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Tabiiy gaz portlashi Texas maktabida 300 ga yaqin odamning hayotiga zomin bo'ldi

Tabiiy gaz portlashi Texas maktabida 300 ga yaqin odamning hayotiga zomin bo'ldi

Texasda 300 ga yaqin o'quvchi 1937 yil 18 martda o'z maktabida tabiiy gaz portlashi oqibatida halok bo'ldi.

Nyu -London konsolidatsiyalangan maktabi, Texas, katta neft va tabiiy gaz konining o'rtasida o'tirardi. Bu hududda 10 000 ta neft quduqlari hukmron edi, shundan 11 tasi maktab maydonida edi. Maktab 1930 -yillarda 1 million dollarga yaqin qurilgan va o'z ehtiyojini qondirish uchun Ittifoq gazidan tabiiy gaz sotib olgan. Maktabning tabiiy gaz hisobi oyiga o'rtacha 300 dollarni tashkil etdi. Oxir-oqibat, Konsolidatsiyalangan Maktab rasmiylari, maktab yonida joylashgan Parade Oil kompaniyasi tomonidan ishlatilgan nam gaz quvurlarini bosib, pulni tejashga ko'ndirildi. Nam gaz - odatdagi tabiiy gazga qaraganda kamroq barqaror va aralashmalari ko'proq bo'lgan chiqindi gazning bir turi. O'sha paytda, neft konlari yaqinida yashovchi iste'molchilar bu gazdan foydalanishlari odatiy hol emas edi.

15:05 da. 18 -mart, payshanba kuni tushdan keyin, konsolidatsiyalangan maktabda o'qiyotgan 694 o'quvchi va 40 o'qituvchi 10 daqiqada jiringlashi kerak bo'lgan so'nggi qo'ng'iroqni kutishdi. Buning o'rniga, tomning tomini uchirib yuborgan ulkan va kuchli portlash maktabni tekislab qo'ydi. O'shanda tabiiy gazning hidi bo'lmaganligi sababli ogohlantirishsiz sodir bo'lgan portlash 40 mil uzoqlikdagi odamlar tomonidan sezilgan va qurbonlarning ko'pini darhol o'ldirgan. Odamlar tirik qolganlarni olib chiqish uchun voqea joyiga yugurishdi; yuzlab jarohatlangan talabalar vayronalar ostidan olib chiqilgan. Mo''jizaviy tarzda, ba'zi talabalar sog' -salomat ketishdi; Ulardan 10 tasi qulab tushayotgan binodan himoyalangan katta kitob javoni ostidan topilgan. Yaradorlarga yordam berish uchun yaqin atrofdagi Tayler, Overton, Kilgor va Xenderson shaharlarida birinchi tibbiy yordam punktlari tashkil etilgan. Ma'lum qilinishicha, vayron bo'lgan maktabda doska topilgan: "Neft va tabiiy gaz Sharqiy Texasning eng katta tabiiy sovg'alari". Ularsiz bu maktab bu erda bo'lmasdi va hech birimiz darsimizni o'rganmas edik.

Gazni yoqib yuborgan uchqunning aniq sabablari hech qachon topilmadi, garchi hozir ma'lum bo'lsa ham, gaz statik elektrdan yoqilgan bo'lishi mumkin. Bu hodisa natijasida, nam gazni quvur orqali emas, balki joyida yoqish talab qilingan. Eng muhimi, voqeadan keyin tabiiy gazda tijorat va sanoat maqsadlarida malodorantlardan foydalanishni majburlovchi yangi shtat qonuni qabul qilindi. Bu tabiiy gaz oqishidan ogohlantiradi va umid qilamanki, portlashda bo'lganlar kabi katta qurbonlarning oldini oladi.


Texas maktabi portlagan va avlod vafot etgan kun

FAITH LAPIDUS: VOA maxsus ingliz tilida BU IS AMERIKA ga xush kelibsiz. Men Faith Lapidusman.

KRISTOFR KRUZ: Men esa Kristofer Kruzman. Bu hafta dasturimizda biz sizga Texasdagi fojeaning yetmish besh yilligi haqida gapirib beramiz. Bu butun dunyo bo'ylab tabiiy gaz uchun yangi xavfsizlik talablariga olib keldi. Shunga qaramay, fojeaning o'zi bugun yaxshi eslanmagan. Maktabda gaz portlashi natijasida uch yuzga yaqin bolalar va kattalar halok bo'ldi.

Keyinchalik, biz dunyoning eng qashshoq joylarida yashovchi odamlarni Internet orqali ish bilan ta'minlaydigan guruh haqida eshitamiz.

Yetmish besh yil oldin, Nyu-London hamjamiyati mamlakatdagi eng boy maktab tizimlaridan biriga ega edi. Sababi, bu hududda yaqinda neft topilgan edi. Mahalla ahli yangi qurilgan maktabi bilan faxrlanishdi. Bir million dollarga tushdi. Binoda quyi sinflar va o'rta maktablar uchun alohida joylar bor edi. London o'rta maktabi - bu uning nomi edi - beshdan o'n birinchi sinf o'quvchilari uchun edi.

Maktab ma'murlari yangi maktabni tabiiy gaz bilan isitishga qaror qilishdi. O'sha paytda neft kompaniyalari uni chiqindi gaz deb hisoblashgan. Ular neft qazish uchun burg'ulashganda, erdan chiqdi.

Neft kompaniyalari uni atmosferaga yoqib yuborishdi. Ammo odamlarga chiqindi gaz tashuvchi quvurlarni tortib, uni uy va binolarda yoqilg'i sifatida ishlatishga ruxsat berildi. Bepul gazdan foydalanib, maktab isitish xarajatlaridan oyiga uch yuz dollarga yaqin mablag 'tejashga muvaffaq bo'ldi.

Miles Toler - mahalliy muzey direktori.

MILES TOLER: & quot; Siz juda boy maktab tumanida bo'lsangiz ham, biz o'ttiz yoshdamiz, biz depressiyadan chiqdik va pulni qo'ldan kelgancha tejaymiz.

KRISTOFER KRUZI: O'n sakkizinchi, o'n to'qqiz o'ttiz etti mart kuni tushdan keyin, quyi sinf o'quvchilari allaqachon ishdan bo'shatilgan edi. O'rta maktab o'quvchilari deyarli kunni tugatdilar.

London o'rta maktabida taxminan sakkiz yuz ellik o'quvchi bor edi. Ularning ko'pchiligi katta sport musobaqasiga tayyorgarlik ko'rishgan va binoda bo'lmagan. Bir nechta ota -onalar yig'ilish uchun yaqin atrofdagi binoga to'planishdi.

O'sha kuni tushdan keyin soat o'n yettida mashinasozlik ustozi uchqun chaqirgan elektr qurilmasini yoqdi. Bu uchqun maktab quvuridan oqayotgan gazni yoqib yubordi. Oqish haqida hech kim bilmas edi, chunki gazning hidi yo'q edi.

Keyingi portlash maktab tomini uchirib ketdi. Miles Tolerning aytishicha, tom yerga qulab tushganida, binoning old qismi sinib ketgan.

MILES TOLER: & quot; Portlash maktabning oldingi yarmini tom ma'noda yo'q qiladi. & Quot

Janob Tolerning aytishicha, portlash paytida binoda o'qituvchilar va tashrif buyuruvchilardan tashqari besh yuzga yaqin talaba bo'lgan. O'lganlar soni haqida turli taxminlar mavjud. Uning aytishicha, muzey ikki yuz to'qson uch bola, o'qituvchilar va tashrif buyurganlarning o'limini tasdiqlay olgan.

Keyingi soatlarda maktabga har tomondan minglab odamlar kelishdi. Ular bolalarini qidirish va qutqaruv ishlariga yordam berish uchun kelishdi. Bugun YouTube kanalidagi odamlar portlash haqidagi eski kinoxronikani tomosha qilishlari mumkin.

Xabarchi (UNIVERSAL NEWSREEL): & quotOgohlantirish yo'q edi. Yaqin atrofdagi odamlarning ko'z o'ngida, shu jumladan yaqin atrofdagi binoda yig'ilish uchun yig'ilgan ko'plab ota -onalar - mamlakatning eng yaxshi qishloq tuzilmalaridan biri bo'lgan maktab uyi to'satdan yorilib, qulab tushdi. Qolgan kunduzi va uzoq, dahshatli tun davomida, falokatning sahnalarini tasvirlab bo'lmaydigan darajada dahshatli edi. Qo'rqinchli, hayajonli soyalari va hamma joyda, yig'layotgan, hissiyotli ota -onalari bilan yorug'lik chiroqlari yordamida qizg'in qutqaruv ishlarining chalkashligi.

Uolter Kronkite urushlar va boshqa muhim voqealarni yoritib bordi. U mamlakatning etakchi tungi yangiliklar boshlovchisiga aylandi. Ammo keyinchalik u yozadi, hech narsa uni o'sha kuni Nyu -Londonda guvoh bo'lgan narsaga tayyorlay olmasdi va boshqa hech qachon unga teng kela olmasdi.

Ammo tabiiy ofatning eng muhim natijalaridan biri Texasda yangi shtat qonunining qabul qilinishi edi. Bu gaz etkazib beruvchilardan tabiiy gazga hid qo'shishni talab qildi, shunda odamlar oqish bor yoki yo'qligini bilishadi. Bu talab butun mamlakatda va butun dunyoda tezda qabul qilindi.

Bugungi kunda millionlab odamlar chirigan tuxum kabi hidni sezganda, gaz oqishi xavfini tushunishadi.

KRISTOFER KRUZI: Nyu -Londondagi muzeyda Miles Tolerning aytishicha, portlashdan keyin ikki -uch hafta ichida darslar qayta boshlangan.

MILES TOLER: & quot; Men portlashda hamma halok bo'lgan joydan qanday o'tayotganingizni bilmayman, lekin siz sport zaliga va kampusdagi boshqa binolarga borasiz va o'quv yilini tugatasiz. & Quot

Janob Toler portlashdan ikki yil o'tib tug'ilgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, jamiyat fojia bilan kurashda juda og'ir vaqtni boshdan kechirgan. Uning so'zlariga ko'ra, u o'sib -ulg'aygan va o'sha maktabda o'qigan paytlarida hech kim bu haqda muhokama qilmagan.

Mahalliy fuqarolar keyingi ikki yil ichida maktabni qayta qurdilar, tabiiy gazni bug 'issiqligiga almashtirdilar. O'n to'qqiz o'ttiz to'qqizda yaqinida katta tosh yodgorlik qo'yildi. Ammo janob Tolerning aytishicha, birinchi xotira yig'ilishi o'n to'qqiz etmish yettiga qadar o'tkazilmagan.

MILS TOLER: & quot; Shunday qilib, qirq yillik vaqt bor, hech kim hech narsa haqida gapirmaydi. & Quot

Uning fikricha, qishloq ahli katta yo'qotishlarga dosh berolmaydi.

MILES TOLER: & quot; Ba'zilar uchta boladan judo bo'lishdi, ba'zilari yolg'iz farzandlaridan ayrilishdi va bilasizmi, agar siz bu haqda gapirmasangiz, ehtimol u o'tib ketadi. Albatta, biz bunday emasligini bilamiz. & Quot

IMON LAPIDUS: Muzey to'qqiz to'qson sakkizda maktab shaharchasi qarshisida ochildi. Janob Tolerning aytishicha, odamlar o'z oilalari saqlagan narsalarni, shu jumladan tirik qolgan bolalari o'sha kuni kiygan kiyimlarni hadya qilishgan. Boshqa narsalarga butun dunyodan yuborilgan hamdardlik telegrammalari kiradi. Portlash paytida Shveytsariya talabalari yuborgan yigirma beshta karta bor. Hatto o'sha paytda Germaniya kantsleri bo'lgan Adolf Gitler yuborgan telegramma ham bor.

Bugun janob Tolerning aytishicha, har yili London muzeyiga ikki mingdan ziyod odam tashrif buyuradi.

MILES TOLER: & quot; Ko'plab talabalar portlash haqida, Londonda sodir bo'lgan portlash natijasida tabiiy gazning hidiga ega bo'lishlari haqida bilib olishlari uchun ekskursiyalar o'tkazadilar. & Quot

Sharqiy Texas shtatidagi maktab hali ham ishlaydi. O'n to'qqiz oltmish oltida nom G'arbiy Rusk okrugidagi konsolidatsiyalangan o'rta maktabga o'zgartirildi.

CHRISTOPHER CRUISE: Vashingtondagi Davlat departamenti Samasource nomli nodavlat tashkilotining ishini tan oldi. Samasource ishchilarni ish bilan Internet orqali bog'laydi. Guruh ayollar va qizlarning imkoniyatlari uchun Innovatsiya mukofotiga sazovor bo'ldi.

Uning asoschisi Leyla Jananing aytishicha, odamlarga ish topishga yordam berish - ularga xayriya sifatida pul berishdan ko'ra, qashshoqlikni tugatishning eng yaxshi usuli.

LEILA JANAH: & quot; Men haqiqatan ham xayriya ishlarini yoqtirmayman. Menimcha, xayriya yordam berishga harakat qilayotgan odamlarga yomon xizmat qiladi. & Quot

Samasource butun dunyo bo'ylab qashshoqlikda yashayotgan yuzlab odamlarni ish bilan ta'minlash uchun Internetdan foydalanadi.

Jana xonim Garvard universitetini tamomlagan. U so'nggi o'n yilining ko'p qismini rivojlanishda va kambag'al mamlakatlarga tashrif buyurishda o'tkazdi.

ISHON LAPIDUS: U Ganaga birinchi safarini qilganida o'n etti yoshda edi. Uning aytishicha, u uchrashgan kambag'al bolalarning ko'pchiligi aqlli va ingliz tilida gaplashishini bilganidan hayron bo'lganman.

LEILA JANAH: & quot; Men haqiqatan ham iqtisodiy rivojlanish va qashshoqlik haqidagi tushunchamni o'zgartirdim va biz global meritokratiyada yashamasligimizni angladim. & Quot

Meritokratiyada odamlar o'z mahoratiga qarab tan olinadi va mukofotlanadi.

Samasource g'oyasi Janax xonim boshqaruv firmasida ishlagan paytda paydo bo'lgan. U Hindistondagi autsorsing markaziga tashrif buyurdi. Agar odamlar Internetda o'sha kompaniyada ishlashlari mumkin bo'lsa, uning fikricha, qishloqda yashaydiganlar ham bo'lishi mumkin.

Samasource shtab -kvartirasi Kaliforniya shtatining San -Fransisko shahrida joylashgan. U yirik texnik tashkilotlar bilan loyihalar bo'yicha shartnomalar tuzadi. Keyin u yirik loyihalarni & quotmicrowork & quot; ga aylantiradi. Bunga veb -saytlar uchun kontent yaratish va ma'lumotlar bilan ishlash kiradi. Samasource ishchilari bu ishni kompyuter va Internetga ulangan har qanday joyda bajarishlari mumkin.

KRISTOFER KRUZI: Samasource ikki ming sakkizda boshlangan. U Afrika, Janubiy Osiyo va Gaitidagi o'n oltita ishchi markazlari bilan ishlaydi. Janax xonimning aytishicha, Samasource bir ming besh yuzdan ziyod kishiga bir million dollardan ko'proq to'lagan, ularning aksariyati ayollar.

Uning aytishicha, ayollarga nisbatan zo'ravonlik ko'pincha mustaqil daromad topa olmasligidan kelib chiqadi. Ammo ayollarga kompyuter bilan ishlash berilganda, ularga nafaqat moddiy yordam ko'rsatiladi.

LEILA JANAH: & quot; Ular tanasidan ko'ra miyasi bilan hurmat qilishni boshlaydilar.

Ba'zi tanqidchilar ishlarni mamlakat tashqarisiga yuborish fikriga shubha bilan qarashadi. Buyuk retsessiya qashshoqlikda yashayotgan amerikaliklar sonini ko'paytirdi. Janax xonimning aytishicha, Samasource ularga yordam berish uchun o'z texnologiyalaridan foydalanish yo'llarini qidirmoqda. Ammo uning aytishicha, qashshoqlikka qarshi kurashga globallashgan nuqtai nazar kerak.

LEILA JANAH: & quot; Bangladeshdagi kambag'al yoki Missisipi qishlog'idagi kambag'al odam bo'lishidan qat'i nazar, bu inson ekanligini unutmaslik kerak. Ularning har biri e'tiborga loyiqdir

FAITH LAPIDUS: Bizning dastur Brayanna Bleyk tomonidan yozilgan va ishlab chiqarilgan. Bizda Monaliza Noormohammadining reportajlari ham bor edi. Men Faith Lapidusman.


Shu kuni: Texasdagi maktabda tabiiy gaz portlashi 300 ga yaqin odamni o'ldirdi

1922 yilda Mahatma Gandi Hindistonning ingliz hukmdorlariga qarshi fuqarolik itoatsizligi uchun olti yil qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi.

1925 yilda AQSh tarixidagi eng dahshatli tornado Missuri shtati, Illinoys janubi va Indiana janubi bo'ylab o'tdi, 695 kishi halok bo'ldi, minglab odamlar yaralandi va 17 million dollarlik moddiy zarar ko'rdi.

1937 yilda Nyu -London, Texas shtatidagi maktabda tabiiy gaz portlashi natijasida 300 ga yaqin odam halok bo'ldi, ularning aksariyati bolalar edi.

1962 yilda Frantsiya va Jazoir 7 yillik fuqarolar urushini tugatish va Shimoliy Afrika mamlakatiga mustaqillik olib kelish to'g'risida sulh bitimini imzoladilar.

1965 yilda Sovet kosmonavti Aleksey Leonov birinchi bo'lib kosmosda uchdi.

1992 yilda mehmonxona malikasi va soliq firmasi Leona Xelsmsli to'rt yillik qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi.

1995 yilda “ orqaga qaytdim. ” Super yulduzi Maykl Jordan 17 oylik tanaffusdan keyin professional basketbolga va Chikago Bullsga qaytishini e'lon qildi, bu vaqt ichida u beysbol karerasini sinab ko'rdi.

2002 yilda 13 yoshli qiz Columbus Blue Jackets-Calgary Flames o'yinida boshi shayba bilan urilganidan ikki kun o'tib vafot etdi. Bu voqea Milliy xokkey ligasini tomoshabinlarni himoya qilish uchun barcha maqsadlar ortida 18 metrli to'rlar o'rnatishga majbur qildi.


Tarkibi

1930-yillarning o'rtalarida Buyuk Depressiya avjida edi, lekin London maktab okrugi Amerikadagi eng boylardan biri edi. 1930 yilda Rusk okrugidan topilgan neft mahalliy iqtisodiyotni kuchaytirdi va ta'lim xarajatlari o'sdi. 1937 yilda uning soliqqa tortiladigan qiymati 20 million dollargacha oshdi, qo'shimcha daromad esa tuman mulkidagi 15 neft qudug'idan olingan. [2] London maktabi, po'lat va betondan yasalgan katta tuzilma, 1932 yilda 1 million dollarga qurilgan (bugungi kunda taxminan 19 million dollar [3]). London yovvoyi mushuklari ("kashfiyotchi" atamasi bo'yicha, neft qidiruvchilar uchun) shtatda elektr chiroqlari bo'lgan birinchi stadionda futbol o'ynagan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Maktab qiyalik erga qurilgan va bino ostiga katta havo maydoni yopilgan. Maktab kengashi me'morning qozon va bug 'tarqatish tizimiga oid rejalarini bekor qilib, bino bo'ylab 72 ta gaz isitgichini o'rnatishni afzal ko'rdi. [4]

1937 yil boshida maktab direktorlari tabiiy gaz shartnomasini bekor qilishdi va pul tejash uchun chilangarlarga Parade Benzin kompaniyasining qoldiq gaz quvuriga kran o'rnatishdi. Bu amaliyot mahalliy neft kompaniyalari tomonidan aniq tasdiqlanmagan bo'lsa -da, bu hududda keng tarqalgan edi. Neft bilan qazib olingan tabiiy gaz chiqindilar deb hisoblanib, yoqib yuborildi. Tabiiy gazning qiymati yo'qligi sababli, neft kompaniyalari ko'z yumdilar. Bu "xom" yoki "ho'l" gaz kundan -kunga, hattoki soatdan -soatga sifat jihatidan turlicha edi. [5]

Tozalanmagan tabiiy gaz ham hidsiz, ham rangsiz bo'ladi, shuning uchun oqishlarni aniqlash qiyin va sezilmasligi mumkin. Qoldiq quvurining quvuridan gaz chiqib ketdi va binoning jabhasini 253 fut (77 m) uzunlikdagi yopiq o'rash oralig'ida qurildi. Talabalar bir muncha vaqt bosh og'rig'idan shikoyat qilishgan, lekin bu masalaga unchalik e'tibor berilmagan. [6]

18 mart payshanba edi. Talabalarga qo'shni shahar Xendersonning maktablararo uchrashuvida, maktab va sport musobaqalarida qatnashish uchun juma darslari bekor qilindi. Maktabning odatdagi jadvaliga binoan, birinchi va to'rtinchi sinf o'quvchilari erta bo'shatilgan. Asosiy binodan taxminan 100 fut (30 m) masofada joylashgan alohida bino gimnaziyada PTA yig'ilishi bo'lib o'tdi. Taxminan 500 talaba va 40 o'qituvchi o'sha paytda asosiy binoda bo'lishgan [7], garchi ba'zi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, asosiy binoda va kampusda taxminan 694 talaba bo'lgan. [8] 15:17 da "qo'lda o'qitish bo'yicha instruktor" Lemmi R. Butler elektr zımparasini yoqdi. Taxmin qilinishicha, zımpara yoqish moslamasining uchquni gaz-havo aralashmasini yoqib yuborgan. [7]

Guvohlarning xabarlariga ko'ra, maktab devorlari bo'rtib chiqqan, tomi binodan ko'tarilgan, keyin esa pastga qulab tushgan va strukturaning asosiy qanoti qulab tushgan. Biroq, portlashdan keyin yong'in sodir bo'lmadi. [9] Tirik qolganlarning aytishicha, devorga o'rnatilgan shkaflar portlash paytida ularga tashlangan, boshqalari portlash kuchi bilan ko'tarilgan, gips va ohak esa oq tuman hosil qilgan. [2] Portlash kuchi shunchalik katta ediki, ikki tonnali beton blok binodan tashlanib, 1936 yildagi Chevroletni 200 metr narida to'xtatib qo'ydi. [10] Portlashdan keyin binoni evakuatsiya qilganlar shok holatida edilar, ba'zilari nima qilishni bilmayotganlarini va ovoz birdaniga qaytguncha dunyo o'lik jim bo'lib qolganga o'xshaganini aytib berishdi. [2]

Ma'lum qilinishicha, portlash maktabdan to'rt mil narida eshitilgan. [9] Eng tezkor javob PTA yig'ilishidagi ota -onalardan keldi. Bir necha daqiqadan so'ng, mintaqa aholisi kela boshladi va ko'pchilik yalang'och qo'llari bilan vayronalar qazishni boshladi. Ko'plab omon qolganlar, boshqa tirik qolganlar va qurbonlarning tiklanishiga darhol qo'shilishdi. [2] Neft konlaridagi qo'pollar ishdan bo'shatildi va ular bilan beton va po'latni tozalash uchun zarur bo'lgan mash'ala va og'ir uskunalarni olib kelishdi. [10] 10 gektarlik (4 gektarlik) kampusdagi binolarning hammasi ham vayron bo'lmagan.

Maktab avtobusi haydovchisi Lonni Barber boshlang'ich sinf o'quvchilarini uylariga olib ketayotgan edi va portlash paytida maktabning ko'z o'ngida edi. Sartarosh ikki soatlik yo'lini davom ettirdi va bolalarni ota-onasiga qaytarib, to'rt bolasini qidirish uchun maktabga qaytdi. Uning o'g'li Arden vafot etdi, ammo boshqalar jiddiy jarohat olmadi. [11] Boshqa maktab avtobuslari ambulatoriyada tirik qolganlarni uylariga qaytarish uchun ishlatilgan, bu esa bekatlarda kutib turgan oila a'zolarini tushgan o'quvchilardan ma'lumot so'rashga majbur qilgan. [12]

Mintaqa tashqarisidan yordam keldi. Texas gubernatori Jeyms V. Allred Texas Reynjersini, avtomagistral patrulini va Texas milliy gvardiyasini yubordi. Dallasdan o'ttiz shifokor, 100 hamshira va 25 balzamchi keldi. Qutqarish va tiklanish ishlarida Barksdeyl maydonining harbiy xizmatchilari, sherif o'rinbosarlari va hatto Boy Skautlar ishtirok etishdi. Qurbonlar va tirik qolganlarni vayronalar ostidan olib chiqishga umid qilib, ko'plab qutqaruvchilar ular duch kelgan jasadning tirik yoki o'lik ekanligini darhol tekshirib ko'rmaganlar. [2]

Qutqaruvchilar tunda va yomg'irda ishladilar va 17 soatdan keyin butun maydon tozalandi. Qutqaruvda ishlaganlarning ko'pchiligi shokka tushishdi, tirik qolganlardan biri shunday dedi: "Dadam shu qadar uzoq ishladiki, u deyarli asabiy tushkunlikka tushadi. Ishlayotganda hammasi yaxshi edi, lekin uyga kelib, o'tirishi bilanoq boshlardi. titrayapti ". [13]

Qo'shni Xenderson, Overton, Kilgor jamoalaridagi binolar va Tayler va Longviggacha bo'lgan joylar juda ko'p sonli jasadlarni saqlash uchun birinchi yordam chodirlari va o'likxonalarga aylantirildi, [8] va hamma narsa oilaviy mashinalardan tortib yuk mashinalariga qadar eshitildi. va tez yordam mashinalari. Ertasi kuni Taylerdagi yangi Frantsiya kasalxonasi ochilishi kerak edi, lekin bag'ishlanish bekor qilindi va kasalxona darhol ochildi. [14]

Shaharga kelgan muxbirlar qutqaruv ishlarini olib ketishdi. Sobiq Dallas Times Herald ijrochi muharriri Feliks Makkayt, o'shanda AP muxbiri, "Biz o'zimizni tanishtirdik va jurnalistlarga qaraganda yordamchilarga ko'proq ehtiyoj borligini darhol aytishdi", deb esladi. Uolter Kronkite UPI uchun birinchi topshiriqlaridan birida o'zini Nyu -Londonda topdi. Garchi Kronkite Ikkinchi jahon urushi va Nyurnberg sudlarini yoritishni davom ettirgan bo'lsa -da, u o'nlab yillar o'tib shunday degan edi: "Men o'qishimda ham, hayotimda ham Nyu -London fojiasi haqida hikoya tayyorlash uchun hech narsa qilmaganman. O'sha dahshatli kundan buyon sodir bo'lgan har qanday hikoya unga teng edi ". [15]

Maktabdagi 600 dan ortiq odamdan faqat 130 ga yaqini jiddiy jarohat olmagan holda qochib ketgan.

O'lganlar soni haqidagi taxminlar 296 dan 319 gacha o'zgarib turadi, lekin bu raqam ancha yuqori bo'lishi mumkin, chunki o'sha paytda Nyu -London aholisining ko'pchiligi vaqtincha neft konlarida ishlagan, [9] va qancha ko'ngillilar yig'ilganligini aniqlashning iloji yo'q. falokatdan keyingi kunlarda bolalarining jasadlari va dafn qilish uchun o'z uylariga qaytarilgan. O'lganlarning aksariyati 5 -dan 11 -sinfgacha bo'lgan [9], chunki kichik o'quvchilar alohida binoda o'qishgan va ko'pchiligi maktabdan bo'shatilgan. [16] Portlash qurbonlarining aksariyati Nyu -London yaqinidagi Pleasant Hill qabristoniga dafn etilgan, butun qismi qurbonlar uchun ajratilgan. [17]

Bir onaning infarkti bor edi va qizining o'lganini bilganida vafot etdi deb o'yladilar, faqat yuzining bir qismi, iyagi va bir nechta suyaklari tiklandi, lekin onasi ham, qizi ham bu hikoya haqiqat emasligi aniqlandi. tirik topildi. [18]

Identifikatsiya tahriri

Jasadlarning aksariyati tanib bo'lmaydigan darajada yoqib yuborilgan, [ iqtibos kerak ] yoki bo'laklarga bo'linadi. Ko'pchilik kiyim -kechak yoki shaxsiy buyumlar bilan aniqlangan, masalan, jinsi cho'ntagida sevimli ko'ylagidan tortish chizig'i borligi aniqlangan bola. Tirik qolgan talaba o'likxonada bo'lganini aytib berdi: "Men otalarni o'lik bolalar uchun suyak ustida itlar kabi urishganini ko'rdim," Bu meniki! " - Yo'q, meniki! Men yo'l o'g'irlashga o'xshagan bolalarni ko'rdim, bu o'g'ilmi, qizmi yoki nima ekanligini aniqlay olmaysiz ". [2]

Barmoq izlari bo'yicha ekspertlar portlash natijasida qiyofasi buzilgan jasadlardan barmoq izlarini olish uchun olib kelingan. Bu identifikatsiya usuli mavjud edi, chunki o'tgan yilning yozida Texasning yuz yillik ko'rgazmasida uning atrofidagi ko'p joylarning barmoq izlari olingan edi. [19]

Tirik qolgan gimnaziya tezda bir nechta sinflarga aylantirildi. Chodirlar va o'zgartirilgan binolar ichida darslar o'n kundan keyin tiklandi, tirik qolgan o'ttiz nafar qariyalar o'quv yilini gimnaziyada yakunladilar. [10] 1939 yilda vayron bo'lgan bino joylashgan joyning orqasida yangi maktab qurib bitkazildi. Maktab 1965 yilgacha London maktabi sifatida tanilgan, London mustaqil maktabi Gaston mustaqil maktab okrugi bilan birlashganda, uning nomi G'arbiy Rusk o'rta maktabi va maskot Raiders deb o'zgartirilgan.

Maktab tumani va Parade Benzin kompaniyasi ustidan da'vo qo'zg'atildi, ammo sud qaroriga ko'ra, ularning hech biri javobgarlikka tortilmasligi mumkin. Bosh direktor V.S. Shou portlash oqibatida o'g'li, jiyani va jiyanidan ayrilgani haqida gapirganda, iste'foga chiqishga majbur bo'ldi. [20]

O'sha paytda Germaniya kantsleri bo'lgan Adolf Gitler o'z ehtiromini telegramma shaklida bergan, uning nusxasi London muzeyida namoyish etilgan. [21] [22]

Tergov va qonun hujjatlarini tahrirlash

Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari kon byurosi mutaxassislari qoldiq gaz quvuriga ulanish noto'g'ri bo'lgan degan xulosaga kelishdi. Ulanish maktabga gaz oqishiga imkon berdi va tabiiy gaz ko'rinmas va hidsiz bo'lgani uchun, oqish sezilmadi. Zımpara mashinasining kalitidan gaz-havo aralashmasi yonib ketgan uchqun paydo bo'lgan deb taxmin qilinadi. Kelajakdagi oqishlarning zararini kamaytirish uchun Texas qonun chiqaruvchi organi portlashdan bir necha hafta o'tgach, tabiiy gazga tiollar (merkaptanlar) qo'shilishini buyurdi. [1] Ko'p tiollarning kuchli hidi oqishlarni tezda aniqlab beradi. Bu amaliyot tezda butun dunyoga tarqaldi.

Tabiiy ofatdan ko'p o'tmay, Texas qonun chiqaruvchi organi favqulodda yig'ilishda yig'ildi va muhandislarni ro'yxatga olish to'g'risidagi qonunni qabul qildi (hozir Texas muhandislik amaliyoti qonuni deb qayta yozilgan). To'qqiz yoshli tirik qolgan Kerolin Jons, tabiiy gaz aloqasi noto'g'ri o'rnatilgani sababli, muhandislik amaliyotini tartibga solish uchun hukumatga jamoatchilik bosimi, Texas qonun chiqaruvchi organlari bilan maktablarda xavfsizlikning ahamiyati haqida gapirdi. [23] Texasda "muhandis" unvonidan foydalanish qonuniy ravishda muhandislik bilan shug'ullanish uchun davlat tomonidan professional sertifikatlanganlar bilan cheklangan. [23]

Texas shtati 42 -magistral yo'lining o'rta qismida 1939 yilda qurilgan granitli katta senotaf falokatni xotirlaydi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Yillar mobaynida Nyu -London maktabining portlashi, voqea miqyosini hisobga olgan holda, hayratlanarli darajada kam e'tibor qaratdi. Buning tushuntirishlari spekulyativ, lekin aksariyat hollarda aholining fojiani muhokama qilishni istamasligi. L. V. Barber otasi Lonni haqida shunday degan edi: "Men eslayman, vaqti -vaqti bilan gazeta odamlari kelib, unga o'sha kun haqida savollar berishgan, lekin u hech qachon ko'p gapira olmagan". 2007 yilda aytilgan sobiq talaba: "Odamlar bu haqda gapirishdan qo'rqishardi, bu oiladagi deyarli hech bir oila zarar ko'rmagan va qachonki odamlar bizga portlash haqida gapirishsa, u shivirlab gapirar va hech narsa demas edi. va shuning uchun ular singlisidan ayrildilar ". [10]

So'nggi yillarda, falokat tarixiy nuqtai nazarga ega bo'lganligi sababli, tadqiqotchilar va jurnalistlar tomonidan tobora ko'proq yoritilmoqda.

Voqeaning 50 yilligi, 1987 yilda, qisman hujjatli film chiqarilishi bilan nishonlandi. Bir avlod vafot etgan kun, Jerri Gumbert tomonidan yozilgan, ishlab chiqarilgan va boshqarilgan. [24]

1973 yilda Texaslik kinorejissyor Maykl Braun portlash haqida yarim soatlik hujjatli filmni suratga oldi va bu mavzu bo'yicha birinchi bo'lib suratga olindi. Qo'ng'iroq qilindi Yangi London: soat to'xtagan kun, filmda portlashdan omon qolganlar va o'sha kunni xotiralari tasvirlangan.

1998 yilda London muzeyi va choyxonasi, maktab maydonidan katta yo'l bo'ylab ochildi. Uning birinchi kuratori Molli Uord portlashdan omon qolgan edi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

2008 yilda portlashdan tirik qolganlarning ba'zilari o'zlarining shaxsiy hikoyalari bilan hujjatli film rejissyori va Sharqiy Texas shtatining asli Kristin Beuchamp bilan bo'lishgan. Uzun metrajli hujjatli film, Hatto farishtalar ham yig'laganlarida, 2009 yilda chiqarilgan. Bu haqda faqat tirik qolganlar va guvohlar aytishadi. Ular tushdan keyin boshidan kechirganlarini, portlashdan oldin, Sharqiy Texas shaharlari, kasalxonalar va o'likxonalarda yo'qolgan yaqinlarini qidirish bilan qanday kechganini aytib berishadi. [ iqtibos kerak ]

2012 yil mart oyida tirik qolganlar va boshqalar falokatning 75 yilligini xotirlash uchun shaharda qayta qurilgan maktabda yig'ilishdi. [25]

2012 yilda Texaslik kinorejissyor Maykl Braun Texas sharqidagi neft konining ochilishi va uning Nyu -London maktabidagi halokatdagi roli haqida yangi hujjatli film ustida ish boshladi. Film, 2017 yilda chiqarilgan va haqli Yo'l bo'ylab soya, Braun CBS telekanalidagi Nyu -Yorkdagi ofisida Valter Kronkit bilan o'tkazgan intervyusidan parchalar. Yangi London maktabidagi portlash o'sha paytda 20 yoshli Kronkitning birinchi milliy hikoyasi edi. Hujjatli filmda, shuningdek, portlashdan omon qolganlar bilan suhbatlar ham bor. [ iqtibos kerak ]


1937 yil Yangi London maktabidagi portlash fojiali bo'ldi

Bu har bir ota -onaning eng yomon kabusi. Bu fojia, hali ham Texasning kichik bir shaharchasini qamrab oladi. 1937 yilning bir dahshatli kunida Nyu -Londonda maktab binosi portlab, 300 ga yaqin bola halok bo'ldi.

Neft sanoati, 1930 yilda neft birinchi marta topilganidan beri, juda qisqa vaqt ichida Rusk okrugini o'zgartirib yubordi. Bu erga neftchilar va sarmoyadorlar to'planishdi. Neft sanoati ko'plab ish o'rinlarini yaratdi va jamiyatni Buyuk Depressiya mamlakatning qolgan qismiga ta'sir qildi. Keyingi yillarda neftchilar tabiiy gaz portlashlari yoki neft burg'ulash mashinalari avariyalari natijasida jarohat olishdi yoki halok bo'lishdi. Xavfsizlik va ekologik qoidalar mavjud emas edi va kompaniya egalari ularni qabul qilish kerakligi haqidagi har qanday taklif bilan shafqatsiz kurashdilar. Oson pul kiraverishda davom etdi va oqibatlari haqida deyarli hech kim o'ylamadi.

Nyu -London maktablar okrugi shu vaqt ichida neft pullarining mukofotini yig'di va 1932 yilda 1 million dollarlik London maktabining ta'sirli binosini (2016 yilda 17,6 million dollar) qurdi.

1937 yil yanvar oyida maktab okrugi rasmiylari, maktab kengashi va nazoratchining to'liq bilimi va roziligi bilan, har oyda 300 dollarlik tabiiy gaz hisobini (yoki 2016 yilda 5028 dollar) bekor qilishdi. Buning o'rniga, chilangarlar guruhi H. L. Xantga tegishli bo'lgan Parade Gasoline Co. kompaniyasining qoldiq gaz quvuriga kirib, tozalanmagan gazni maktabga ulashdi. Bu ba'zi uy -joy mulkdorlari va mahalliy korxonalar orasida keng tarqalgan amaliyot edi va Parad maktab tumanining rejalaridan xabardor edi.

Ko'p o'tmay, ba'zi talabalar bosh og'rig'i, gazdan zaharlanish alomati haqida shikoyat qila boshladilar, ammo hech kim kasallik haqidagi xabarlar va bino ishlatayotgan hidsiz gaz bilan bog'liqligini aniqladi.

18 -mart odatiy kun sifatida boshlandi. Unda 500 dan ortiq talaba va 40 o'qituvchi qatnashdi. Soat 15:05 atrofida, kun tugashi bilan, hurmatli do'kon o'qituvchisi Lemmi Butler o'z sinfida zımpara mashinasini avvalgidek ko'p marta yoqdi.

Uchqun uchdi va do'zax eshiklari ochildi.

Uchqun tabiiy gaz bulutini yoqib yubordi va binoning yarmini bir zumda vayron qildi. Umidsiz ota -onalar yalang'och qo'llari bilan vayronalar qazib, voqea joyiga shoshilishdi. Politsiya va o't o'chiruvchilar to'lib toshgan. Mahalliy neftchilar qoldiqlarni kesish uchun og'ir harakatlanuvchi uskunalar va mash'alalar olib kelishdi. Bir soat ichida gubernator Jimmi Allred Texas Reynjers va favqulodda xizmatlarini Nyu -Londonga yubordi.

Ertasi kuni Tayler yaqinida yangi Ona Frensis kasalxonasi ochilishi rejalashtirilgan edi, ammo yaradorlarni Nyu -Londondan qabul qilish uchun erta ochildi. Ko'ngillilar shtatdan va qo'shni Luiziana shtatidan kelishdi.

O'lganlar soni, shu jumladan o'qituvchilar, 319 kishini tashkil qilgan.

Shundan keyin maktab okrugi oqlandi. Tuman va Paradga qarshi 70 dan ortiq da'vo qo'zg'atildi, lekin sudya Robert T. Braun qonun, pretsedent va dalillarga e'tibor bermay, ularning hammasini rad etdi. Bir lahzada, hissiz va beparvo sudya, Amerika tarixidagi eng yomon maktab halokati uchun hech kim javobgarlikka tortilishining oldini oldi. Yuzlab oilalar vayron bo'ldi va bitta sudya biznes odatdagidek davom etishiga qaror qildi. Hech qachon adolat o'rnatilmagan. Hech kim hech qachon sudlanmagan, na maktab tumani, na gaz kompaniyasi, na boshqa hech kim bir tiyin ham to'lamagan.

Maktab direktori V.C.Shaw, o'g'li portlashda vafot etdi, iste'foga chiqdi va Yangi Londonni tark etdi.

Texas 1937 yilda favqulodda yig'ilishda muhim yangi xavfsizlik qoidalarini qabul qildi. Bu qonunlar oqish paytida tabiiy gazga hid qo'shish talabini o'z ichiga olgan. Muhandislarni litsenziyalash va gaz quvurlarini faqat malakali kadrlar boshqarishi uchun muhandislarni ro'yxatga olish to'g'risidagi qonun qabul qilindi. Hozir maktablarda o't o'chirish mashqlari talab qilinadi va barcha jamoat binolarida fojia yuzasidan tashqariga ochiladigan eshiklar bo'lishi kerak.

Maktab tez orada qayta tiklandi. 1939 yilda sayt yaqinida yodgorlik o'rnatilgan bo'lib, unda halok bo'lganlarning ismlari yozilgan. Portlash sodir bo'lgan joyning qarshisidagi muzey 1998 yilda ochilgan, tirik qolgan kishi kuratorlik qilgan. The tragedy has been the subject of several books and documentaries, including “When Even Angels Wept” (2009), a first-hand account told by survivors. The physical wounds healed, but for hundreds of families and an entire community, the hearts remained broken.

Ken Bridges is a Texas native, writer and history professor. He can be reached at [email protected] com.


Today in history: Nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion

On March 18, 1937, in America's worst school disaster, nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion at the New London Consolidated School in Rusk County, Texas.

In 1766, Britain repealed the Stamp Act of 1765.

In 1837, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, Grover Cleveland, was born in Caldwell, New Jersey.

In 1917, the Mexican newspaper Excelsior published its first edition.

In 1925, the Tri-State Tornado struck southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, resulting in some 700 deaths.

In 1940, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass, where the Italian dictator agreed to join Germany's war against France and Britain.

In 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order authorizing the War Relocation Authority, which was put in charge of evacuating "persons whose removal is necessary in the interests of national security," with Milton S. Eisenhower (the youngest brother of Dwight D. Eisenhower) as its director.

In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the Hawaii statehood bill. (Hawaii became a state on Aug. 21, 1959.)

In 1962, France and Algerian rebels signed the Evian Accords, a cease-fire agreement which took effect the next day, ending the Algerian War.

In 1965, the first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov went outside his Voskhod 2 capsule, secured by a tether. Farouk I, the former king of Egypt, died in exile in Rome.

In 1974, most of the Arab oil-producing nations ended their 5-month-old embargo against the United States that had been sparked by American support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

In 1980, Frank Gotti, the 12-year-old youngest son of mobster John Gotti, was struck and killed by a car driven by John Favara, a neighbor in Queens, New York. (The following July, Favara vanished, the apparent victim of a gang hit.)

In 1990, thieves made off with 13 works of art from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston (the crime remains unsolved).


Natural gas explosion kills nearly 300 at Texas school - HISTORY

The blast' s force caused the roof over Etheredge' s math class to cave in. He escaped serious injury, but the girl in front of him, Doris Beasley Dorsey, was trapped underneath the rubble. She suffered a fractured skull and lost hearing in her left ear.

"I just remember waking up under some debris and I couldn' t move," Dorsey recalled Saturday at a reunion assembly at West Rusk High School. "I heard some boys talking, and I called for them." Etheredge answered, helping Dorsey get out from under the debris. Both jumped from the second-floor classroom to safety.

Investigators found the explosion was caused by a gas leak from the school' s gas-steam radiators.

Life has since taken Etheredge to California, where he retired. Dorsey remained in East Texas and lives in Kilgore.

It' s been almost 64 years since the explosion. For 62 of those years, the two never realized the past they shared. It was at the London Ex-Students Reunion and Memorial Association gathering in 1999 that Etheredge and Dorsey finally made the connection. "We were just talking about (that day), and I mentioned (somebody) had helped me and he said, That was me! , Dorsey said. "It was just fun knowing it was him and being able to meet like that (after all that time)."

The two now ensure that they see each other every two years, when the reunions are held. But talking about the explosion at the reunions isn' t always high on Etheredge' s list. Though he remembers where he was and what he was doing when the explosion occurred, he said he' d rather talk about good times - such as how many grandchildren and great-grandchildren people have.

"I was sitting in my math class leaning over my desk ready to work on a math problem," Etheredge said. "It (the explosion) blew the whole end of the building off. But we just don't talk about it much. It's not that we don' t want to, we just think there is no need for it."

Dorsey's and Etheredge' s story is just one of many the explosion survivors have. Like Etheredge and Dorsey, Dorothy Box and Pearl Holbert share an experience from that day. Both were working in the school library checking out books when the blast occurred. "I was knocked under a counter. . And a steel filing cabinet that was behind me (tipped over)," Box said. "That cabinet shielded me from the roof (debris)."

But Box said she wasn't able to get out from underneath the counter, and when she called for Holbert, she got no response. That's because Holbert also was under debris. "I felt a tremor underneath my feet. . Then I was covered with cement blocks," Holbert said. "I felt guilty about not answering (Box) . but it (cement dust) was like smoke. I just couldn't make a sound."


Al Vinson
1812 Southwood Drive
Lufkin, Texas 75904
E-mail: [email protected]

My cousin, Melvin Vinson, retired in Dallas, TX.

This story, from my memory, is dedicated to my cousin, Mary Emily Lloyd who lost her life in the New London School explosion in 1937.

It was spring, 1937, and I was on my bike, delivering papers in Southwest Lufkin. I had just finished delivery , and circled over to South First Street, when I saw an unusual sight.

At that time, the two lane Highway 59 from Houston traveled directly through downtown Lufkin on First Street. It continued north to Nacogdoches, Henderson and other points.

As I approached South First Street, I noticed several ambulances painted olive green travelling north. I thought perhaps it was part of an army convoy, but that seemed out of place in 1937, especially so early in the year. Several panel trucks came through with the Red Cross symbol on their doors. It was the middle of March, and the convoys were expected early in the summer. Once a year, large Army convoys came through the city enroute to Palacios, on the Texas coast, for summer maneuvers. This was always publicized in advance, and large crowds would turn out to see the trucks, tanks and fatigue-clad soldiers.

But on this day, the ambulances came through without escort and in a fairly irregular pattern. Nothing really spectacular about it, just not routine, but definitely noticeable on Lufkin' s main thoroughfare. Then occasionally, I saw funeral home hearses in the line of traffic.

I returned home, before I found an explanation for the strange parade. My dad was home at 4:30 PM, and that was most unusual. He worked twelve hour days. Dad explained that a terrible thing had taken place at the New London school, and that he and my mother were going there to be with them. When I told him that I had seen Army ambulances on First Street, heading north, he said people from all directions were going to London to help. I went inside to stay with my brother and grandmother, as dad drove away at high speed. That, too, had never happened before.

We were not to hear from Mother and Dad until late the following night. I remember, as soon as I went inside the house, after they drove away, I tuned the radio to 820 kilocycles. That was the magic number in this area for news. It was WFAA, a clear channel radio station that offered remarkable coverage. Since very few stations were on the air in 1937, WFAA had an excellent signal in Lufkin. The instant the tubes were warm in the set, the news was on, without interruption. We heard the news of a devastating explosion at New London High School, with early reports of many dead and injured. The scene of destruction was being described by newscasters in Dallas throughout the night. They didn't have mobile units, satellite trucks or two- way radios in that era. Most of the reports were on-the-scene descriptions called in by reporters on the telephone. These calls were made from pay phones near the scene, and were occasionally interrupted by an operator asking the reporter to please deposit more money. Although the reporters were hard to hear clearly on these long distance calls, they left no doubt that massive destruction was being observed. At home, we began to really have concerns.

My grandparents, R. J. (Bob) and Musia Vinson, lived on what had been a farm, just four miles from the New London community and school complex. I say "had been a farm" because the farm had become an oil field. Over twenty wells had been drilled on the homeplace, and that left little room for a farming operation.

One of Dad's sisters, Annie Lloyd, had a daughter and son in school in New London. Aunt Annie and her husband, Emory Lloyd lived on a farm just a few miles from the Vinson place. The daughter, Mary Emily, was in high school and their son, Kenneth, was in the elementary school located maybe fifty yards north of the high school. Earlier, I called the school a "complex." Well, that it was. In those days, two buildings was a complex. Oil money had come to East Texas, and funded a brand new building for both the high school and the elementary programs.

The more news we heard that night, the worse things seemed to be. The count of children failing to return to their homes was now mounting. So often, when disaster occurs, the original reports seem to exaggerate the toll. But in this case, because New London was a small community without major medical facilities, the injured and deceased, were being carried, likely by those same ambulances and hearses I had seen that afternoon, to Tyler, Henderson, Longview, Gladewater, Kilgore and other surrounding towns.

Unknown to us at that time, my father, uncles and friends, were conducting a search for Mary Emily in hospitals, makeshift morgues and funeral homes. The search also continued at the scene as workers removed tons of debris. One blessing, Dad had four brothers and four sisters, and they formed a strong fortress of support . They suffered together, as well.

According to WFAA, the school had literally blown apart, leaving partial rooms open to the front, and only portions of the back wall and south wall standing. Concrete slabs bigger than a car had been blown free of the high school. Debris piled high on lower floor classrooms. Emergency workers, aided by oil field workers, were using heavy equipment to clear areas to be searched. Chaos reigned through the night, and the days and nights to follow, as these heroic men desperately searched the wreckage for victims.

The following night, Mother and Dad returned to Lufkin. It was obvious the news was bad. Mother took my younger brother and me to our room, and told us that they had found Mary Emily, and that she had died in the explosion. Dad didn't talk to us that night, but the following day he said we would all go to see Aunt Annie, Uncle Emory and Kenneth on Sunday. Kenneth, a student in the adjacent elementary school, had been in a classroom facing the high school, and while debris from the explosion came into his room, he was thankfully uninjured. Looking back now, I cannot say that any of that dear family was ever the same.

I saw the school building on Sunday, following a visit to the Lloyd home to pay our respects. Dad said he thought this should assure my brother and me that we had many blessings and should be thankful for our blessings and safety every day. We were overwhelmed with the loss of our dear Mary Emily, but I think I found a new way to look at life on that Sunday afternoon in New London. And in looking back to that scene, it definitely helped me accept some of the views of disaster I was to see later in life, in World War Two and in my own radio news coverage of disasters.

The New London story, by now, is known to all. That was sixty five years ago. The toll was nearly 300 killed and scores injured. The cause was a buildup of natural gas in the hollow tile walls of the school building, ignited by an electrical spark. It was after this horrible explosion that legislation was passed to add an odor to natural gas. This would let people detect the fumes when present.

The Neal family, who lived just up the pine covered red clay hill from my grandparents, lost a daughter. She was a teacher at New London. In accounts I heard then, she had complained of a headache most of the day, and about thirty minutes before classes were to end, she went across the highway to get a coke and aspirin from a small store. The men at the store said she had just reached for the door at the moment of the explosion.

Today there is a country church at Pleasant Hill. Not even a community any longer. And then there was a small cemetery, now large for a country place of rest. My family and I, attended Mary Emily Lloyd's funeral at Pleasant Hill cemetery a few days after the disaster.

Three or four family processions passed her grave as final rites were said. And because all funeral homes were totally overwhelmed, each family was responsible for carrying their loved ones to the cemetery. The coffins were transported in station wagons and pick-up trucks, and moved to the graveside on the shoulders of the pall bearers. In the evergreen pine thicket behind the church, a trumpeter played "Taps" after each service. Every time I pass that way, I can hear the mournful sound of that trumpet among the pines.

These are our cousins from his Mother' s family (Hunt) and from the Vinson family.


On This Day: Gas Leak Causes New London School Explosion

In the 1930s, while most of the United States was suffering through the Great Depression, the East Texas economy was thriving in the midst of an oil boon. In the East Texas town of New London, oil money funded the construction of modern public school buildings at the cost of $1 million. The consolidated London and New London schools sat on a large campus that included oil derricks and pipelines.

On the afternoon of March 18, 1937, at 3:05 p.m., students at the high school were lining up to board the buses taking them home as a PTA meeting was held at one of the nearby buildings. But then, a spark from the wood shop ignited natural gas that had leaked through the high school, causing an explosion.

&ldquoImmediately the building seemed to lift in the air and then smashed to the ground,&rdquo describes the Handbook of Texas Online. &ldquoWalls collapsed. The roof fell in and buried its victims in a mass of brick, steel, and concrete debris. The explosion was heard four miles away, and it hurled a two-ton concrete slab 200 feet away, where it crushed a car.&rdquo

Parents from the PTA meeting and oil workers from the fields rushed to the school and dug through the rubble for survivors. Texas Gov. James Allred sent in the Texas Rangers, while workers from the Red Cross, Salvation Army and other organizations also arrived in the town to help.

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Workers dug through the rubble throughout the rainy night, finding hundreds of small bodies, many of them unidentifiable. Walter Cronkite, who as a young reporter was sent to cover the disaster, recalled, &ldquoGrief was everywhere. Almost everyone you ran into had lost a member of his family. Yet they went about doing everything they could to help each other.&rdquo

Over the next several weeks, funerals and burials were held for the estimated 298 victims. Ten days after the explosion, school re-opened at a makeshift building of the 600 students who were in the school prior to the explosion, just 287 were able to attend.


Today in History

Today is Thursday, March 18, the 77th day of 2021. There are 288 days left in the year.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On March 18, 1963, the U.S. Supreme Court, in Gideon v. Wainwright, ruled unanimously that state courts were required to provide legal counsel to criminal defendants who could not afford to hire an attorney on their own.

In 1910, the first filmed adaptation of Mary Shelley’s novel “Frankenstein,” a silent short produced by Thomas Edison’s New York movie studio, was released.

In 1911, Irving Berlin’s first major hit, “Alexander’s Ragtime Band,” was first published by Ted Snyder & Co. of New York.

In 1922, Mohandas K. Gandhi was sentenced in India to six years’ imprisonment for civil disobedience. (He was released after serving two years.)

In 1925, the Tri-State Tornado struck southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, resulting in some 700 deaths.

In 1937, in America’s worst school disaster, nearly 300 people, most of them children, were killed in a natural gas explosion at the New London Consolidated School in Rusk County, Texas.

In 1940, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini met at the Brenner Pass, where the Italian dictator agreed to join Germany’s war against France and Britain.

In 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed an executive order authorizing the War Relocation Authority, which was put in charge of interning Japanese-Americans, with Milton S. Eisenhower (the younger brother of Dwight D. Eisenhower) as its director.

In 1965, the first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov went outside his Voskhod 2 capsule, secured by a tether.

In 1974, most of the Arab oil-producing nations ended their 5-month-old embargo against the United States that had been sparked by American support for Israel in the Yom Kippur War.

In 1996, rejecting an insanity defense, a jury in Dedham, Massachusetts, convicted John C. Salvi III of murdering two women in attacks at two Boston-area abortion clinics in December 1994. (Salvi later committed suicide in his prison cell.)

In 2017, Chuck Berry, rock ‘n’ roll’s founding guitar hero and storyteller who defined the music’s joy and rebellion in such classics as “Johnny B. Goode,” ″Sweet Little Sixteen” and “Roll Over Beethoven,” died at his home west of St. Louis at age 90.

In 2018, Vladimir Putin rolled to a crushing reelection victory for six more years as Russia’s president.

Ten years ago: President Barack Obama demanded that Moammar Gadhafi halt all military attacks on civilians and said that if the Libyan leader did not stand down, the United States would join other nations in launching military action against him. At a massive demonstration against Yemen’s government, snipers fired on protesters and police blocked an escape route dozens were killed, including children. Former Secretary of State Warren M. Christopher died in Los Angeles at 85. Princess Antoinette of Monaco, the late Prince Rainier III’s oldest sister and a prominent advocate for animal rights, died at 90.


This Day in History: March 18

Take a look at all of the important historical events that took place on March 18th. (Photo by Getty Images)

On this day, March 18 …

2005: Doctors in Florida, acting on orders of a state judge, remove Terri Schiavo’s feeding tube. (Despite the efforts of congressional Republicans to intervene and repeated court appeals by Schiavo’s parents, the brain-damaged woman would die on March 31 at age 41.)

  • 1766: Britain repeals the Stamp Act of 1765.
  • 1925: "The Tri-State Tornado" strikes southeastern Missouri, southern Illinois and southwestern Indiana, resulting in some 700 deaths.
  • 1937: Nearly 300 people, most of them children, are killed in a natural gas explosion at the New London Consolidated School in Rusk County, Texas.
  • 1938: Mexican President Lázaro Cárdenas nationalizes his country’s petroleum reserves and takes control of foreign-owned oil facilities.
  • 1940: Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini meet at the Brenner Pass, where the Italian dictator agrees to join Germany’s war against France and Britain.
  • 1942: President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs an executive order authorizing the War Relocation Authority, which is put in charge of interning Japanese-Americans, with Milton S. Eisenhower (the younger brother of Dwight D. Eisenhower) as its director.
  • 1959: President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Hawaii statehood bill. (Hawaii would become a state that August.)
  • 1963: The U.S. Supreme Court, in Gideon v. Wainwright, rules unanimously that state courts are required to provide legal counsel to criminal defendants who cannot afford to hire an attorney on their own.
  • 1965: The first spacewalk takes place as Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov goes outside his Voskhod 2 capsule, secured by a tether.
  • 1980: Frank Gotti, the 12-year-old youngest son of mobster John Gotti, is struck and killed by a car driven by John Favara, a neighbor in Queens, N.Y. (The following July, Favara would vanish.)
  • 2009: Under intense pressure from the Obama administration and Congress, the head of bailed-out insurance giant AIG, Edward Liddy, tells Congress that some of the firm’s executives began returning all or part of bonuses totaling $165 million.
  • 2017: Chuck Berry, rock ‘n’ roll’s founding guitar hero and storyteller who defined the music’s joy and rebellion in such classics as "Johnny B. Goode," "Sweet Little Sixteen" and "Roll Over Beethoven," dies at his home west of St. Louis at age 90.

2018: A self-driving Uber SUV strikes and kills a pedestrian in suburban Phoenix in the first death involving a fully autonomous test vehicle Uber suspends its autonomous vehicle testing program in Arizona, California, Pittsburgh and Toronto after the crash.

2019: Rep. Devin Nunes, R-Calif., files a lawsuit against Twitter and a handful of users seeking $250 million in compensatory damages and $350,000 in punitive damages, accusing the site of "shadow-banning conservatives," systematically censoring opposing viewpoints and "ignoring" complaints of repeated abusive behavior.


Memorial service to honor victims, survivors on 84th anniversary of New London School explosion

RUSK COUNTY, Texas (KLTV) - A memorial service to mark the 84th anniversary of the deadliest school disaster in American history is planned Thursday in Rusk County.

On the afternoon of March 18, 1937, nearly 300 people, mostly schoolchildren, perished after a gas explosion at New London School.

It was later determined a spark from the wood shop ignited natural gas leaking in the school.

Injuries were so numerous, Mother Frances Hospital in Tyler opened its doors a day early.

Many of the gas safety measures in place today, including odor additives, were a direct result of the investigation of the tragedy.

Immediately, the community went to work to honor the victims.

A year later, in 1938, a 20-ton, 32 ft. high monument was constructed near the site.

“The sculptural block of Texas granite depicts twelve life-size figures, representing children coming to school, bringing gifts and handing in homework to two teachers,” according to the New London Museum.

Through the years, the London Ex-Students Association has organized reunions for the survivors and their families.

The New London Museum features artifacts from the disaster and preserves the stories of the survivors, all while honoring the past.

Thursday’s memorial service is scheduled for 3 p.m. at the cenotaph on South Main Street in Overton.

According to the museum, the program will include a short talk by Fred Parsons, a moment of silence at 3:17, followed by the playing of Taps by London graduate Terry Dorsey.

Students from the West Rusk High School shop class have placed 298 crosses in the area near the cenotaph in memory of the victims.

Becky & Jean took a few pictures as some West Rusk High School students set out the 298 crosses the shop class made. .

Posted by New London, Texas School Disaster Museum & Cafe on Tuesday, March 16, 2021

A ribbon-cutting to dedicate a new bridge at the Raider Cafe will follow at 4:00 p.m.

“The Wilson family gifted the bridge in honor of Steve Wilson,” a new release stated. “Weir Wilson, Barry Wilson and Charlotte Harwood Wilson will be in attendance.”


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