagan. Qirol Suddxodxana vafotidan so'ng, qirollikda asta -sekin pasayish yuz berdi va Kapilvastu shahri butunlay vayron va uzoq vaqt tashlab ketildi. U esdan chiqib ketdi va tanib bo'lmas darajada vayron bo'ldi. Tarixchilar uchun Kapilavastu yo'qolgan shahar edi. Buddistlar dunyosi uchun Kapilvastuning aniq joylashuvi to'g'risida ma'lumotlarning etishmasligi har doim katta yo'qotish deb hisoblangan. Faqat bitta narsa aniq ma'lum edi. Kapilavastu Lumbini yaqinida edi, chunki Goutama Buddaning onasi Maxamaya davlatda Kapilavastudan Devadaga, ota -onasining uyida, birinchi bolasini tug'ish uchun sayohat qilgan. Yo'lda malika Lumbini bog'idagi chodirida ilohiy o'g'il tug'di. Ishonch bilan aytishimiz mumkinki, Lumbini qayerda joylashganligi ma'lum bo'lgani uchun, Kapilavastu xarobalari yaqin joyda bo'lishi kerak.

1898 yilda uchinchi avlod ingliz ekuvchisi Uilyam Klaxton Peppe Himoloy va Gangetik tekisliklarning etagida joylashgan Qushbo'yi mulkida joylashgan g'ishtli g'ishtli Stupani qazib oldi. Bu Stupa Nepal-Hindiston chegarasiga yaqin Pipraxvada joylashgan. Janob Peppe o'z maqolasida o'zining kashfiyotining juda aniq ta'rifini beradi. Menimcha, uning asl tavsifini o'qish juda qiziqarli va qimmatli tajriba bo'lishi mumkin. Men uning bu erda yozganlaridan iqtibos keltiraman:

Lumbini bog'ida Budda Gautamaning tug'ilgan joyiga bag'ishlangan ustun topilganidan buyon, janob Peppe yozadi, “ ular mahalliy deb nomlangan bo'lib, ularni mamlakat bo'ylab nuqta bilan topish mumkin, ular shimoli-g'arbda Kapijavastudan, shimoli-sharqda Lumbini bog'i va janubda Britaniya chegarasi.

Hajmi va umumiy ko'rinishi bilan boshqalardan ko'ra mashhur bo'lgan bunday tepalik, Hindistonning shimoli-g'arbiy provinsiyalarining Basti tumanidagi Birdpore ko'chasida, Nepal-Uska yo'lidagi 19.75 mil uzoqlikda va taxminan yarmida joylashgan. Nepal va Britaniya chegarasidagi 44 -sonli ustundan janubga mil. O'tgan yili men kengligi o'n fut va chuqurligi sakkiz fut bo'lgan bu tepalikning konusidan o'tish joyini qazdim va u 16 dyuymdan 10-1/2 dyuymgacha 3, 15 dyuymdan 10 dyuymga 3 g'ishtdan qurilganini topdim. konsentrik doiralarda, loydan, qatlam ustidan va shu bilan höyüğün buddist stupa ekanligini aniqlash. Oktyabr oyida janob Vinsent Smit uni tekshirib ko'rdi va uni juda qadimiy stupa deb e'lon qildi va agar biror narsa topilsa, u markazda va er chizig'ida topilishini aytdi. Keyingi voqealar uning taxminlari qanchalik to'g'ri ekanligini isbotladi. “Yanvar oyi boshida qazish ishlari davom ettirildi va stupaning markazidan 10 fut kvadrat quduq qazildi. Tojdan o'n fut narida, loydan to'la topilgan, xuddi pastdan topilgan singari, sovun toshli kichik uran topilgan edi va bu loyga munchoqlar, kristallar, oltin bezaklar, kesilgan toshlar va boshqalar qo'yilgan edi. bir oyog'i diametrli, loy bilan to'ldirilgan va g'isht bilan o'ralgan dumaloq quvur ikki futga tushdi, keyin diametri to'rt dyuymgacha torayib ketdi. Bu quvurni o'rab turgan g'ishtlar ba'zan taxminan kesilgan, ba'zan esa kerakli shakllarga quyilgan. Loydan yasalgan o'n sakkiz futli g'ishtli g'isht ishlarini qazib olgandan so'ng, shimoliy va janubdagi magnit tufayli, yuqorida aytilgan loy quvurining markazidan 31,50 dyuymli ulkan tosh plitasi topildi. Keyinchalik qazish ishlari olib borilganda, bu plastinka 4 fut 4 dyuymdan 2 fut 8-1/4 dyuymga 2 fut 2-1/4 dyuymgacha bo'lgan ulkan qumtoshli sandiqning qopqog'i ekanligi aniqlandi. Qopqoq to'rt qismga bo'linib ketdi, go'yo uning ustidagi g'isht ishining bosimi bilan, lekin ko'kragi mukammal yopilgan edi. Yaxshiyamki, ko'krak qafasining flanesiga mahkam o'rnashgan chuqur truba qopqoqni birinchi marta sindirilganida ham, tushishiga ham to'sqinlik qildi.

Qopqoqni olib tashlashda quyidagi buyumlar topilgan: bitta sovunli toshli dumaloq: balandligi 4 dyuym va diametri 434 dyuym. Balandligi 6 dyuym va diametri 4 dyuym bo'lgan xuddi shunday sovunli toshli urn. Balandligi 5-1/2 dyuym va diametri 5-1/2 dyuym bo'lgan, sovunli toshdan yasalgan idish, qopqog'i yaxshi o'ralgan, u ‘lotadan alohida yotardi. diametri 3/4 dyuym va balandligi 1-1/2 dyuymli sovunli toshli yumaloq quti. Diametri 3 -1/4 dyuym va balandligi 3-1/2 dyuym bo'lgan bitta kristall piyola, ichi bo'sh baliq, dastasi uchun oltin bargli bezaklar bilan to'la. Idishning pastki qismi ko'kragining yoki tobutning janubiy chekkasida, qopqog'i esa tobutning o'rtasida, dastasi pastga qarab yotar edi va uning ichida bir qancha oltin va tosh bezaklar bor edi.

Uranlar chiroyli burilgan va kesma izlari bir necha kun oldin qilinganga o'xshaydi. Kristall piyola eng jilolangan bo'lib, hozirgi zamonning shisha idishiga o'xshaydi. ” Shunday qilib, biz bu qutini ochganimizdan uch kun o'tgach, kechiktirdik va bizning qiziquvchanligimiz oshdi. Qopqoqni olib tashlaganimizda, biz, ehtimol, ikki ming yil ilgari qo'yilgan o'rnidan turib, bir nechta miniatyura vazalar uchun bo'sh ko'kragini topganimizda, biz hayron bo'lamiz. Tosh quti juda qattiq qumtoshdan yasalgan bo'lib, u qattiq toshdan kesilgan. U mukammal saqlangan holatda, uning qirralari juda silliq kesilgan, hammasi jilolangan. Menimcha, tosh bu tumanning shimolidagi tepaliklardan kelgan. Qopqoqning og'irligi 408 funtni tashkil qiladi va men butun ko'krakning og'irligini 1537 funt deb hisoblayman. G'isht ishi ko'krak ostidan ikki fut pastda davom etdi. Ko'krak osti sathidagi dumaloq loy quvur to'rtburchaklar shaklini oldi, bir qavat uchun 17 dyuym 5 dyuym va bu to'rtburchakning chekkasi ko'krak yonidan 21,50 dyuym edi. Shundan so'ng, u diametri 4 dyuym bo'lgan dumaloq shaklini tikladi va ko'kragining pastki qismidan ikki fut pastda g'isht ishi bilan yakunlandi. Men bu quvurni oxirigacha juda ehtiyotkorlik bilan qidirardim, lekin undan hech narsa topilmadi. Stupaning ichidagi zamin darajasi, stupaning tashqi atrofi bilan bir xil. “Relik qoldiqlarida bir necha kun oldin olib qo'yilgan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lgan suyak bo'laklari bor edi. Qutilarda oltindan yasalgan bezaklar ham bor edi, oltin munchoqlar oltin bargli ayolning ikki dyuym uzunlikdagi taassurotini, yuqori qismi yalang'och, pastki qismi yaltiroq oltin bargli, boshqa qismi yalang'och yalang'och yaltiroq, tashqi tomondan o'ralgan, katta dumaloq bo'lakli. diametri dyuym va miniatyura soyabonining yuqori qismidagi filning oltin bargidagi taassurotini aks ettirishi mumkin, sherdan hayratga tushgan, uning orqasida trident va buddist xochining oldida bir nechta bo'lak, buddist xochining taassurotlari bor. oltita va sakkizta gulbargli kumush va oltin rangdagi yulduzlar yoki gullarning 3/4 dyuymli 1/3 dyuymli qattiq oltin. Kumush xiralashgan, lekin oltin juda yorqin, va ko'krak ochilganda ham shunday edi. O'lchamli marvaridlar, ko'pchiligi ikki, uch va to'rtta to'plamlarda payvandlangan. Bundan tashqari, gullar yoki yulduzlar, tishli va tomirli barglar, buddaviy tridentlar, piramidalar, oq va qizil korneliya, ametist, topaz, granatalar, marjon, kashta toshlari va qobiqlarda kesilgan, boshqa o'lchamdagi teshilgan va burg'ulashli boncuklar. Qizil kornel bilan kesilgan bitta qush va metalldan bitta qush bor. Men bu bezaklarni Hindiston arxeologik tadqiqotlari, Yangi Imperator seriyasi, Vol. XV., Janubiy Hindiston buddizmining qadimiy asarlari va men o'z kollektsiyamda boshqa turlardan tashqari deyarli har qanday shaklni topaman. Kichikroq qutilarning birining qopqog'ida har qanday turdagi yagona yozuv chizilgan. Harflar pali belgisida va 7-16 dyuym uzunligida. ”

Men bu kashfiyotni bugun ham juda hayajonli va ajoyib deb bilaman va o'sha paytlarda ham shunday o'ylangan bo'lishi kerak.

Qutidagi yozuvda shunday deyilgan

Sukiti bhatinam sa-puta-dalanam iyam salila-nidhane Budxasa

Tarixchilar tomonidan ushbu matnning turli talqinlari va ma'nosi berilgan. Biroq, muhim fakt shundaki, matnda Sakyalar Budda qoldiqlari saqlanganligini tasdiqlaydi. Yoki boshqacha qilib aytganda, bu Buddizm matnining "Mahdpartnibbdnasuttdnta" so'zining tasdiqlanishicha, Kapilavastu sakyalari Budda qoldiqlarining bir qismini Kushinagarda yoqilganidan keyin sakkizta da'vogarlardan biri bo'lgan va ular tantanali ravishda yodgorliklar ustidan stupa qurgan. .

Matnlarda sakiyaliklar bu Stupani Kapilvastu chekkasida qurgani aytilganligi sababli, ko'pchilik Gutam Buddaning Kapilavastu shahri topilganiga ishonishgan.

Biroq, hamma ham bunga ishonmadi. Shubhalanadigan Tomos bor edi va u 15 mil narida qazayotgan sobiq katolik ruhoniysi doktor Anton Fyurer ismli nemis arxeologi ko'rinishida keldi. U ilgari Buddaning tug'ilgan joyini Lumbini yaqinida, Nepal chegarasida, shuningdek, yosh Budda shahzoda Siddxarta yashagan shaharni kashf qilganini da'vo qilgan edi. U darhol vaza va uning kulligiga shubha bilan qaradi.

Bu Kapilavastu munozarasining boshlanishi edi, u shu kungacha hal qilinmagan.


Kapilavastu - tarix

Taulixavadan 3 km janubda, Nyigrodharamaning qadimiy va tarixiy joyi, hozirda Kudan yoki Lori-Ki Kudan nomi bilan mashhur. Lord Sakyamuni Budda ma'rifatdan keyin birinchi marta bu erda qirol Suddhodhana bilan uchrashdi. Ba'zi olimlar, shuningdek, Kudanni tug'ilish shahri-Krakuchxanda Buddani aniqladilar. Dastlabki xitoylik sayohatchilar Fa-xsien (miloddan avvalgi V asr) va Xyuen Tsang (milodiy VII asr) sayohatlarida bir qancha voqealarni tasvirlab berishgan, shu jumladan, Lord Sakyamuni Buddani qirol Suddhodhana Nyigrodharamaga kelishi.

JaFIT (2014-2016 yillar) loyihasi bo'yicha Buyuk Britaniyaning Arxeologiya bo'limi, Lumbini Development Trust va Durham universiteti tomonidan olib borilgan yaqinda olib borilgan qazish ishlari Kudan miloddan avvalgi 8-asrga oid yog'ochdan yasalgan teshikni aniqladi. Hozirgi kunga qadar Kudanda qazilgan va saqlanib qolgan yirik tuzilmaviy xarobalar tarkibiga uchta stupa, quduq va hovuz (Nyigrodharama hovuzi) kiradi.

Stupa 1:

Janubi -sharqiy burchakda joylashgan va uni RahulaStupa deb ham atashgan, u Budda va Rsquosning o'g'li Rahulani monastir tartibiga yangi (shramanera) sifatida qabul qilingan voqea va joyni xotirlash uchun qurilgan deb ishoniladi. Stupa, shuningdek, tepasida hindular tomonidan keyinchalik qurilgan sakkiz qirrali Shiva ibodatxonasiga ega.

Stupa 2:

Bu Sakya davrida Lord Sakyamuni Budda va qirol Suddhodananing birinchi uchrashuvi (ma'rifatdan keyin), Lord Sakymuni Budda va Majdjimanikayaning beshta Suttalari va Sakyalarni buddistga aylantirish to'g'risida eslash uchun qurilgan deb ishoniladi. Stupa Mauryan, Sunga, Kusana va Gupta davrida yangilangan va tiklangan.

Stupa 3:

Bog'ning eng shimoliy qismida joylashgan bu stupa Sakiya davrida qirolicha Prajapati Gautami Lord Sakyamuni Buddani Kashaya Vastrani taklif qilgan joylarni xotirlash uchun qurilgan, deb ishoniladi va Yasodxara uni va uning Sangxasini kechki ovqatga taklif qiladi. Kapilavastu saroyi.

Nyigrodharama hovuzi:

Nyigrodharama hovuzi, Lord Sakyamuni Budda va uning Sangxasi qadimgi Kapilavastu bog'iga birinchi tashrifi paytida qurilgan deb ishoniladi. Sakyalar Lord Sakyamuni Buddaning sharafiga lotus hovuzini yaratgan bo'lishi mumkin va u yaqin orada Kapilavastuga keladi va Nyigrodharamada qoladi.

Qadimgi quduq:

Qadimgi quduq 3 -stupadan oldin qurilgan, deb taxmin qilinadi, Lord Sakyamuni Budda va uning sangxasi Nyigrodharama bog'ida bo'lganida bu quduqdan suv ishlatgan.

Ma'rifatdan keyin uyga qaytish

Lord Sakyamuni Budda haqidagi xabar Qadimgi Kapilvastuga etib keldi va qirol Suddxodxana o'g'lini mehmonga taklif qildi. Lord Sakyamuni Budda ma'rifatdan keyin birinchi marta qirol Suddhodhana bilan uchrashdi, hozir u Kudan nomi bilan tanilgan Nyigrodharama bog'ida. Bu erda bosh shogird Sariputra Rahula va Lord Sakyamuni Buddani malika Prajapati Gautami Kashaya Vastrani taklif qildi. Lord Sakyamuni Budda Sangxasi bilan saroyga bordi va qirol Suddhodhana va Yasodxara taklif qilgan taomlarni qabul qildi. Ko'p sonli qarindoshlar va sakyalar uning izdoshlari bo'lishdi, ba'zilari tayinlandi va boy savdogarlar Sangxalar uchun monastir qurdilar. Aytishlaricha, Lord Sakyamuni Budda podshoh Sudddodxon va bolalar monastir yoki Sangxaga tayinlanishidan oldin ota -onasining roziligini olish haqidagi iltimosini qabul qilgan. Lord Sakyamuni Buddaning shogird shogirdi Ananda, ayollarga Sangxaga qo'shilishga ruxsat berishini iltimos qildi va rohibalarning birinchi tartibi Qadimgi Kaplivastuda ham o'rnatildi. It is believed to be the first formal association of women in the human history. Following the several discourses from Lord Sakyamuni Buddha, King Suddhodhana attained the level of shrotapanna (stream-entry).


Tarkibi

Tilaurakot had been the citadel complex of the larger surrounding Kapilvastu Kingdom, founded by Lord Buddha's father Śuddhodana, the chief of the Shakya nation, one of several ancient tribes in the growing state of Kosala. "kot" in Tilaurakot is Nepalese denoting fortress. It lies approximately five kilometers north of Taulihawa, the modern district center of Kapilvastu District, (approx. 30,000 inhabitants). Tilaurakot was excavated by Robin Coningham and Armin Schmidt. The excavation revealed a considerable walled fortress approximately 300 meters long and 200 meters wide and containing exposed foundations of several building complexes. Some 150 meters before Tilaurakot's western gate (the modern main entrance) lies a small, neglected, but quaint museum housing coins, painted grey ware and northern black polished ware pottery, and toys excavated from the site dating between the seventh century BC and fourth century AD. The museum also has good collection of jewellery and other ornaments of that period.

Tilaurakot lies 25 kilometers east of Lumbini, the birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama. The Buddha grew up and lived in Tilaurakot/Kapilvastu Kingdom to the age of 29. Siddhartha spent his early life in Kapilavastu as a prince, mostly oblivious of worldly miseries. He was married to Yashodhara and had a son named Rahul. Upon confronting worldly miseries such as disease, aging and death, he left Kapilavastu in search of enlightenment and in quest of answers to his questions about such miseries, pain and sufferings.

Thirty five kilometers to the west lies Gautam Buddha Airport, in Bhairahawa (Siddharthanagar) Nepal, built for pilgrims to Lumbini and Kapilavastu with daily multiple flights to Kathmandu.


Kapilavastu relics to be displayed in Sri Lanka

The Saranath Buddha idol, an exquisite sculpture based on the 5th century Gupta period, at the entrance of the International Buddhist Museum at Sri Dalada Maligawa, Kandy, on Saturday. Also seen in picture is Sharmila Kantha, author and wife of the Indian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, Ashok K. Kantha. Photo: R.K. Radhakrishnan | Photo Credit: R_K_RADHAKRISHNAN

The Kapilavastu relics (fragments of Buddha's bones) will travel to Sri Lanka next January, Indian High Commissioner to Sri Lanka Ashok K. Kantha, said here on Saturday.

This is the first time in recent history that the relics will travel out of India. All protocol extended to a head of state will be given to the relics. An Indian delegation arrived in Colombo recently to work out of the modalities, he said.

The move follows a request by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh during his India visit in June last. Thousands of Buddhists in Sri Lanka are expected to have a glimpse of the relics.

The relics were excavated in the 19th century by Alexander Cunningham, the first director of the Archaeological Survey of India. The place of excavation, now called Piprahwa in Bihar, was known as Kapilavastu earlier.

Indian and Sri Lankan officials on Saturday unveiled a 16-foot tall idol of Lord Buddha in the Sarnath style from the Gupta period, installed at the entrance to the International Buddhist Museum complex in Sri Dalada Maligawa here amid chanting of Buddhist hymns.

The Sarnath idol is an exquisite sculpture based on the famous 5th century Gupta period idol from Sarnath, where Buddha preached his first sermon after attaining enlightenment. The idol in the Dharmachakra pravartana mudra (turning the wheel of law) and its pedestal have been carved out of a single piece of beige-coloured Chunar sandstone.

Mr. Kantha, Governor of Central Province Tikri Kobbekanda, and Chief Minister of Central Provincial Council Sarath Ekanayake and Diyawadana Nilame, unveiled the idol in the presence of Most Venerable Mahanayake Asigiriya, Most Venerable Anunayake Malawatte and teachers of Mahasangh.

Indian Railways is planning to launch a special Buddhist train “Damba Diwa Vandana” from Chennai catering to Sri Lankan pilgrims from November this year. The train will touch more than a dozen Buddhist centres, including Bodhgaya, Sarnath, Kapilavastu, Sanchi and Kushi Nagar. Special provision will be made in these trains for Sri Lankan food.

The Indian government would also work out details of linking up the ferry service between Colombo and Tuticorin with the pilgrimage train. India was also working on the setting up of an Indian gallery at the International Buddhist Museum in Kandy.


Kapilavastu

Kapilavastu (Pāli: Kapilavatthu) is the name of a place in the ancient Shakya kingdom where Gautama Buddha grew up, and which contained his family home and garden.

It is assumed to be some 10 kilometers to the west of his known birthplace Lumbini. The latter reference point is marked by an Ashoka Pillar and was granted World Heritage status by UNESCO.

The capital of Shakya kingdom. The king of Kapilavastu was Suddhodana, who was the father of Shakyamuni. The present-day Kapilavastu is in Nepal.

The nineteenth-century search for the historical site of Kapilavastu followed the accounts left by Xuanzang and Faxian. Archaeologists have identified the Tilaurakot archeological site in Nepal as a possible location for Kapilavastu.

It is widely accepted that the Lord Buddha spent the first 29 years of his Life in the vicinity of Kapilavastu.

    The ancient kingdom of the Shakya tribe a small state on the Indian- Nepalese border. The capital was also called Kapilavastu.

Based on archae-ological findings, it was believed that the capital was located at Tilau-rakot in southern Nepal.

More recent excavations, however, indicate that it was more likely located at the site of present day Piprahwa (also spelled Piprava) just south (on the Indian side) of the India-Nepal border.

Lumbini, Shakyamuni's birthplace, is the present-day Rummindei, located east of Piprahwa just inside Nepal's southern border.

A stone pillar erected by King Ashoka on his visit to this spot still remains. In Shakyamuni's later years, Virudhaka, the king of Kosala, destroyed the Shakya kingdom.

Early in the fifth century, Fa-hsien, a Chinese Buddhist priest, visited the former capital at Kapilavastu and noted in his travel record that the capital was devastated and only a few dozen houses remained.


Kapilavastu - History


The Life of Buddha , by A. Ferdinand Herold, tr. by Paul C Blum [1922], at sacred-texts.com

12. The Death of Devadatta

DEVADATTA was eager to succeed the Buddha as head of the community. One day, he said to King Ajatasatru: "My lord, the Buddha holds you in contempt. He hates you. You must put him to death, for your glory is at stake. Send some men to the Bamboo Grove with orders to kill him I shall lead the way."

Ajatasatru was easily persuaded. The assassins came to the Bamboo Grove, but when they saw the Master, they fell at his feet and worshipped him. This added fuel to Devadatta's rage. He went to the royal stables where a savage elephant was kept, and he bribed the guards to release him when the Master passed by, so that the animal could gore him with his tusks or trample him underfoot. But at the sight of the Master, the elephant became quite gentle, and going up to him, with his trunk he brushed the dust from the sacred robes. And the Master smiled and said:

"This is the second time, thanks to Devadatta, that an elephant has paid homage to me."

Then Devadatta himself tried to do harm to the Master. He saw him meditating in the shade of a

tree and he had the audacity to throw a sharp stone at him. It struck him in the foot the wound began to bleed. Ustoz aytdi:

"You have committed a serious offense, Devadatta the punishment will be terrible. Vain are your criminal attempts upon the life of the Blessed One he will not meet with an untimely death. The Blessed One will pass away of his own accord, and at the hour he chooses."

Devadatta fled. He decided he would no longer obey the rules of the community, and, wherever he could, he would seek followers of his own.

In the meanwhile, Vimbasara was starving. But he did not die. A mysterious force sustained him. His son finally decided to have him put to death, and he gave orders to burn the soles of his feet, to slash his limbs and to pour boiling oil and salt on the open wounds. The executioner obeyed, and even he wept to see an old man tortured.

A son was born to Ajatasatru on the day he issued the order for his father's death. When he saw the child, a great joy came to him he relented, and he hurriedly sent guards to the prison to stop the execution. But they arrived too late King Vimbasara had died amid frightful suffering.

Then Ajatasatru began to repent. One day, he heard Queen Vaidehi saying to the infant prince, as she carried him in her arms:

"May your father be as kind to you as his father was to him. Once, when he was a child, he had a sore on his finger it hurt him, and he cried no ointment would heal it so Vimbasara put the finger to his lips and drew out the pus, and Ajatasatru was able to laugh again and play. Oh, love your father, little child do not punish him with your cruelty for having been cruel to Vimbasara."

Ajatasatru shed bitter tears. He was overwhelmed with remorse. At night, in his dreams, he saw his father, bleeding from his wounds, and he heard him moan. He was seized with a burning fever, and the physician Jivaka was summoned to attend him.

"I can do nothing for you," said Jivaka. "Your body is not sick. Go to the Perfect Master, the Blessed One, the Buddha he alone knows the words of consolation that will restore you to health."

Ajatasatru took Jivaka's advice. He went to the Blessed One he confessed his misdeeds and his crimes, and he found peace.

"Your father," the Buddha said to him, "has been reborn among the most powerful Gods he knows of your repentance, and he forgives you. Heed me, King Ajatasatru know the law, and cease to suffer."

Ajatasatru issued a proclamation, banishing Devadatta from the kingdom, and ordering the inhabitants

to close their doors to him if he were to seek refuge in their homes.

Devadatta was then near Cravasti where he hoped to be received by King Prasenajit, but he was scornfully denied an audience and was told to leave the kingdom. Thwarted in his attempts to enlist followers, he finally set out for Kapilavastu.

He entered the city as night was falling. The streets were dark, almost deserted no one recognized him as he passed, for how could this lean, wretched monk, slinking in the shadow of the walls, be identified with the proud Devadatta? He went straight to the palace where princess Gopa dwelt in solitude.

He was admitted to her presence.

"Monk," said Gopa, "why do you wish to see me? Do you bring me a message of happiness? Do you come with orders from a husband I deeply reverence?"

"Your husband! Little he cares about you! Think of the time he wickedly deserted you!"

"He deserted me for the world's salvation." "Do you still love him?"

"My love would defile the purity of his life."

"Then hate him with all your heart."

"With all my heart I respect him."

"Woman, he spurned you take your revenge."

"Be quiet, monk. Your words are evil."

"Do you not recognize me? I am Devadatta, who loves you."

"Devadatta, Devadatta, I knew you were false and evil I knew you would be a faithless monk, but I never suspected the depths of your villainy."

"Gopa, Gopa, I love you! Your husband scorned you, he was cruel. Take your revenge. Love me!"

Gopa blushed. From her gentle eyes fell tears of shame.

"It is you who scorn me! Your love would be an insult if it were sincere, but you lie when you say you love me. You seldom noticed me in the days when I was young, in the days when I was beautiful! And now that you see me, an old woman, worn out by my austere duties, you tell me of your love, of your guilty love! You are the most contemptible of men, Devadatta! Go away! Go away!"

In his rage he sprang at her. She put out her hand to protect herself, and he fell to the ground. As he rolled over, blood gushed from his mouth.

He fled. The Sakyas heard that he was in Kapilavastu they made him leave the city under an escort of guards, and he was taken to the Buddha who was to decide his fate. He pretended to be repentant, but he had dipped his nails in a deadly

poison, and as he lay prostrate before the Maser, he tried to scratch his ankle. The Master pushed him away with his toe then the ground opened fierce flames burst forth, and they swallowed up the infamous Devadatta.


So Where is Buddha Buried?

The investigations are not conclusive. Both sites have strong supporters, and both clearly were sites visited by Asoka. One of the two may very well have been the site where the Buddha grew up—it is possible that the bone fragments found by K. M. Srivastava in the 1970s did belong to the Buddha, but maybe not.

Asoka bragged that he built 84,000 stupas, and based on that, one could argue that therefore the Buddha is buried in every Buddhist monastery.


Videoni tomosha qiling: พระมหาคนธกฎ ณ วดเชตวนมหาวหาร Gandhakuti - Jetavana monastery (Dekabr 2021).