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Lakeport plantatsiyasi

Lakeport plantatsiyasi

The Lakeport plantatsiyasi Arkanzasda-Antebellum uslubidagi tarixiy uy, u yaqinda ta'mirlanib, tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun ochilgan.

Dastlab Likurg va Lidiya Jonson tomonidan 1859 yilda qurilgan uy katta plantatsiyaning yuragi edi. Antebellum uslubida qurilgan ("urushdan oldingi" degan ma'noni anglatadi) arxitektura yunoncha tiklanish uslubidagi uylar va saroylar bilan ajralib turadi.

U qurilganidan bir necha yil o'tgach, Lakeport plantatsiyasi joylashgan hudud AQSh fuqarolar urushi paytida qattiq zarar ko'rdi. Ovqat qo'shinlari va iqtisodiy tanazzul urushdan keyingi tartibsizliklar bilan bir qatorda hududni og'ir qiyinchiliklarda tark etdi. Biroq, Lakeport plantatsiyasi bu davrda omon qolishga muvaffaq bo'ldi va uy urushdan keyin ham foydalanishda davom etdi.

1927 yilda Jonson oilasi uyni AQShga kelganidan keyin katta boylik to'plagan yahudiy-rus muhojiri Sem Epshteynga sotdi. Lakeport plantatsiyasi 1974 yilda tarixiy joylarning milliy reestriga qo'shildi va 2001 yilda Epsteinlar oilasi Arkanzas shtati universitetiga uyni sovg'a qilishdi, u uni qayta tikladi va hozirda uyni hammaga ochiq bo'lgan tarixiy joy sifatida boshqaradi.


Buyuk daryo yo'lidagi qadimiy madaniyat va qiziqarli tarixni kashf eting

Buyuk daryo yo'li bo'ylab sayohat qilish - Missisipi daryosi xalqlari va madaniyatlari tarixi bo'ylab sayohat qilish. Illinoys janubidagi tepaliklar qurgan bir paytlar ulkan qadimiy shaharga hayron bo'ling, yosh Jonni Kesh o'zining shakllangan yillarini o'tkazgan qishloq xo'jaligi turar joyini ko'ring va fuqarolar urushi tarixidagi muhim jang haqida bilib oling.

Eslatma: Mahalliy va davlat xavfsizlik qoidalari ish vaqtining qisqarishiga yoki o'zgarishiga olib kelishi mumkin. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish uchun tashrif buyurishdan oldin ma'lum korxonalar yoki diqqatga sazovor joylarga murojaat qiling.

Fotosurat: Arkanzas bog'lar, meros va turizm bo'limi

Ko'l portining joylashuvi

Lakeport Plantation 1859 yilda qurilgan, Missisipi daryosi bo'yida, Arkanzas shtatining Leyk -Village shahrida joylashgan. Bu Missisipi daryosining Arkanzasdagi qolgan oxirgi plantatsiya uyi va shtatning eng yaxshi tarixiy inshootlaridan biri hisoblanadi. Uydagi eksponatlar plantatsiyada yashagan va ishlagan odamlarning hikoyalarini, shuningdek, uyning asl holatiga qanday qaytarilganligini aytib beradi. Ekskursiyalar yil davomida dushanbadan jumagacha, qishda esa shanba kunlari mavjud.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

(Surat Illinoys sayyohlik idorasidan olingan)

Cahokia Mounds davlat tarixiy joyi

Sent -Luisdan Missisipi daryosi bo'ylab, Illinoys shtatining Kollinsvill shahriga boring va Buyuk daryo yo'li bo'ylab YuNESKOning Jahon merosi ob'ektlaridan birini topasiz. Cahokia Mounds 700 yildan 1400 yilgacha taxminan 700 yil yashagan va uning cho'qqisida 10 000 dan 20 000 gacha odamlar yashagan. Aholi 6 kvadrat kilometrdan ortiq maydonni egallagan joyda 120 dan ortiq tepaliklar qurdilar. Tarjimon markazi va ekskursiyalar tashrif buyuruvchilarga ushbu ajoyib sayt haqida ko'proq ma'lumot olishga yordam beradi.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Fotosurat: Arkanzas bog'lar, meros va turizm bo'limi

Tarixiy Dyess koloniyasi

Arkanzas shimoli -sharqidagi Dyess koloniyasi 1934 yilda yangi bitim doirasida federal qishloq xo'jaligi aholi punkti sifatida tashkil etilgan bo'lib, shtatda yuzlab kambag'al dehqon oilalariga yangi boshlanish berdi. U oilalardan biri, Keshlarning o'g'li Jonni bor edi, u Amerika musiqasining eng mashhur ismlaridan biriga aylandi. Koloniyaning bir nechta binolari tiklandi va tashrif buyuruvchilar uchun ochiq, shu jumladan Jonni Cash Boylik uyi.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Kolumb-Belmont shtat bog'i

Kentukki shtatidagi 156 gektarlik maydon Konfederatsiya istehkomidir va Belmont jangi-bu erda 1861 yilda jang qilingan-Ittifoqning G'arbiy kampaniyasining boshlanishi edi. Missisipi daryosi bo'ylab janubga sayohat qilmoqchi bo'lgan Ittifoq kuchlarini to'sib qo'ygan qal'a uchun kurash Ittifoq brigadasi generali Uliss S. Grant uchun birinchi haqiqiy harakat edi. Saytda fuqarolar urushi muzeyi ham joylashgan va tashrif buyuruvchilar Ittifoq kemalarining o'tishiga yo'l qo'ymaslik uchun mo'ljallangan ulkan zanjir va langarni ko'rishlari mumkin.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Fotosurat: Arkanzas bog'lar, meros va turizm bo'limi

Delta madaniyat markazi

Arkanzas deltasi Amerika madaniyatiga ulkan hissa qo'shdi, blyuz musiqasi va boshqalar - Arkanzas shtatidagi Helena shahridagi Delta madaniyat markazida Delta aholisining hikoyalarini tinglang. Ko'rgazmalar va ekskursiyalar tashrif buyuruvchilarga ushbu mintaqaning xalqi va tarixi haqida ma'lumot beradi. Delta madaniyat markazida, shuningdek, qariyb 80 yil davomida efirda bo'lgan "qirol pechene vaqti", har kuni jonli blyuz efirga uzatiladi.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Wickliffe Mounds davlat tarixiy joyi

Kentukki shtatidagi Wickliffe Mounds shtat tarixiy hududida bu hududni uy deb atagan Missisipi yoki hind qurilishining tarixini bilib oling. Bu saytda taxminan 1100 yildan 1350 yilgacha tubjoy amerikaliklar qishlog'i bo'lgan va tarixiy joyga tashrif buyuruvchilar sharhlangan arxeologik yo'llar bo'ylab yurishlari, bu erda yashagan madaniyat bilan tanishishlari va Wickliffe Mounds muzeyidagi asarlar va asboblarni ko'rishlari mumkin. 1932 yildan jamoatchilik.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Fort de Chartres davlat tarixiy joyi

Bu frantsuz qal'asi qariyb 300 yil oldin Missisipi daryosining Illinoys tomonida, Sent -Luis janubida qurilgan. Bu frantsuz askarlari uchun Illinoys shtatining bugungi ishg'oli paytida tayanch bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Tarjimali yozuvlar tashrif buyuruvchilarni sayt bo'ylab boshqaradi, dam olish kunlari esa kostyumli tarjimonlar qo'shimcha ma'lumot va reenaktlarni taklif qilishadi.
Batafsil ma'lumot .

Fort -Jefferson -Xill bog'i va Memorial xoch

Fort-Jefferson 1780 yilda Missisipi daryosiga qaragan tepalikda, hozirgi Vikliff shahridan (Kentukki) bir mil janubda joylashgan. Qisqa muddatga bosib olingan qal'a o'sha paytda yangi paydo bo'lgan AQShning g'arbiy chegarasini himoya qilish uchun mo'ljallangan edi. Xoch minoralari Missisipi va Ogayo daryolarining qo'shilishidan 95 fut balandlikda va uchta shtatdan ko'rish mumkin. Fort Jefferson, shuningdek, Lyuis va Klark ekspeditsiyasining tarixiy joyi.
Batafsil ma'lumot .


Lake Village, Arkanzas

Loyiha tafsilotlari
7000 kv.
1858 yilda qurilgan

Mukofotlar
Tarixiy qo'riqxonalar ittifoqi mukofoti

Lakeport plantatsiyasi-fuqarolik urushidan oldingi, Arkanzas shtatida qolgan, hozirgacha an'anaviy tarzda Missisipi daryosiga qaragan uy.

Taxminan 1858 yilda boshlangan Lakeport plantatsiyasi shtat tarixiga noyob tashrif buyuradi, u tashrif buyuruvchilarga antebellum paxta plantatsiyalarining hayoti haqida tasavvur beradi.

Yunon Uyg'onish uslubida qurilgan, uning eng ulug'vor atributi - bu ulug'vorlik. Tarixiy tuzilma, shuningdek, o'zining asl matosining ko'p qismini o'z ichiga oladi, bu esa bugungi kunda professionallarga eng yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan saqlash vositalarini qo'llash imkoniyatini beradi.

WER plantatsiyasini Arkanzas shtati universiteti tasarrufidagi janubi -sharqiy muzey va madaniyat markaziga aylantirish uchun to'rt bosqichda ta'mirlandi.


Lakeport plantatsiya uyi

Yon 1
Lakeport plantatsiya uyi taxminan 1859 yilda Likurg va Lidiya Teylor Jonson uchun qurilgan. Mahoratli mahorat va doimiy xarakter uyni qurganlarning guvohligidir. U plantatsiyada yashagan va ishlaganlarning xotirasi uchun saqlanib qolgan.

Yon 2
Lakeport plantatsiyasining omon qolishi 1927 yilda mulkni sotib olgan Sem Epshteyn oilasiga bo'lgan hurmatdir. 1974 yilda tarixiy joylarning milliy reestriga kiritilgan, 2001 yilda Sem Epstein Anxellar oilasi tomonidan meros sifatida Arkanzas shtat universitetiga sovg'a qilingan. kelajak avlodlar uchun.

2007 yilda Arkanzas shtati universiteti tomonidan qurilgan.

Mavzular. Ushbu tarixiy belgi quyidagi mavzular ro'yxatida keltirilgan: Qishloq xo'jaligi va buqa arxitekturasi va buqa ta'limi. Bu kirish uchun muhim tarixiy yil 1859 yil.

Manzil. 33 va 15.419 va#8242 N, 91 va daraja 9.305 va#8242 W. Marker Chikot okrugidagi Arkanzas shtatining Leyk -Vill yaqinida joylashgan. Markerga shtat avtomagistrali 142 dan Robert Mazzanti yo'lidan (Parish Road 505) 0,9 mil masofada erishish mumkin. Marker uyning oldida, AR-142dan 0,4 mil shimolda, plantatsiya yo'li orqali. Xarita uchun bosing. Marker bu pochta manzilida yoki yaqinida: 601 AR-142, Lake Village AR 71653, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari. Yo'nalish uchun bosing.

Yaqin atrofdagi boshqa belgilar. Bu belgidan 9 mil masofada qarg'a uchib ketganda o'lchanadigan kamida 8 ta boshqa belgi bor. Fuqarolar urushidagi Lakeport (bu belgidan bir necha qadam) Ditch Bayoudagi qurbonlar 1864 yil 6 -iyun

(taxminan 4 mil uzoqlikda) Ditch Bayoudagi jang (taxminan 4 mil uzoqlikda) Saunders-Pettit-Chepman-Kuk plantatsiya uyi (taxminan 5,4 mil uzoqlikda) Belmont plantatsiyasi (Missisipida taxminan 7,1 mil narida) Memoriam Hyner qabristonida (taxminan 7,4 mil uzoqlikda) Kolumbiya (taxminan 8,3 mil narida) Italiya muhojirlari Sunnyside plantatsiyasida (taxminan 8,9 mil uzoqlikda). Leyk qishlog'idagi barcha markerlarning ro'yxati va xaritasini ko'rish uchun bosing.

Shuningdek qarang. . . Lakeport plantatsiyasiga tashrif buyuring. (2015 yil 10 -noyabrda Alabama shtatining Montgomeri shahridan Mark Xilton tomonidan taqdim etilgan.)


Yangiliklar Maqolasi

JONESBORO & ndash "Polklarning plantatsiyalari va eski janubda paxta shohligining yaratilishi" 28 sentyabr, payshanba kuni, Leykort -plantatsiyasida, Leykort -plantatsiyasida, Leyk -Kortdagi 601 -Hwy 142 -da, "Old janubda paxta shohligining qurilishi" mavzusida taqdim etiladi.


1845 yilda Chicot okrugi ekuvchi Jorj V. Polk o'z uyini, ldquoRattle & amp Snap va Kolumbiya, Maury okrugi, TN yaqinidagi rdquo uyini qurib bitkazdi. Foto: Kongress kutubxonasi.

Tadbir soat 17:30 da boshlanadi. ichimliklar va suhbatlar bilan, va dastur soat 18 da boshlanadi. Dastur bepul va hamma uchun ochiq. Qo'shimcha ma'lumot olish va ro'yxatdan o'tish uchun 870-265-6031 telefon raqamlari bo'yicha direktor yordamchisi va ob'ektlar menejeri doktor Bleyk Vintori bilan bog'laning.

Doktor Kelli Xyuston Jons, Ostin -Piy shtati universiteti tarix dotsenti, qullik tarixi bo'yicha mutaxassis, taqdimot o'tkazadi va Polklar oilasi va Tennessi, Missisipi va Arkanzas shtatlaridagi keng ko'lamli paxta plantatsiyalari haqidagi tadqiqotlarini muhokama qiladi.

Taniqli Polklar oilasi Eski Janubning eng yangi joylarida paxta va rdquo ishlab chiqaradigan tarixiy jarayonlarning markaziga ko'chib o'tdilar. 1845-49 yillarda xizmat qilgan sobiq prezident Jeyms K. Polk paxtaga sarmoya kiritgan, qarindoshlari esa Missisipi deltasida paxta plantatsiyalarini boshqargan. U 1834 yilda Missis shtatining Yalobusha okrugidan plantatsiya sotib oldi. Jiyani Uilyam Uilson Polk Filipp okrugidagi Walnut Bend dagi katta plantatsiyaga ega edi va prezidentlik saylovlarini moliyalashtirdi.

Prezident Polkning amakivachchasi Jorj V. Polk Chikot okrugidagi Grand Leykdagi Hilliard plantatsiyasiga egalik qilgan. Polk, qaynonasi Isaak Xilliard bilan 1850 yilda 151 ta qul va 550 gektar obodonlashtirilgan erga ega edi. 1845 yilda u Kolumbiya, Tenn shtati yaqinida ajoyib yunon tiklanish uyini qurdi.

Polshaliklar va ularning biznes tarmog'i 1840 -yillarning oxiri va 1850 -yillarning boshlarini tavsiflovchi va Old Janubi -G'arbiy Oldindagi qullar imperiyasini qurgan paxta investitsiyalarini aks ettiradi.

Doktor Jons fan doktori ilmiy darajasini oldi. 2014 yilda Arkanzas universitetidan. Uning eng so'nggi asari shu yilning oxirida paydo bo'ladi O'q va olov: Arkanzasdagi linch va hokimiyat, 1840-1950, Gay Lankaster tomonidan tahrirlangan.

Lakeport Legacies - har payshanba kuni Lakeport plantatsiyasida bahor va yoz oylarida o'tkaziladigan tarixiy suhbat. Har oy Delta mintaqasidan mavzu taqdim etiladi. Lakeport plantatsiyasi - Arkanzas shtati universiteti merosi. 1859 yilda qurilgan Lakeport Arkanzas shtatining tarixiy inshootlaridan biri bo'lib, o'zining asl bezaklari va me'moriy tafsilotlarini saqlaydi.

2007 yildan beri jamoatchilikka ochiq bo'lgan Lakeport, antebellum, fuqarolar urushi va rekonstruksiya davrlariga e'tibor qaratib, Missisipi daryosi deltasida plantatsiya hayotini shakllantirgan odamlar va madaniyatlarni o'rganadi va izohlaydi.

Arkanzas shtati universitetining Arkanzas meros ob'ektlari Arkanzas deltasida mintaqaviy va milliy ahamiyatga ega bo'lgan tarixiy xususiyatlarni ishlab chiqadi va boshqaradi. A-shtat va rsquos meros ob'ektlariga Xeminguey-Pfayfer muzeyi va o'quv markazi, Janubiy ijarachilar muzeyi, Lakeport plantatsiyasi, Tarixiy Dyess koloniyasi: Jonni Keshning bolalik uyi va Arkanzas davlat universiteti muzeyi kiradi.


Tarkibi

Aleksandr oilasi tahrir

Abingdon o'z ichiga olgan er dastlab 1669 yilda kemachi Robert Xausonga Virjiniya koloniyasiga olib kelgan ko'chmanchilarning bosh kiyimlari uchun patent bilan berilgan katta xoldingning bir qismi edi. [1] [7] [8] Xovson tez orada patentni Jon Aleksandrga 6000 funt tamakiga sotdi. [1] [2] [6] [7] [9] [10]

Aleksandr Shotlandiyaning MakDonald klanidan bo'lgan va Stirling grafining o'g'li edi. [11] U taxminan 1653 yilda Virjiniyaga hijrat qilib, Stafford okrugiga joylashdi va Stafford okrugi militsiyasining ekuvchisi, tadqiqotchisi va kapitani bo'ldi. [10] [11] [12]

Aleksandr Howson patentini sotib olganida, patent Potomak daryosining janubi-g'arbiy tomonida 8000 akr (3200 ga) maydonni qamrab olgan (sotish paytida atigi 6000 akr (2400 ga)). [7] [10] Saytning kengligi taxminan 3,2 km (2 milya) bo'lgan va Potomak bo'ylab Hunting -Krikdan (hozirgi Iskandariya shahrining janubiy chegarasi) Arlington milliy qabristonining hozirgi shimoliy chegarasigacha cho'zilgan. [1] [7] [10] [11]

1677 yilda Jon Aleksandr vafotidan so'ng, uning o'g'illaridan biri Robert Aleksandr Howson patentini meros qilib oldi va akasi Filipp Aleksandrdan sovg'a oldi. [9] 1735 yilda Robert Aleksandrning nabirasi Jerr Aleksandr Howson patentining shimoliy qismini meros qilib oldi. [8] 1746 yilda Daniel Jennings tayyorlagan tadqiqot xaritasi shuni ko'rsatdiki, Jerrard Aleksandr to'rt millik Krik shimolida joylashgan Howson patentining bir qismida uyga ega. [7] [9]

Ko'p o'tmay, 1749 yilda Iskandariya shahri Howson patentining janubiy qismiga kirdi. [10] Shahar Jon Aleksandr va uning oilasi sharafiga shunday nomlangan, ular shahar asos solingan erni bergan. [10] [13] 1761 yilda Jerar Aleksandrning vasiyatnomasi uning mulkini o'g'illari Robert, Filipp va Jerrard (2) o'rtasida bo'lishdi.

Kasti va Styuart oilalari tahrir qilish

1778 yilda Daniel Parke Kustis va Marta Vashingtonning o'g'li va Jorj Vashingtonning o'gay o'g'li Jon Park Kustis (taxallusi "Jeki") Robert Aleksandrdan Abingdon va uning 1000 gektarlik (400 gektarlik) mulkini sotib oldi. [6] [9] [14] [15] [16] Kustis Abingdonda o'z oilasini boqish uchun ko'chmas mulk sotib olmoqchi edi. [16]

Biroq, Jeki Kustisning ishtiyoqi va tajribasizligi Robert Aleksandrga bu bitimdan foyda olishiga imkon berdi, chunki 24 yillik muddat davomida foizlar 12000 funt sterlingni sotib olish narxini umumiy 48000 funtdan oshadigan to'lovlarga aylantiradi. [16] [17] (Ba'zi manbalarda general Jorj Vashington Abingdonni Kastis uchun sotib olgan deb da'vo qilishadi. [2] [11]) U sotib olish shartlari haqida bilganida, Vashington Kastisga "Virjiniya shtatida mulk yo'q (bir nechta shirkatlar bundan mustasno). Eng yaxshi menejment) oddiy qiziqishni ushlab turishi mumkin, keyin ular qanday qilib murakkab foizga ega bo'lishlari mumkin ". [17]

Jekki Kastis Abingdonni tanladi, chunki u Vernon tog'idagi Washingtons uyi va uning rafiqasi Eleanor Kalvertning oilaviy uyi (tiklangan uyi hozirda Merilend shahzodasi Jorj okrugidagi Rosaryville shtat bog'ida). [18] Eleanor Kalvert Sesiliy Kalvertning avlodi, ikkinchi lord Baltimor, Angliya parlamenti a'zosi va Merilend koloniyasi xartiyasini olgan. [15] [19]

Jeku Kastis Abingdonni sotib olgan yil davomida (1778), uning Fairfaks okrugidagi qo'shnilari uni Virjiniya Bosh assambleyasiga delegat qilib sayladilar. [17] Abingdonga ko'chib o'tgandan ko'p o'tmay, Kastisning xotini 1779 yil 31 martda tirik qolgan uchinchi qizi Eleanor (Nelli) Parke Kustisni tug'di. [2] [3] [20] [21] Nelli, uning katta opalari, Elizabet (Eliza) Parke Kustis va Marta Parke Kustis Piter va uning ukasi Jorj Vashington Parke Kastis (GWP Custis) Abingdonda tarbiyalangan. [2] [11] [16]

Biroq, Jeki Kustis 1781 yilda Yorktaun qamalida "lager isitmasi" bilan kasallangan, Vashington yordamchisi bo'lib xizmat qilgan va Kornuallis u erda taslim bo'lganidan ko'p o'tmay vafot etgan. [16] [22] Ko'p o'tmay, Jorj Vashington Abingdondan Vernon tog'idagi Washingtons bilan yashash uchun ko'chib kelgan ikkita eng yosh bola - Nelli va Jorjni "asrab oldi". [16] Katta farzandlari Elizabet va Marta Abingdonda qolishdi. [1] [4] [22] [23]

Kastisning bevasi Eleonor 1783 yilning kuzida Jorj Vashingtonning do'sti va biznes sherigi doktor Devid Styuartga qayta turmushga chiqdi. [6] [11] [24]

Doktor Styuart va Eleanor Abingdonda istiqomat qilgan davrda doktor Styuart Virjiniya Bosh assambleyasida Fairfax okrugidan delegat bo'lib xizmat qilgan va Prezident Vashington uni mamlakatning yangi poytaxtini rejalashtirishni nazorat qilgan uchta komissardan biriga tayinlagan. [11] [22] [24] 1791 yilda doktor Styuart va boshqa komissarlar yangi poytaxtni "Kolumbiya hududida" "Vashington shahri" deb nomladilar (qarang: Vashington tarixi, DC). [25] Doktor Styuart va uning rafiqasining o'n olti farzandi bor edi, ulardan kamida uchtasi (Anne Kalvert Styuart, Sara Styuart va Ariana Kalvert Styuart) Abingdonda tug'ilgan. [19]

Garchi Jon Parke Kastis Abingdonda yaxshi yo'lga qo'yilgan bo'lsa-da, uning moliyaviy masalalari noto'g'riligida edi, chunki u biznesni noto'g'ri baholagan va urush vaqtidagi soliqqa tortilgan. [16] 1781 yilda vafotidan so'ng, Custis Estate ma'murlariga Kastis Abingdonni sotib olgan bitimni to'xtatish uchun o'n yildan ko'proq vaqt kerak bo'ldi. [17]

Ko'chmas mulk kontinental valyutada to'langanligi sababli, Jerrard Aleksandrning vorislari o'z pullarini undirish uchun Kastis va Styuart oilalariga qarshi da'vo qo'zg'adilar. [2] [11] Ko'p yillik sud jarayonlaridan so'ng, Abingdon 1792 yilda Robert Aleksandrga qaytarildi. [2] [22] Robert Aleksandr 1793 yilda vafot etgach, sud tomonidan tayinlangan komissarlar uning 1090 gektarlik (440 gektar) maydonini o'rganishdi va uni bo'lishdi. teng ravishda uning ikki o'g'li Robert va Valter o'rtasida. [14] 1800 yilda Valter Aleksandr Abingdon uyi joylashgan 545 gektar (221 gektar) maydonni o'z ichiga olgan mulkning janubiy yarmiga egalik qildi. [2] [11] [14]

1805 yilda Jorj Uayz Abingdonning uyni o'z ichiga olgan qismini sotib oldi. [26] Boshqalar Valter Aleksandrning Abingdon mulkining turli qismlarini sotib olishdi. [27] Donishmandlar oilasi Abingdonda yashagan, "general" Aleksandr Xanter 1835-1842 yillar oralig'ida Jorj Viz va boshqalardan 99 gektarlik (40 gektar) Abingdon mulkini sotib olgan. [27] [28]

Jon Parke Kustis Abingdonni Robert Aleksandrdan sotib olgan paytda, u Jerrard Aleksandrdan (2-chi) 1100 gektarlik (450 gektar) er uchastkasini sotib oldi. [1] [9] [14] Abingdondan 900 gektarlik (360 gektar) trakt bilan ajratilgan shimoldagi bu yo'l boshqa Aleksandr akasi Filippga meros bo'lib qolgan edi, u Kastislar oilasida qoldi. G.W.P. Bu erni otasidan meros qilib olgan Kustis (Jon Parke Kustis) keyinchalik traktorda o'zi o'stirgan plantatsiyada Arlington uyini qurdi va nomini oldi. [1] [9]

Custis oilasi galereyasi

Yig'layotgan tol Tahrir

Tarixchi Benson J. Lossing va boshqalar 1800-yillarning oxiri- 1900-yillarning boshlarida G.W.P. Kastis Lossingga aytganidek, Jon Park Kustis 1775-1776 yillarda Bostonni qamal qilish paytida Jorj Vashington shtatida xizmat qilgan va u erdagi ingliz kuchlarining elchisi bo'lgan. Bu ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Kastis 5 -chi Viskont Xou general Uilyam Xau shtatida yosh ingliz zobiti bilan do'stlashgan. Massachusets shtatining Kembrij shahrida bo'lganida, ofitser Kastisga yig'lagan tol berdi (Salix babylonica) ofitser Aleksandr Papa Twickenhamda ekilgan mashhur daraxtdan olib tashlagan novdasi va Angliyada birinchi marta. [5]

Ofitser amerikaliklardan tortib oladigan erga daryo bo'yiga yog'langan ipakka o'ralgan tol novdasini ekmoqchi edi. Biroq, qo'shini mag'lubiyatga uchraganidan so'ng, u novdasini Kustiga berishga qaror qildi. [5]

Keyin Kastis novdasini Abingdonga ekdi. Xabar qilinishicha, hosil bo'lgan daraxt hisob -kitoblar chog'ida Qo'shma Shtatlarda o'sadigan barcha yig'lab yotgan tollarning avlodiga aylangan. [5]

Xabarlarga ko'ra, bunday daraxtlardan biri Jorj Vashington Parke Kastis saroyining shimoliy uchi yaqinidagi Arlington milliy qabristoni yonida o'sgan (Arlington uyi). [5] [29] Yana bir xabarga ko'ra, amerikalik general Xoratio Geyts Manxettendagi Rose Hill fermasiga kiraverishda ekib qo'ygan Abingdon tollari parchasidan o'sgan. "Geyts Willow" nomi bilan mashhur bo'lgan daraxt Uchinchi Avenyu va 22 -ko'chaning burchagiga aylangan joyda o'sdi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, daraxt 1860 yilda kesilgan. [5]

Biroq, G.V.P. bilan bog'liq 1840 yilgi gazetadagi ikkita maqola. Kustis daraxtining kelib chiqishi haqida o'sha paytda Arlington uyi yonida turganida, Jon Park Kustis Twickenham tol novdasini "Potomak qirg'og'iga" ekganini, lekin Abingdonni ekish joyi sifatida aniqlamaganini aytdi. [30] XXI asr yozuvchilari bunday hisoblarning to'g'riligiga shubha qilishgan. [31]

Ovchi oilasi tahrirlash

"General" Aleksandr Xanter, 1812 yil urushi paytida Bladensburg jangida, Kolumbiya okrugining ko'ngillilar polkining adyutanti sifatida xizmat qilgan Aleksandrlar oilasining avlodi, Abingdonni Dono oilasidan va boshqalardan sotib oldi. [6] [11] [27] [28] [32] [33] General Xanter boy odam edi, u Iskandariyaning odatiy uyida ishlagan va xabar berishicha, Abingdondagi uyini va mulkini obodonlashtirish va obodonlashtirish uchun ko'p pul sarflagan. [2] [11] [32]

Kolumbiya okrugining AQSh marshali sifatida Xanter Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Prezidenti Endryu Jeksonning do'sti edi. [2] [11] [28] [34] Jekson yakshanba kunlari Abingdonda Hunter mehmoni bo'lish uchun Vashington shahridan tez -tez chiqib turardi. [2] [11] Xanter, Jekson tashriflari chog'ida, ofis qidirish va siyosatni muhokama qilishni taqiqlovchi, qat'iy qoidaga ega edi. [2] [11] General Xanter prezident Jeksondan tashqari Abingdonda prezidentlar Jon Tayler va Jeyms K. Polkni ham qabul qildi. [28] [34]

Abingdon uyining shimoli -sharqiy qismidagi xonani Hunter egalik qilgan paytda "General Vashington xonasi" deb atashgan, chunki Jorj Vashington odatda bu xonani o'gay o'g'li Jon Park Kastisga tashrif buyurganida egallagan. [2] [11] Keyinchalik ba'zi mualliflar general Xanter tashrif buyurganlarga aytganini aytganda, u bundan ham yaxshiroq bino qurmaslikni tanlaganini aytgan, chunki Vashington uchun etarlicha yaxshi uy u uchun yaxshi edi. [2] [11]

General Hunter 1849 yilda vafot etdi, Abingdonni akasi Bushrod Vashington Hunterga ishonib topshirdi, Bushrodning o'g'li Aleksandr Hunter ham voyaga etgunga qadar. [27] [28] [34] Bushrod Hunter ilgari 1846 yilda Meksika -Amerika urushi paytida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari dengiz flotida leytenant bo'lib xizmat qilgan. [32] 1857 yilda Bushrod Hunter G.W.P.ning dafn marosimida tashuvchi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. "Arlington plantatsiyasidagi" uyi Abingdondan unchalik uzoq bo'lmagan Kastis. [35]

Amerika fuqarolar urushi tahriri

1861 yilda Amerika fuqarolar urushi boshlanganda, Bushrod va Aleksandr Hunter (2 -chi) Abingdon plantatsiyasidan chiqib, Konfederatsiya kuchlariga qo'shilishdi. [2] [28] [35] [36] Urush paytida, Nyu -Jersi shtatining Ittifoqi armiyasi Abingdon plantatsiyasini egallab, uni "Kamp Prinston" deb atadi. [6] [28] [36]

1862 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlarining 37 -Kongressi "Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari ichidagi qo'zg'olon tumanlarida to'g'ridan -to'g'ri soliq yig'ish akti" ni qabul qildi. [27] [37] 1864 yilda Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Soliq Komissarlari Abingdonni va uning atrofidagi "Arlington plantatsiyasini" har bir mulk egalari soliqlarini shaxsan to'lamaganidan keyin, ushbu qonun qoidalariga muvofiq musodara qildilar. [27] [35] [38] (Ijarachi mulk egasi (Bushrod Hunter) nomidan Abingdon soliqlarini to'lashni taklif qilgan edi. Biroq, hukumat soliq yig'uvchisi to'lovni qabul qilishdan bosh tortdi.) [39]

Keyin hukumat Abingdon mulkini Avraam Linkoln ma'muriyatidagi G'aznachilik reestri Lucius E. Chittendenga sotdi. [2] [11] [27] [38] Keyin Chittenden mulkni Genri M. Bennetga ijaraga berdi. [27] [39] [40]

1904 yilda Aleksandr Xanter (2) kitob yozdi.Jonni Reb va Billi Yank) u o'z fuqarolar urushi va uning oqibatlari haqidagi xotiralarini yozib oldi. Hunter o'z kitobida otasi (Bushrod Hunter) o'z oilasini Iskandariyaga olib ketganini va 1861 yil aprelda Abingdonni tashlab ketganini aytgan. U Abingdon haqida yozgan, uning tuzilishi va peyzaji urush paytida vayron bo'lgan.

Biz Iskandariya va Vashington o'rtasida, Potomakda, 650 gektarlik ajoyib mulkda yashadik. Butun Janubi -g'arbiy hududda qishloq joyi bor -yo'qligidan shubhalanaman, uy o'z vaqtiga qarshi turgandek, go'zal daraxtlar, mayda bog'lar, terasli maysazorlar, daryo bo'yiga chorak mil narida olib boriladigan toshli sayrlar bilan qurilgan. ajoyib omborxonalar, yaxshi otlar bilan jihozlangan otxonalar (otam, harbiy ofitser, iste'fodagi askar, alohida mehr -muhabbatga ega edi), xizmatkorlar qariyalar oilasi va ularning avlodlari, ellik yoki undan ko'prog'i yashagan. . Bu er urushdan keyin o'sha erda edi, lekin bu hammasi edi. [41]

Fuqarolar urushidan keyingi tahrir

Fuqarolar urushi tugagandan so'ng, Abingdonni meros qilib olgan Aleksandr Xanter (2 -chi), AQSh Oliy sudi 1870 yil 21 martda hal qilgan ishda o'z erini qaytarib olishga muvaffaq bo'ldi.Bennet va Hunter, 76 AQSh 326). [42] Jeyms A. Garfild, Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari Vakillar Palatasining respublikachi a'zosi, fuqarolar urushi paytida Ittifoq armiyasida brigada generali bo'lgan va keyinchalik AQShning 20 -prezidenti bo'lgan, Hunter yuridik advokati bo'lgan. jamoa. [35] [43] [40] [44]

Kongressmen Garfild Aleksandr Xanter 1874 yilda Abington shahri sifatida qurilgan Aleksandriya kanalining g'arbiy qismida joylashgan Abingdonning 43 gektar (17 gektar) qismini kompensatsiya sifatida oldi. [27] [45] Garfild prezidentlikka saylanganidan keyin Oq uyga ko'chib o'tgach, o'z uyida qishloq uyini yaratish jarayonini boshladi. [2] [11] Garfildning vorislari va takomillashtirish kompaniyasi Abingdon mulkining o'sha qismiga 1920 yillarga qadar egalik qilishni davom ettirdi. [2]

Fuqarolar urushidan so'ng, Aleksandr Xanter (2 -chi) 40 yil federal Bosh shtab idorasida xizmatchi sifatida ishlagan. [44] [46] [47] 1877-1879 yillarda u Virjiniya Bosh assambleyasida delegat va Iskandariya okrug kotibi bo'lib ishlagan. [44] [47]

1881 yilda Hunter Abingdonni sotishni e'lon qildi. [28] O'sha yili u Abingdonda qolgan mulkini auktsionda Alfred Richards Brick Companyga sotdi. [44] Bir paytlar Hunter egalik qilgan Abingdon mulklari hozirda Ronald Reygan Vashington milliy aeroporti, Kristal -Siti va Aurora tog'lari mahallasining Aurora tepaliklari qismida joylashgan (qarang: Arlington, Virjiniya mahallalari ro'yxati). [48]

Ovchi va Xyum Tahrirlash

Abingdon sud ishiga aylandi (Ovchi va Xyum) 1891 yil 18 -iyunda Virjiniya Oliy sudi qaror qabul qildi. [49] Aleksandr Xanter (2 -chi) Xumdan Vashington va Iskandariya aylanasi o'rtasida (hozirgi AQSh 1 -yo'nalishida) joylashgan Abingdon erining bahsli bo'lagini qaytarib olishga harakat qildi [50]. sharqda va Iskandariya kanali (hozirgi Janubiy Eads ko'chasi) [45] [51] g'arbda. [49] Sud bu chiziq haqli ravishda Xumga o'tdi, deb qaror qildi. [49]

Sanoatlashtirish tahriri

1896 yilda Vashington, Iskandariya va Vernon tog'li temir yo'llari Abingdon g'arbidagi tashlandiq Iskandariya kanali yonida elektr aravachalarini ishlata boshladi. [51] [52] 1902 yilga kelib, temir yo'l sayyohlar uchun Abingdon va uning yo'nalishi bo'ylab boshqa tarixiy joylarni tasvirlab beradigan buklet tarqatdi. [53] Bukletda Abingdondagi ("Nelli Kustisning tug'ilgan joyi" deb nomlangan) uy tasvirlangan bo'lib, u temir yo'l izlaridan g'isht zavodidan narida bir kilometr narida, Potomak daryosi bo'yida joylashgani aytiladi. [54]

1900 yilda New Washington Brick Company Abingdon mulkini sotib oldi. Kompaniya Vashingtondagi binolarni qurishda ishlatiladigan g'isht ishlab chiqarish uchun Abingdon dala maydonlaridan sariq loydan qazish uchun bug'li belkuraklardan foydalangan [4] 1912 yilda Amerika inqilobining qizlari o'z jurnallarida Abingdonning "Bug'li belkurak asta -sekin yo'q bo'lib ketadi, undan oldin ko'plab zamonaviy diqqatga sazovor joylar qulashi kerak." [4]

Shunga qaramay, Abingdon uyi 1922 yilda g'isht kompaniyasi boshlig'ining qarorgohi bo'lib xizmat qilgan va yaxshi holatda bo'lgan. [2] [55] Vivian Allwine Ford, supertendentning kenja farzandi, 1912 yilda Abingdon uyida tug'ilgan va 1922 yilgacha shu erda yashagan. [55] [56]

Strukturaviy va landshaft arxitekturasi

20-asrning boshlarida mavjud bo'lgan Abingdondagi uy sharq va g'arbga qaragan gruzin uslubidagi yog'ochdan yasalgan ramkaga ega edi. [57] Uy yashil panjara bilan oq rangga bo'yalgan, kestirib tomi shingillagan, old va yon tomonlarida katta daraxtlar tarqalgan. [4] [58]

Sharqiy jabhada Abingdonning asosiy bog'i joylashgan edi, u er asta -sekin Potomak daryosining qirg'og'igacha taxminan besh yuz metr narida qiyalandi. [4] [59] Uning nurlari va tokchalari ikki metr diametrli mustahkam eman daraxtidan edi. [11] Bu balandligi ikki qavatli bo'lib, binoning shimoliy va janubiy chekkalarida qizil g'ishtli bacalar namoyish etilgan. [2] [4]

Buzilish, yonish va barqarorlashtirish Tartibga solish

1922 yilda Lyuis Smoot Abingdon uyini va 158 gektarlik asl mulkni sotib oldi. [60] Smoot uyni o'rab turgan daraxtzor butalarini Vashingtondagi o'z uyining maysazoriga ko'chirdi [60] 1924 yilda Smoot o'z mulkini Richmond, Frederiksburg va Potomak temir yo'llariga (RF va ampP) sotdi, ular temir yo'l hovlisini kengaytirmoqchi edi. (Potomac Yard) mulkka. [60] [61]

1923-1927 yillarda Bekvortlar oilasi a'zolari Abingdon uyini ijaraga olib, erning dehqonchiligi bilan shug'ullangan. [62] Bekvortlar uyni bo'shatgandan so'ng, RF & amp uyni olib tashlash xarajatlarini kamaytirish uchun uy materiallarini sotishga va berishga harakat qildi. [60] [61]

1928 yilga kelib, Abingdon uyi xarobaga aylandi. [52] [60] [63] [64] Tashrif buyurganlar, odamlar yaqin atrofda gulxan yoqishganini, chodir tikayotganini va zavqlanishayotganini, yodgorlik ovchilari esa burchak toshini va bacaning bir qismini olib tashlashganini aytishdi. [63] [65] O'sha yili Vashingtondagi Iskandariya jamiyati RF va AMPdan binoni tiklanishigacha uni kechiktirishni so'radi. [63] Vernon tog'idagi yodgorlik avtomagistrali (hozirgi Jorj Vashington Memorial Parkway) 1929-1932 yillar orasida Abingdon maydonida qurilgan. [52] [66]

1930 yil 5 martda yong'in tiklanmagan Abingdon uyini vayron qildi. [67] Virjiniya qadimiy yodgorliklarini saqlash assotsiatsiyasi (APVA) (hozir "Virjiniya muhofazasi" deb nomlanadi) uyning xarobalarini barqarorlashtirdi. [6] [52] [61] 1933 yilda APVA bu joyni xotirlab, u erga tarixiy belgi qo'ydi. [68]

Bundan tashqari, fuqaro muhofazasi korpusi (CCC) 1930 yillarning boshlarida Jorj Vashington Memorial Parkway medianasida joylashgan Abingdon xarobalari ustida ishlagan. CCC maydonni obodonlashtirdi va to'xtash joyini, yodgorlik uchun beton yostiqni va parkdan xarobalar joyigacha bo'lgan shlakli yo'lni qurdi. The CCC also built a reproduction well cover which was intended to be as close as possible to the design of the well house that was in use when Nelly Custis lived at Abingdon. [69]

For more than 50 years thereafter, the Abingdon ruins remained largely undisturbed, despite the surrounding construction and expansion of Washington National Airport, which opened in 1941, and the construction of the nearby "Nelly Custis Airmen's Lounge". [1] [6] [52] Photographs taken in 1934 and in the 1950s showed the conditions of parts of the ruins during that period, as did a sketch in a pamphlet describing the recently-opened airport that the United States Civil Aeronautics Administration authored in 1941. [70]

Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority Edit

The Federal Aviation Administration of the United States Department of Transportation and other federal agencies owned and operated Washington National Airport until 1987. In that year, the airport was transferred to the newly formed Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority under a 50-year lease that the Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986 (Title VI of Public Laws 99-500 and 99-591) had authorized. As a result, the Airports Authority obtained control of Abingdon's property, while the Federal government held title to the airport's lease. [71]

Two years later, in 1989, the Airports Authority revealed that it was planning to replace the Abingdon ruins with a new parking garage. [72] [73] To comply with the provisions of Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, the Authority commissioned a series of studies that described the history of Abingdon and the archaeological features of the Abingdon site and its surroundings. [74] [75]

The final report of the series, issued in 1991, summarized the studies and examined several alternative treatments of the site. [74] The report stated:

. the Virginia Department of Historic Resources (State historic preservation office) concluded that there was insufficient evidence to link the existing "ruins" with any of the important historic individuals or families reported to have lived on the property. At the present time, there is no concrete evidence on the construction date or history of occupation of the structure represented by the existing ruins. [76]

The 1991 report concluded with a recommendation from the Authority's engineering division that included:

. the undertaking of an appropriate archaeological data recovery program at the site and the construction of a "museum quality" interpretive exhibit to be located within the terminal complex. Once data recovery was performed, parking structure construction would follow. The basis for this recommendation was the intention to avoid an adverse effect to the Abingdon Site (through comprehensive archaeological data recovery and public interpretation program) while at the same time providing the desired amount of parking in the near-terminal area. [77]

The Airports Authority's actions ignited a public preservation effort that culminated in 1992 with legislation that the Virginia General Assembly enacted and that Governor L. Douglas Wilder approved. [78] The legislation required the Airports Authority to "take all steps necessary to insure the preservation in place, the study, and the interpretation to the public" of the Abingdon ruins during a one-year period that followed the law's enactment. [78] [79] During that period, James Wilding, the general manager of the Airports Authority, reported to the Authority's planning committee that multiple options had been identified that would provide adequate parking without having to excavate the Abingdon site. [80]

In 1994, the Airports Authority entered into a Memorandum of Agreement with Virginia and federal officials that assured, among other things, that the resources and historic setting of the site would be protected and that disturbance of the site's archaeological deposits would be avoided during the airport's redevelopment, which was then proceeding. [81] The Authority also issued a March 1994 "Preservation Plan" that summarized the measures that the Authority would take to preserve, repair and protect significant features of the site, while removing other features that the Authority did not consider to be of historical significance. [60] [82]

In 1998, an Airports Authority contractor conducted an archaeological investigation of the Abingdon site, [83] preserved and repaired some of site's remnants and removed others. [84] The Authority relocated some of the artifacts that the contractor had found at the site to a display in a new exhibit hall that the Authority constructed in the airport's original 1941 terminal (Terminal A). [6] [85] [86] A panel in the exhibit hall later reported that archaeologists had recovered over 37,000 artifacts from the Abingdon site since 1988. [87]

The contractor preserved parts of the brick foundations of the Abingdon house and its nearby kitchen, but not all remained visible. [6] [84] [88] The contractor used some of the original foundation's bricks to rebuild a 6 inches (15 cm)-high foundation over a new concrete base. [84] The contractor also used new building materials when restoring portions of the original foundations. [88]

As a result, when the Airports Authority completed the Abingdon site's restoration in 1998, the ruins were reportedly gone, the main foundation looked new and a well had been covered over. [89] Photographs of the reconstructed Abingdon house foundation and kitchen/laundry taken in 2006, 2008 and 2009 illustrated the restoration's condition eight to eleven years later. [90] [91] [92] A group of 2010 photographs also illustrated various features of the renovation and its surroundings. [93]

The Airport Authority's Abingdon Plantation site contains a sequential series of nine historical markers that describe the history of the plantation, its occupants and its site. The Airports Authority erected all but two of these. The markers are:

  • The Ages of Abingdon [58]
  • The Alexander Family [9]
  • Abingdon and John Alexander [10]
  • The Custis Family [22]
  • Abingdon Plantation [88]
  • The Hunter Family [28]
  • The Industrial Age [52]
  • Abingdon [68]
  • Abingdon Plantation Restoration [88]

The airport's Terminal A contains an exhibit hall with panels displaying artifacts excavated at the Abingdon Plantation site. [86] The panels are:

  • Digging Through Layers of Time [87]
  • Daily Life: Colonial Times at Abingdon Plantation [94]
  • Trade Unites Abingdon with the World [95]

The Abingdon Plantation site is located on a knoll between the airport's parking Garage A and Garage B/C. [6] [96] [97] It can be reached by walking from either garage, from the south end of the nearby Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Metrorail station and from the Mount Vernon Bike-Hike Trail. [6] [96]


Historic Latta Plantation

Many times I have stopped at Tuskegee University in Tuskegee Alabama to visit the Lifting the Veil of Ignorance Monument. It is a tribute to Booker T. Washington who founded Tuskegee University. The inscription I love the most is "he lifted the veil of ignorance from his people and pointed the way to progress through education and industry." The statue portrays Booker T. Washington lifting a veil of ignorance from a frightened slave, who is crouched on a plow and anvil depicting tools of agriculture and holding a book, which represents education. Washington sought to bring a better life to his people through education. As Chief Plenty Coups said, “education is your most powerful weapon. With education, you are the white man’s equal without education, you are his victim, and so shall remain all your lives.”

I, Ian Campbell, as an American man of African descent and the new site manager at Historic Latta Plantation, will lift the veil of ignorance. Under my leadership, the Latta staff will assist in this educational endeavor. With the little information that we have about Latta Plantation, also known as Riverside, the stories of those enslaved as well as freedmen will be told. This new narrative will also include the stories of other enslaved men, women, and children on many other plantations in the United States. It will also include the stories of those enslaved and free before, during, and after the American Revolution, the War of 1812, the Mexican American War, the American Civil War and Reconstruction.

For decades Historic Latta Plantation has been focused on two time periods in American history, the American Revolution and the Civil War. That is changing, Latta will now focus on the period of reconstruction as well. Most people have forgotten about this period in our American history. Most educators as well as most of the general public skip this section and move on to the 1900’s or the civil rights movement. Many of the racial issues that we face today are linked to slavery and reconstruction. Just recently, for the first time in their lives, many people just acquired knowledge of the Tulsa Race Massacre. History is not just about one-time period or one group of people. The program “Kingdom Coming” was created by myself, with the help of others. I, Ian Campbell, Site Manager of Historic Latta Plantation take full responsibility for its content entirely! To the masses on social media and politicians, no apology will be given for bringing a unique program to educate the public about former slaves becoming FREE!

The Confederacy will never be glorified, white supremacy will never be glorified, plantation owners, white refugees or overseers will never be glorified. What will be commemorated is the story of our people who overcame being snatched from their loved ones in Mother Africa and taken to a new and strange land. To work from can see to can’t see from birth to death. The fact that they survived and we are here and continue to thrive and prosper will be glorified.

Swing Low Sweet Chariot was used to represent freedom on earth from plantation owners. “What profit has a man from all his labor in which he toils under the sun?” Ecclesiastes 1:3. The profits of these freedmen would go into their pockets and not the pockets of their owners. To tell the story of these freedmen would be pointless if the stories of others were not included. Many of you may not like this but, their lives were intertwined, the stories of massa, the Confederate soldiers, the overseer, the displaced white families. How would we know how the enslaved became free or what their lives were like before freedom came? It didn’t happen with the stroke of a pen. Federal troops came across many of these plantations to enforce federal laws and many of the owners fled. What they couldn’t take with them they left behind, this included many of their enslaved property. Considered offensive for today, the song Kingdom Coming, The Year of Jubilo highlights the perceived enslaved view point. The core point of this program was overlooked by scores of people.

Those formerly enslaved are now freedmen and have taken over the massa’s house, the house they toiled in seven days a week or in many cases on other plantations even built. They are now living high on the hog, bottom rail on top massa. They now control their own destiny, they have the right to decide on what they want to do with their lives, not the plantation owner! This is what made the white supremacist of the period mad, a former slave on equal footing with whites. The right to get legally married, the right to sign a labor contract on their terms and conditions, the right to an education, also having children without fear of them being sold down the river.

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, simply known as the Freedmen’s Bureau, enforced many of these laws to the dismay of the white population. All this was part of what was called reconstruction. History is not always pretty, Juneteenth was chosen because it means freedom to many and it was a time to celebrate and be joyful. With current events that are ongoing, America is still in reconstruction. We have to know where we come from to understand where we are going. It was painful, it still is painful, we have to honor our ancestors for the sake of those that will be conceived.

However, freedom didn’t come in 1865 when General Gordon Grainger announced General Order Number 3 in Galveston, Texas. Many enslaved people began to steal themselves away when the abhorrent practice of slavery was brought to the Americas. As Union troops occupied the south and plantations early in the war, freedom came for many of the enslaved before Juneteenth, this included cities such as New Orleans and plantations on both sides of the mighty Mississippi. Many people complained about Historic Latta not doing anything for Juneteenth. Then when I create a unique event to highlight our successful struggle out of slavery, there is backlash from many who have never visited our historical site. William T. Sherman had a dislike for the media of his day.

I understand what he may have been going through. I by no means will let this deter me and the vision of lifting the veil of ignorance. The event was canceled due to security concerns for volunteers and staff. The media’s corps of yellow journalist had a perfect opportunity to educate, however, they chose to whip the public into a frenzy, it worked. “You never let a serious crisis go to waste. And what I mean by that it's an opportunity to do things you think you could not do before.” Rahm Emanuel. In regards to social media, Chief Justice John Roberts said “in our age, social media can instantly spread rumor and false information on a grand scale.”

It was not until after the social media frenzy that Latta received numerous emails and phone calls about the event. I also received a phone call from Vi Lyles, the mayor of Charlotte. As long as I have been at Historic Latta Plantation as a volunteer, then as a part-time employee, then as the education coordinator, then as the interpretive farm manager, then as site manager, I have never seen Vi Lyles, the Mayor of the great city of Charlotte visit our site or any other influential and prominent government officials. The same applies to NPR, WBTV, the Charlotte observer et al. This applies to some of those citizens in the community that have been offended. Your opinions and concerns

have been respectfully noted. However, after reading this, many of you will still be offended, some will be supportive, thank you.

In closing, my job will be to continue to educate. Historic Latta Plantation’s narrative will be to give a voice to our ancestors enslaved and as freedmen who were denied a voice. We will speak for them in a compassionate, accurate, and sensitive manner.


Lakeport Plantation - History

LAKE VILLAGE – “The Polks’ Plantations and the Creation of Cotton Kingdom in the Old South” will be presented in the latest Lakeport Legacies monthly history talk, Thursday, Sept. 28, at the Lakeport Plantation, 601 Hwy 142, in Lake Village.

The event gets underway at 5:30 p.m. with refreshments and conversation, and the program starts at 6 p.m. The program is free and open to the public. For more information and to register, contact Dr. Blake Wintory, assistant director and facilities manager, at 870-265-6031.

Dr. Kelly Houston Jones, assistant professor of history at Austin Peay State University and specialist in the history of slavery, will make the presentation and discuss her research on the Polk family’s extensive cotton plantations across Tennessee, Mississippi and Arkansas.

The prominent Polk family moved at the center of the historical processes that created “king cotton” in the newest parts of the Old South. Former President James K. Polk, who served from 1845-49, invested in cotton while his relatives ran cotton plantations in the Mississippi Delta. He purchased a plantation in Yalobusha County, Miss., in 1834. A nephew, William Wilson Polk, owned a large plantation at Walnut Bend in Phillips County, Ark., and financed his uncle’s presidential run.
George W. Polk, a cousin of President Polk, co-owned the Hilliard Plantation on Grand Lake in Chicot County. Polk with his brother-in-law, Isaac Hilliard, owned 151 slaves and 550 acres of improved land in 1850. In 1845, he built a magnificent Greek Revival home near Columbia, Tenn., which he named “Rattle and Snap.”

The Polks’ and their business network represent patterns of cotton investment that characterized the late 1840s and early 1850s and built the slave empire of the Old Southwest.

Dr. Jones received her Ph.D. from the University of Arkansas in 2014. Her most recent work will appear later this year in Bullets and Fire: Lynching and Authority in Arkansas, 1840-1950, edited by Guy Lancaster.

Lakeport Legacies is a monthly history talk held on the last Thursday at the Lakeport Plantation during the spring and summer. Each month a topic from the Delta region is featured. The Lakeport Plantation is an Arkansas State University Heritage Site. Constructed in 1859, Lakeport is one of Arkansas’s premier historic structures and still retains many of its original finishes and architectural details.

Open to the public since 2007, Lakeport researches and interprets the people and cultures that shaped plantation life in the Mississippi River Delta, focusing on the antebellum, Civil War and Reconstruction periods.

Arkansas Heritage Sites at Arkansas State University develops and operates historic properties of regional and national significance in the Arkansas Delta. A-State’s Heritage Sites include the Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center, Southern Tenant Farmers Museum, Lakeport Plantation, the Historic Dyess Colony: Boyhood Home of Johnny Cash, and the Arkansas State University Museum.

George W. Polk, a Chicot County planter, completed his home, “Rattle and Snap,” near Columbia, Maury County, Tenn. in 1845.


'The Ancestral Roots of Parchman Farm'

Parchman’s history is rooted in Black suffering.

After the Civil War , the South’s economy, government, and infrastructure were left in compete shambles. Desperate to restore the previous economic and social order and to control the freedom of newly emancipated African Americans, Southern states adopted criminal statutes, collectively known as “Black Codes,” that sought to reproduce the conditions of slavery. These laws are also commonly known as Jim Crow laws.

“The plantation owners, as best they could, wanted Blacks to return to the same place as they had been as slaves,” according to historian David Oshinsky, author of Worse Than Slavery: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice .

In addition to denying Black people the right to vote, serve on juries, and testify against white people, African Americans could be arrested en masse for minor “offenses” such as vagrancy, mischief, loitering, breaking curfew , insulting gestures, cruel treatment to animals , keeping firearms, cohabiting with white people, and not carrying proof of employment — actions which were not considered criminal when done by white people.

In Mississippi, Texas, and other states, legislatures passed “Pig Laws,” which labeled the stealing of a farm animal — or any property valued at more than $10 — “grand larceny,” punishable by five years in prison. Such laws were enforced almost exclusively against Black people, reinforcing the man-made association between Blackness and criminality. “A single instance of punishment of whites under these acts has never occurred,” declared a Tennessee Black convention, “and is not expected.”

While the 13th Amendment abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, it carved out a loophole that allowed for the exploitation of incarcerated people, who were then and now, disproportionately Black.

The amendment abolished slavery and involuntary, “ except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. ” Prisoners — men, women, and hundreds of children as young as 6 or 7 — were then leased to private farmers and business owners who’d previously depended on cheap labor supplied by slaves. By 1880 “at least 1 convict in 4 was an adolescent or a child — a percentage that did not diminish over time,” according to Oshinsky.

For nearly a century, Black children could be bought to serve as laborers for white plantation owners throughout the South. (Image: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, Detroit Publishing Company Collection, LC-D428-850)

States profited substantially from the Black Codes and prisoner leasing system. The number of state prisoners in Mississippi rose from 272 in 1874, the year the “Pig Law” was passed, to 1,072 by 1877.

“They needed a workforce,” Oshinsky wrote in Worse Than Slavery. “The best workforce and the cheapest workforce they could get were convicts who were being arrested for largely minor offenses and then leased out for $9 a month.”

The system was synonymous with violence and brutality, a murderous industry considered “slavery by another name.” In 1882, for instance, nearly 1 in 6 Black prisoners died because, unlike under chattel slavery, lessees had little incentive to safeguard the lives of prisoners. “Different from chattel slavery, ‘It is to be supposed that sub-lessees [take] convicts for the purpose of making money out of them,’ wrote a prison doctor, ‘so naturally, the less food and clothing used and the more labor derived from their bodies, the more money in the pockets of the sub-lessee’,” Oshinsky wrote.

Working prisoners to literal death was so commonplace that “not a single leased convict ever lived long enough to serve a sentence of ten years or more,” he wrote.

Due to shifts in the political and economic landscapes , prisoner leasing faded in the early 20 th century, but in its place rose Parchman Farm in Mississippi, Angola prison in Louisiana, and hundreds of other county camps — prisons that used racial oppression to create a supply of forced labor.

Darrill Henry Walks out of Angola Prison After More Than 15 Years of Wrongful Imprisonment


Lakeport Plantation - History

The Arkansas State University Heritage Sites Office develops and operates historic properties of regional and national significance in the Arkansas Delta. These sites provide educational resources for formal and informal learning, including serving as living laboratories for students in the university’s Heritage Studies Ph.D. dastur. In addition, they serve as economic catalysts in communities where they are located by attracting heritage tourists from around the country.

A-State Heritage Sites also serves as an administrative agent for Arkansas Delta Byways, the official non-profit regional tourism promotion association serving fifteen counties in the Arkansas Delta. These include Arkansas, Chicot, Clay, Craighead, Crittenden, Cross, Desha, Drew, Greene, Lee, Mississippi, Monroe, Phillips, Poinsett and St. Francis counties. A-State Heritage Sites has been instrumental in developing and promoting two National Scenic Byways that traverse this region: the Crowley’s Ridge Parkway and the Arkansas segment of the 10-state Great River Road, which runs along both sides of the Mississippi River, from its headwaters at Lake Itasca, Minnesota to the Gulf of Mexico.

Historic Dyess Colony: Johnny Cash Boyhood Home

Administration Building exhibits tell the story of this New Deal agricultural resettlement colony, while the Cash Home is furnished as it appeared when the Cash family lived there.

Hemingway-Pfeiffer Museum and Educational Center

This Piggott site includes the restored barn studio where Ernest Hemingway wrote portions of A Farewell to Arms, as well as the family home of his second wife, Pauline Pfeiffer.

Lakeport Plantation

This structure near Lake Village is Arkansas's only remaining antebellum plantation home on the Mississippi River and retains many of its original decorative finishes. Exhibits tell stories of those who lived and worked there.

Southern Tenant Farmers Museum

This museum is located in the historic Mitchell-East Building in Tyronza, which housed the businesses of two of the organizers of the nation's first integrated agricultural union, established in 1934.

Rohwer Japanese American Relocation Center

Some 8,000 Japanese Americans were interned at Rohwer during World War II. Audio exhibits on site and a museum at McGehee preserve their memories.

Historic V.C. Kays House

The home of A-State's first president is being restored to include a replica of the office of former Arkansas Governor Mike Beebe, as well as exhibits related to President Kays and Senator Hattie Caraway.

Arkansas Delta Byways

Arkansas Delta Byways, the 15-county regional tourism promotion association for Eastern Arkansas, is crisscrossed by two National Scenic Byways: the Crowley's Ridge Parkway and the Great River Road.

Heritage Studies Ph.D. Program

Arkansas State University Heritage Sites provide opportunities for research, independent study, practicums, field work, and hands-on experience for students in A-State's Heritage Studies degree program.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Main street Lakeport California (Yanvar 2022).