Mona Lizaning o'g'irlanishi "asrning san'at merosxo'ri" deb nomlangan, lekin bu asarning o'zi juda oddiy edi. 1911 yil 20 -avgust, yakshanba kuni kechqurun mo'ylovli kichkina odam Parijdagi Luvr muzeyiga kirib, Da Vinchining rasmlari boshqa bir qancha usta asarlari bilan birga saqlanadigan salon saloniga yo'l oldi. Muzeyda xavfsizlik sust edi, shuning uchun u odamni saqlash shkafi ichiga joylashtirish oson edi. Ertasi kuni ertalabgacha Luvr yopildi va piyoda tiqilinchgacha u erda yashirinib qoldi. Ertalabki soat 7:15 atrofida u oq apronda - muzey xodimlari kiygan kiyimda paydo bo'ldi. Sohil toza yoki yo'qligini tekshirgandan so'ng, o'g'ri Mona Lizaga yaqinlashdi, uni devordan olib, yaqinidagi xizmat ko'rsatish zinapoyasiga olib bordi va u erda yog'och tuvalini himoya oynali ramkadan olib tashladi.
U zinapoyadan hovliga chiqmoqchi bo'lganida, o'g'rining rejasidagi yolg'iz to'siq paydo bo'ldi. Eshik qulflanganini bilib, u oq choyshabga o'ralgan Mona Lizani erga qo'ydi va eshik tutqichini echishga harakat qildi. Luvr chilangarlaridan biri zinapoyada paydo bo'lishidan oldin u ozgina yutuqlarga erishdi. Biroq, chilangar uni qo'lga olishning o'rniga, odamni tuzoqqa tushib qolgan hamkasbiga oldi va eshikni ochishda yordam berdi. Do'stona minnatdorchilik bilan o'g'ri qochib ketdi. Bir necha daqiqadan so'ng, u Luvrdan valsga tushdi va dunyoning eng qimmat rasmlaridan birini apron ostiga qo'ydi.
Bir kundan ko'proq vaqt davomida Luvr xodimlari Mona Lizani o'g'irlangani haqida hech qanday ma'lumotga ega emas edilar. Muzey rasmlari tez -tez tozalash yoki suratga olish uchun devorlardan olib tashlangan, shuning uchun yo'lovchilar odatda portret joylashgan bo'sh joyni sezmagan. Nihoyat, seshanba kuni tushga yaqin, tashrif buyurgan rassom qo'riqchidan rasmni kuzatishni so'radi. Qo'riqchi uni topa olmagach, muzey politsiyani chaqirib, qattiq qidiruvni boshladi. Aynan o'shanda xizmat zinapoyasida Mona Lizaning shisha ramkasi topilgan. O'sha kuni kechqurun muzey xodimi dunyoga o'g'rilikni e'lon qildi. "Mona Liza ketdi", dedi u. "Hozircha biz bu jinoyatni kim qilgan bo'lishi mumkinligi haqida aniq ma'lumotga ega emasmiz."
Yo'qolgani haqidagi xabar Frantsiyada ommaviy noroziliklarga sabab bo'ldi. "Qaysi jasur jinoyatchi, qanday sirli, qanday manyak kollektor, qanday jinni oshiq bu o'g'irlikni sodir etgan?" - hayron bo'ldi Parijning L'Illustration jurnali. Dedektivlar armiyasi Luvrga tushib, barmoq izlarini tozalash va guvohlarni so'roq qilishdi. Nazorat-o'tkazish punktlarida avtomobillar, bug'li yo'lovchilar va piyodalar tintuv qilindi, politsiya Mona Lizaning sirli tabassumining "qidiruvdagi plakatlarini" tarqatdi. Luvr nihoyat bir haftadan so'ng qayta ochilganda, minglab odamlar rasm ilgari osilgan bo'sh devorni tomosha qilish uchun kelishdi.
Ommaviy axborot vositalariga qaramay, politsiya tergovi bir nechta umidli natijalarni topdi. Taniqli gumonchilardan biri, bir vaqtlar Luvrni yoqib yuborishga chaqirgan avangard shoir Giyom Apollineyer edi. Apollineyer 1911 yil sentyabr oyida politsiya uni kotibi tomonidan Luvrdan olib qo'yilgan ikkita qadimiy haykalchani o'g'irlanishi bilan bog'laganidan keyin hibsga olingan. So'roq paytida u 29 yoshli ispaniyalik rassom, yaqin do'sti Pablo Pikassoni aybladi, u haykalchalarni sotib olgan va ularni rasmlarida namuna sifatida ishlatgan. Hokimiyat Apollineyer va Pikassoni Mona Lizaning yo'qolishi munosabati bilan so'roq qilganda, kelajakda ikkita san'at afsonasi dalil yo'qligi sababli tozalandi.
Kunlar oylarga aylanar ekan, Mona Lizaning qaerdaligi haqidagi mish -mishlar avj oldi. "Nyu -York Tayms" yozishicha, "ko'p sonli fuqarolar havaskor Sherlok Xolmsesga aylanishdi va g'ayrioddiy nazariyalarni ilgari surmoqdalar". Ba'zilar, amerikalik bank magnati J.P. Morgan o'zining shaxsiy san'at kollektsiyasini mustahkamlash uchun o'g'rilikka buyruq berganini ta'kidlashdi; boshqalar esa nemislar frantsuzlarni sharmanda qilish uchun uyushtirgan deb ishonishgan. Go'yoki kuzatuvlar Braziliya, Rossiya va Yaponiya kabi uzoq joylardan filtrlangan, biroq ikki yildan ko'proq vaqt o'tgach, bu ishda tanaffus bo'lmagan. Ko'pchilik Da Vinchining 400 yillik asari abadiy yo'qolganiga ishonishni boshladilar.
Politsiyadan bexabar, Mona Liza hali ham Frantsiyada edi. Aslida, u o'g'irlangan kundan boshlab, Parij chetidagi bir xonali kvartirada yotardi. Uning o'g'ri bir vaqtlar Luvrda usta bo'lib ishlagan italiyalik muhojir Vincenzo Peruggia edi. U hatto Mona Lizaning himoya ramkasini qurishda yordam bergan. 1911 yil avgustda rasm chizilganidan so'ng, 29 yoshli yigit uni uyida yog'och tubiga soxta taglik bilan yashirib qo'ydi. Luvrning sobiq xodimi sifatida u ikki marta o'g'irlik haqida so'roq qilingan, biroq politsiya uni jiddiy gumonlanuvchi deb hisoblamagan. Peruggiya Mona Lizani ikki yil yashirib qo'ydi, u issiqning o'chishini kutdi. "Men har kuni kechqurun uning tabassumi qurboniga aylandim va xazinamga ko'z tikardim", dedi u. "Men unga oshiq bo'ldim."
1913 yil dekabrda Peruggiya o'zining "xazinasini" sotishga urinib ko'rdi. "Leonard" taxallusidan foydalanib, u Florensiyalik san'at sotuvchisi Alfredo Geriga xat yubordi va unga Mona Lizani o'g'irlab ketganini va uni vataniga qaytarishni xohlayotganini ma'lum qildi. Italiya Uffizi galereyasi direktori Jovanni Poggi bilan uchrashgandan so'ng, Geri Peruggiyani Florensiyaga taklif qildi va rasmni ko'rib chiqishga rozi bo'ldi. Bir necha kundan so'ng, uch kishi Perugjiyaning mehmonxona xonasida to'planishdi, u erda u qizil ipak bilan o'ralgan sirli buyumni yasadi. "Biz uni to'shakka qo'ydik, - deb yozdi keyinchalik Geri, - va hayratlangan ko'zlarimizga ilohiy Mona Liza ko'rinib turibdi, buzilmagan va ajoyib tarzda saqlanib qolgan." Florentsiyaliklar darhol rasmni Uffiziga olib borishni kelishdilar. Ular, shuningdek, Perugjiyaning 500 ming liralik sotish narxiga rozi bo'lishdi, lekin ular aslida Mona Lizani sotib olish niyatida emas edi. Portretni tasdiqlagandan so'ng, ular o'g'ri haqida rasmiylarga xabar berishdi. 1913 yil 11 dekabr kuni tushdan keyin politsiya Perugjiyani o'z mehmonxonasida hibsga oldi.
Da Vinchining vatani bo'ylab qisqa sayohatdan so'ng, Mona Liza nihoyat 1914 yil yanvar oyida Luvrga qaytarildi. Perugjiya esa o'g'irlikda ayblanib, Italiyada sudga tortildi. Guvohlik paytida u milliy g'urur uni Napoleon davrida ona Italiyadan talon -taroj qilingan rasmni o'g'irlashga undaganini da'vo qilgan. Perugjiya yanglishdi - Da Vinchi 1516 yilda Frantsiyaga Mona Lizani olib kelgan edi, keyinchalik qirol Fransua I uni qonuniy ravishda sotib olgan edi, lekin vatanparvarlik himoyasi unga ko'plab muxlislarni qozondi. Prokuratura u rasmni san'at dilerlariga sotib, foyda ko'rish uchun sotmoqchi bo'lganini isbotlaganidan keyin ham, ko'plab italiyaliklar uni milliy qahramon deb bilishgan. Oxir -oqibat, u bir yilu 15 kunlik qamoq jazosiga hukm qilindi, ammo apellyatsiya tartibida ozodlikka chiqishiga etti oy qolgan. Keyinchalik u Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Italiya armiyasida jang qilib, Frantsiyaga qaytib keldi va 1925 yilda vafot etdi.
Oxir -oqibat Perugjiya unutilgan bo'lsa -da, uning jasur jinoyati Mona Lizani yanada mashhur qildi. Luvrga qaytarilganidan keyingi dastlabki ikki kun ichida rasmni ko'rish uchun kamida 120 ming kishi borgan. San'at ixlosmandlari va tanqidchilari uning mavzusining sirli tabassumi haqida yangi mish -mishlarga kirishdilar va unga son -sanoqsiz multfilmlar, reklamalar, parodiyalar, otkritkalar va qo'shiqlarda havola qilingan. "Mona Liza Luvrni badiiy asar deb qoldirdi", deb yozadi keyinchalik yozuvchi Dayan Xelz. "U ommaviy mulk sifatida qaytib keldi, bu birinchi ommaviy san'at belgisi." Bugungi kunda dunyodagi eng taniqli rasm Luvrda qolmoqda, u erda o'q o'tkazmaydigan shisha bilan himoyalangan iqlim nazorati ostida qutiga osilgan. U har yili 8 millionga yaqin sayyohni qabul qiladi.
6 ta soxta Mona Lisaning kashfiyotiga mashhur san'at olami qanday olib keldi?
So'nggi besh ming yillikda insoniyat tsivilizatsiyasi juda ko'p o'zgardi, lekin bizning soxtalik, firibgarlik va flimflamga bo'lgan instinktimiz nisbatan barqaror bo'lib qolganga o'xshaydi. Ularning yangi kitobida Yolg'on: aldash tarixi (Black Dog & amp Leventhal), Yan Tattersall va Piter Nevraumont 5000 yillik urinishlarimizni boshqalarni aldashlar va har qanday ta'riflarning chayqalishi bilan aldashga harakat qilmoqdalar. Bu parcha Leonardo da Vinchining eng mashhur portretlaridan bir emas, balki oltitasini qamrab olgan badiiy ijodkorlikni ochib beradi.
Leonardo da Vinchi Mona Liza bu katta farq bilan, Uyg'onish davri dunyodagi eng mashhur rasm. Parijdagi Luvr muzeyining faxri, bugungi kunda tashrif buyuruvchilarga yaxshi qarash qiyin. Nafaqat og'ir tayanchlar va baxmal arqon san'at ixlosmandlarini chetlab o'tibgina qolmay, balki telefonni ko'rsatadigan sayyohlarning to'dasi ham xuddi shu narsani yanada samarali bajaradi. Siz yaqin atrofdagi Leonardoni diqqat bilan o'rganishingiz mumkin Avliyo Anna bilan Bokira va bola yaqin va oqilona xotirjamlikda, siz bir qarashdan ko'ra ko'proq narsani ushlaganingiz uchun baxtlisiz Mona Liza to'plangan olomonning boshi uzra. Va bu shunchaki rasmga qoyil qolish uchun kerak: elektron himoyasi va doimiy aylanib yuruvchi soqchilari bilan ramziy asarni o'g'irlash deyarli aqlga sig'maydi.
Xavfsizlik standartlari ancha sust bo'lgan paytda, 1911 yil 22 -avgust, seshanba kuni tushga yaqin, muzey xodimlari dahshatga tushishdi. Mona Liza u galereya devoridagi joyidan g'oyib bo'ldi. Luvr zudlik bilan yopildi va bir daqiqa tintuv qilindi (rasmning bo'sh ramkasi zinapoyadan topildi), Frantsiyaning portlari va sharqiy quruqlik chegaralari barcha ketayotgan transport tekshirilmaguncha yopildi. Hech qanday foyda yo'q. Shoir Giyom Apollineyerning ham, o'sha paytdagi yosh rassom Pablo Pikassoning ham vaqtinchalik aralashuviga olib kelgan shiddatli tergovdan so'ng, faqat mish-mishlar qoldi: jilmaygan ayol Rossiyada, Bronksda, hatto bankir JP Morganning uyida edi. .
Ikki yildan so'ng, rasm Florensiyalik san'at sotuvchisi Luvr bilan bog'lanib, uni o'g'ri tomonidan taklif qilinganini aytgandan keyin tiklandi. Ikkinchisi Luvr muzeyida muzeyning ko'plab asarlarini shisha ostida himoya qilish dasturida ishlagan italiyalik rassom Vinchenso Peruggia bo'lib chiqdi.Vinsent Perugjiya yilnomalar kitobidan/Alamy
Peruggiya politsiyaga xabar berishicha, dushanba kuni ertalab o'g'rilik ochilishidan oldin - muzey yopiq bo'lgan kuni u Luvrga ishchi kiyimida kirgan. Ichkariga kirgach, u yo'l tomon yo'l oldi Mona Lizauni devordan olib, ramkasidan chiqarib tashladi, uni ishchisining tayog'iga o'rab, qo'ltig'iga olib chiqdi. Boshqa bir versiyada Perugjiya muzey shkafida bir kecha -kunduz yashiringan, lekin har qanday holatda ham vayronagarchilikning o'zi juda oddiy va tushunarli ish bo'lgan.
Ko'rinib turibdiki, Perugjiyaning motivlari biroz chalkashroq edi. Politsiyaga aytgan hikoyasi, uni qaytarishni xohlagani edi Mona Liza Italiyaga, u va uning vatani, rasm Napoleon tomonidan talon -taroj qilinganiga ishongan holda, uning qo'shinlari haqiqatan ham ular bosqinchilik qilgan ko'plab mamlakatlarda shunga o'xshash jinoyatlar qilgan.
Ammo, agar u o'z hikoyasiga ishongan bo'lsa ham, Perugjiya o'z tarixini butunlay noto'g'ri deb hisoblagan. Chunki 1503 yilda qirol Fransua I saroy rassomi bo'lgan Leonardoning o'zi tugallanmagan rasmni Frantsiyaga olib kelgan. 1519 yilda Leonardo Loire vodiysida vafot etganidan keyin. Mona Liza qonuniy ravishda qirollik kollektsiyalari uchun sotib olingan.
Shunday qilib, 1932 yilda, bu unchalik qiyin emasdek tuyuldi Shanba oqshomi Maqolada, jurnalist Karl Dekker, bu ish haqida boshqacha ma'lumot berdi. Dekerning so'zlariga ko'ra, o'zini Eduardo deb atagan argentinalik jinoyatchi Markes de Valferno unga Peruggiya o'g'irlanishini uyushtirganini aytgan. Mona Liza. Va u rasmni olti marta sotgan!
Valfiernoning rejasi juda puxta ishlab chiqilgan bo'lib, u o'g'irlangan rasmni aynan takrorlay oladigan, malakali usta xizmatidan foydalanishni o'z ichiga oladi. Mona LizaMasalan, uning yaratuvchisi ishlatgan sirt sirining ko'p qatlamlariga qadar. Dekkerning so'zlariga ko'ra, Valfierno bunday firibgarlikni bir necha bor sotmagan, balki o'g'irlikdan oldin potentsial xaridorlarning haqiqiy narsaga ega bo'lishlariga ishonchini oshirish uchun ishlatgan.
Firibgar qurbonni ommaviy san'at galereyasiga olib borib, uni o'g'irlanishi rejalashtirilgan rasmning orqa tomoniga yashirincha belgi qo'yishga taklif qiladi. Keyinchalik Valfierno unga o'g'irlangan va uning o'rniga nusxa qo'yilgan tuvalni sovg'a qildi.
Bu hiyla -nayrang asl nusxaning haqiqiy rasmining orqasida yashirincha joylash va xaridor o'z belgisini qo'llaganidan keyin uni olib tashlash orqali amalga oshirildi. Valfiernoning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu hayratlanarli darajada samarali savdo-sotiq hiylasi edi: Shunday qilib, u o'z hisobiga o'g'irlanishi rejalashtirilgan mahsulotni oldindan sotishga muvaffaq bo'ldi. Mona Liza Qo'shma Shtatlarning olti xil xaridoriga, ularning hammasi nusxalarini olgan.Muzey xodimlari (haqiqiy) Mona Liza Florensiyaga qaytganidan so'ng, 1913 yilda Italiyaning Uffizi galereyasi. Telegraf, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
Bu nusxalar Luvrda jinoyat sodir etilgunga qadar, hech kim ularni qidirmagan paytda, Amerikaga yashirincha olib kirilgan edi va yaxshi e'lon qilingan o'g'rilikning o'zi, ular katta miqdorda pul evaziga markalarga topshirilganda, ularning haqiqiyligini tasdiqladi. naqd pul.
Valfiernoning so'zlariga ko'ra, bularning barchasida asosiy muammo o'g'irlanganlarni o'g'irlagan Perugjiya bo'lib chiqdi Mona Liza undan olib, uni Italiyaga qaytarib oldi. Shunday bo'lsa -da, u rasmni u erga tashlamoqchi bo'lganida, Perugjiya vatanparvar o'g'ri bo'lish haqidagi o'z hikoyasini buzmasdan, Valfiernoni ayblay olmadi. Xuddi shunday, qachon asl nusxada Mona Liza Luvrga qaytarildi, Valfiernoning xaridorlari bu nusxa deb taxmin qilishlari mumkin edi va har holda, ular shikoyat qila olmasdilar.
Dekkerning Valfiernoning g'ayrioddiy hiyla -nayranglari haqidagi hikoyasi shov -shuvga sabab bo'ldi va u tezda haqiqat sifatida qabul qilindi. Mona LizaNing yo'qolishi. Ehtimol, bu ajablanarli emas, chunki Perugjiyaning prozaik hisobi, qandaydir tarzda, Uyg'onish davri badiiy yutug'ining ramzi uchun juda oddiy ko'rinadi. Valfiernoning yanada jozibali versiyasi ko'pchilik tomonidan ishonilgan va hozirgacha qayta -qayta takrorlanmoqda, shu jumladan oxirgi ikkita kitobda.
Shunga qaramay, Decker bilan bog'liq ko'plab muammolar mavjud Shanba oqshomi hisob, shu jumladan Valfiernoning haqiqatan ham borligini hech kim hech qachon aniq ko'rsata olmaganligi (garchi siz uning rasmini Google -da ko'rsatsangiz ham). Yo'qolib ketishida faqat Perugjiyaning roli Mona Liza juda aniq ko'rinadi. Shunga qaramay, Valfierno o'z hisobini soxtalashtirgani yoki Dekker uni ham, uning hisobotini ham uydirgani havoda qolmoqda. Mona Liza Luvrda osilgan narsa, ehtimol, asl nusxadir.
O'tgan oy Nyu -York shahrining eng yirik zargarlik buyumlari o'g'irlanishining 50 yilligi nishonlandi. 1964 yil 29 oktyabrda Jek "Merf Surf" Merfi va er -xotin do'stlari Amerika tabiat tarixi muzeyiga kirib, sayyoradagi eng yirik, eng mashhur va qimmatbaho toshlar va qimmatbaho toshlar bilan yo'lga chiqishdi. Keyinchalik ulkan Hindiston yulduzi topildi (Mayami avtostantsiyasidagi shkafdan), lekin boshqalar hech qachon topilmagan.
O'g'rilikning eng aqldan ozgan qismi bu qanchalik oson edi. Muzeyda umuman xavfsizlik yo'q edi, zargarlik xonasidagi deraza odatda shamollatish uchun ochilgan edi hech kim o'g'rilik signalizatsiyasi ishladi. Mehmonxonada shubhali dabdabali ziyofatlar uyushtirilishidan oldin ikki kun mobaynida ular talon -taroj qilishdan zavqlanishganini hisobga olsak, bu bozoslar qanday qilib jinoyatni olib tashlashlari mumkinligini tushuntirib beradi. (Rasm Dinoguy2 CC BY-SA 2.5 orqali)
Mona Lizani mashhur qilgan jinoyat - TARIX
Wikimedia Commons Vincenzo Peruggia, sobiq Luvr ustasi “Mona Liza. ”
Leonardo da Vinchi-o'zining ilmiy va badiiy dahosi bilan tarixning eng taniqli shaxslaridan biri. Va uning eng mashhur rasmlari-"Mona Liza"-"Luvr" ning sobiq xodimi Vinsenso Perugjaning qo'pol o'g'irlanishi bo'lmasa, bugungi kunda biz biladigan ajoyib asar bo'lmasligi mumkin.
1911 yil 21 -avgust kuni ertalab Luvrga kirganida, Perugjiya 30 yoshga to'lganidan uyalgandi. U ilgari muzeyda usta bo'lib ishlagani uchun hech qanday shubha uyg'otmagan va u kiyim kiyib olgan edi. o'sha paytda kiyilgan.
U Da Vinchining hayratlanarli darajada kichkina rasmlari osilgan qanoti bo'sh qolganini kutib turdi, shundan so'ng u qo'lini cho'zdi, yog'och panelni devordan ko'tarib, yaqinidagi xizmat zinapoyasiga olib bordi. U erda 30 dan 21 dyuymgacha bo'lgan rasmni cho'ntagiga o'rab, qo'ltig'iga tiqdi va tashqariga chiqdi.
Wikimedia Commons The “Mona Lisa ”, uning eng kam bajarilgan rasmlaridan biri bo'lishiga qaramay, Da Vinchi va Salvator Mundining keyingi eng qimmatbaho rasmlaridan ikki baravar qimmatroq.
Ikki yil o'tgach, Perugjiya Italiya chegarasi bo'ylab rasmni jonlantirdi va uni Florensiyadagi galereyachi Alfredo Geriga taklif qildi va Perugjiya darhol hibsga olindi.
Nega u hozir mashhur bo'lgan rasmni o'g'irlab ketganini so'rashganda, u buni vatanparvarlik tufayli qilganini da'vo qilib, uni 1790-yillarda Napoleon qo'shinlari tomonidan talon-taroj qilingan deb ishongan. Rasm aslida 1516 yilda Frantsiya qiroliga sovg'a sifatida berilgan.
Bu motivatsiya baribir shubhali bo'lib tuyuldi, chunki Peruggiya rasm uchun Evridan pul so'ragan. Peruggiya motivatsiyasidan qat'i nazar, "Mona Liza" filmi 1913 yilda Luvrga qaytishdan oldin butun Italiyada namoyish etilgan.
Ajablanarlisi shundaki, Peruggiya uni o'g'irlab ketganda, “Mona Liza ” da Vinchining eng kam ma'lum bo'lgan, eng ta'sirli va eng qimmat bo'lmagan asarlaridan biri edi. Biroq, uning mayda o'g'irligi hammasini o'zgartirib yubordi. Bugungi kunda u kamida 860 million dollarga baholanmoqda, bu tarixdagi har qanday rasm uchun eng yuqori sug'urta qiymati.
100 yil oldin: Mona Liza Heistning orqasida turgan usta
1913 yil dekabrda Mona Lizani o'g'irlagan odam qo'lga olinganda, u Italiya politsiyasiga yolg'iz harakat qilganini aytgan. Lekin hikoya Xabar jurnalist Karl Dekker, potentsial sherigidan eshitgan gapi, agar u haqiqatan ham rost bo'lsa, ancha murakkab va ayyorroq edi.
Haftalik axborot byulleteni
Eng yaxshisi Shanba oqshomi pochta qutingizga!
Leonardo da Vinchining Mona Liza portreti
Yuz yil oldin, shu hafta, Italiyaning Florensiya shahri politsiyasi ikki yil oldin Luvrdan o'g'irlangan Mona Lizani topganliklarini e'lon qildi. Ular, shuningdek, o'g'rini - dunyodagi eng mashhur san'at o'g'irligining uyushtiruvchisini qo'lga olishdi.
Ammo aybdor, Vinchenzo Perugia, jinoyatchi daho emas edi va o'g'irlik ko'p millionli san'at merosi emas edi. Perugiya italiyalik vatanparvar edi, u Da Vinchining rasmini Napoleon tomonidan Italiyadan olib kelinganiga ishonib, o'z vataniga qaytarishni xohlagan. (Darhaqiqat, Da Vinchi rasmni frantsuz qiroli Frensis I ga, uning saroy rassomi bo'lganidan keyin bergan.)
Obuna bo'ling va bizning onlayn jurnal arxivimizga cheksiz kirish huquqiga ega bo'ling.
Sud jarayonida Perugia o'g'irlikni qanday boshqarganini aytib berdi. Luvrda bir necha yil ishlagan, uning tuzilishi, xavfsizligi va texnik xodimlari bilan yaxshi tanish edi. U, shuningdek, Luvr dushanba kuni texnik xizmat ko'rsatish uchun jamoatchilikka yopiq bo'lganini bilar edi. Shunday qilib, u yakshanba kuni tushdan keyin Luvrga kirdi va bir kechada supurgi shkafiga qulflandi.
Ertasi kuni ertalab u ishchining smokini kiydi va Mona Liza osilgan salonga, sezilmay kirib ketdi. Galereya hech qanday texnik xodimlardan bo'sh bo'lganida, u rasmni devordan tushirdi va zinapoyaga shoshildi. U erda u rasmni ramkadan yiqitdi, ustidan paltosini tashladi va yugurish ishtiyoqiga qarshi kurashgani uchun shunchaki ketib qoldi.
Hozirda Italiyada vatanparvar deb hisoblangan Perugiya Italiya sudida engil jazo oldi. Rasm Parijga qaytishdan oldin qisqa muddat gastrolga chiqdi. Va bu, ehtimol, hikoyaning oxiri edi. Guruh yo'q. Aniq talon -taroj yo'q. Rasmni ajoyib summaga sotish sxemasi yo'q. Boshliq yo'q. Yoki u erda bo'lganmi?
Bir yil o'tgach, jurnalist Karl Dekker Kasablankadagi barda eski tanishi bilan o'tirgan edi: Eduardo, Markes de Valfierno, muvaffaqiyatli firibgar. Dekkerning tasodifiy izohi Valfieroni Mona Lizani o'g'irlashni rejalashtirgan odam ekanligini tan olishga undadi.
Uning rejasi rasmni hech qachon qo'yib yubormasdan, rasmni bir marta emas, balki qayta -qayta sotish bo'lgan.
Uning rejasining kaliti "rasm chizgan rassomning har bir hiyla -nayrangini, cho'tkasi bilan urishlarni takrorlaydigan, ranglarning uyg'unligi, nusxasi va asl nusxasini ajratib bo'lmaydigan har bir hiyla -nayrangni" qo'lga kirita oladigan mohir soxta odam edi. Ammo Valfierno rasmni takrorlash soxta san'atni sotishda eng katta qiyinchilik emasligini tushundi. Ko'plab xaridorlar faqat Murbroni Rembrandtdan sanab o'tadigan san'atning qiymatiga qiziqish bildirishdi. Haqiqiy qiyinchilik xaridorlarga nima uchun ular sotib olgan o'g'irlangan rasmni hali ham uning galereyasida ko'rish mumkinligini tushuntirish edi. Valfierno bu e'tirozni sotib oluvchiga uning nusxasi ekanligiga ishontirish orqali oldi.
Keyinchalik u sotilgan qalbakilashtirishning "haqiqiy" ekanligini isbotlash uchun yanada ishonchli usulni ishlab chiqdi. U xaridorni umumiy galereyaga kuzatib qo'yadi va uni o'g'irlashni taklif qilgan rasmga olib boradi. Hech kim qaramaganida, Valfierno xaridorga rasm ramkasini ko'tarib, tuvalning orqa tomoniga qalam bilan belgi qo'yishni buyurdi. Bir hafta o'tgach, Valfierno xaridorga rasmni olib keladi va u erda, xaridorning asl belgisi bor edi.
Valfiernoning aytishicha, bu hiyla -nayrang, rasmga oldindan kirish edi, u soxta nusxani rasm ramkasining ichiga qo'yib yubordi, shunda u asl nusxaning orqasida qoldi. Xaridor kelganida, u qalbakilashtirishning orqa tomoniga belgi qo'yar edi. Xaridor ketgandan so'ng, Valfierno qalbakilashtirishni ramkadan chiqarib tashladi va asl nusxasi tegmagan holda qoldi, xaridor bu nusxa deb hisobladi.
Bu hiyla juda muvaffaqiyatli bo'ldi, Valfierno undan ham foydali sxemani o'ylab topdi. Nega chinakam afsonaviy rasmni sotishga urinmasligingiz kerak? Nega Mona Liza emas? Va nega uni bir necha marta sotmaysiz?
Valfierno Amerikada o'g'irlangan Mona Liza uchun millionlab pul to'lashga tayyor oltita alohida san'at kollektsionerini topdi. Keyin Valfiernoning qalbakilari Mona Lizaning oltita qalbaki rasmini chizdi. 1911 yil boshida, qalbaki qalbakilar diqqatni jalb qilmaslik uchun Nyu -York bojxonasidan birma -bir olib o'tilgan. Keyin Valfierno Vinchenzo Perugiyani ikkita sherigi bilan birga Luvrga yubordi.
Valjerno Dekkerga aytganidek, Perugiyaga qo'shimcha erkaklar kerak edi, chunki "og'irligi - panel, beshik, ramka, soyali quti va shisha - qariyb ikki yuz yigirma funt".
Rasm Valfiernoning qo'lida bo'lganida, u Nyu -Yorkdagi sheriklariga xaridorlarga murojaat qilib, rasm yo'lda ekanligini aytishni buyurdi. Mona Lizaning ommaviy tarzda g'oyib bo'lishi, xaridorlarni asl nusxasini sotib olishga ishontirdi. Pul Amerikadan qaytgandan so'ng, to'da o'ljani ikkiga bo'lib, ajralib ketishdi.
Rejadagi yagona muammo Perugiya edi. U yana Mona Lizani Valfiernodan o'g'irladi va uni sotish niyatida Italiyaga olib ketdi. Qo'lga tushganda, u Valfierno, uning sheriklari, qalbaki firibgarlari yoki xaridorlari haqida hech narsa demadi, chunki bu alibi vatanparvar o'g'ri bo'lishidan qo'rqadi.
Asl nusxa Parijga qaytarilgach, amerikalik xaridorlar bu oddiy qalbakilik deb o'ylashlari mumkin edi. Aks holda, ular rasmiylarga murojaat qilishlari mumkin edi, bu erda, ehtimol, o'ta katta talonchilikning ashyosi sifatida hibsga olinar edi.
Bu qiziqarli hikoya edi va yillar davomida Xabar hikoya ("Mona Lizani nima uchun va qanday o'g'irlangan", 1932 yil 25 -iyun) to'liq tushuntirish sifatida qabul qilindi. Ba'zi manbalar hali ham o'g'irlik Valfiernoning rejalariga muvofiq sodir bo'lgan deb da'vo qilmoqda.
Ammo tanqidchilar bir nechta kamchiliklarni ta'kidladilar. Masalan, Valfiernoning so'zlariga ko'ra, 220 kilogrammli Mona Lizani ko'tarish uchun uch kishi kerak edi. Biroq, Luvrdagi manbaning xabar berishicha, Mona Lizaning vazni atigi 20 funt. Perudjya hech qanday yordamisiz asarni olib ketishi mumkin edi.
Valfierno, o'g'irlangan kalit chiqish eshigiga to'g'ri kelmagani uchun, o'g'irlik to'xtab qoladigan vaqt haqida Dekkerga aytadi. Ammo yordamchi qo'riqchi kelib, Perugiya va uning ittifoqchilari uchun qulfni ochadi. Bu voqea keyingi tergovda hech qachon tilga olinmagan.
Valfiernoning ajoyib sxemasi ham daholarning asl zarbasi emas edi. 1911 yilda Nyu -York nashrida Eddi Geurin ismli o'g'ri Mona Lizani o'g'irlash va nusxalarini boy kollektsionerlarga sotish haqida gaplashgani haqida xabar berilgan.
Agar siz Valfierno bu voqeani uydirganmi, degan savol tug'ilsa, siz Dekker Valfiernoni uydirganmi deb o'ylashingiz kerak. O'g'rilik haqidagi bir nechta maqolalarda argentinalik jinoyatchining fotosurati ko'rsatilgan, lekin siz u haqida hech qanday ma'lumot topa olmaysiz.
Haqiqatni tasdiqlaydigan hech qanday ma'lumot yo'q, bizda faqat Karl Dekkerning so'zlari bor. Shunday qilib, bu hikoya bo'lib qoladi.
Hozircha bu haqiqat sifatida obro'sizlantirilgan bo'lar edi, bundan tashqari, ko'pchilik bu hikoyaning versiyasini jinoyatchi bilan eshitishni xohlasa ham, to'g'rimi yoki yo'qmi.
Saturday Evening Post a'zosi bo'ling va cheksiz kirish imkoniyatidan bahramand bo'ling. Hozir obuna bo'ling
Sud zallaridan madaniy kampaniyalargacha
Dastlabki bahs sud zalida bo'lib o'tgan bo'lishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, bugungi ziddiyatning namoyishi madaniy kampaniyalar va Internetdagi janjallar ko'rinishida bo'ladi.
2011 yilda, Telegraf san'atshunos Silvano Vincetining rasmni Italiyaga qaytarilishini qo'llab -quvvatlash uchun 2013 yilga qadar 100 ming imzo to'plashga urinishi haqida xabar berdi. Luvrlik Vinsent Pomarede kampaniyani rad etib, "rasmni ko'chirishga bo'lgan har qanday urinish behisob zarar keltiradi", deb ta'kidladi.
Bir yil o'tgach, 150 mingdan ortiq imzo to'plangan petitsiya Luvrni Mona Lizani Florensiyaga qaytarishga chaqirdi, bu rasmni Uffizi galereyasida qayta tiklash maqsadida. Tarixiy, madaniy va ekologik meros bo'yicha milliy qo'mita o'sha paytda Frantsiya madaniyat vaziriga rasmiy –, lekin oxir -oqibat muvaffaqiyatsiz –
Va u erda to'xtamadi.
Mashhurlar dunyosidan jahon chempionatigacha, hamma narsa Mona Lizaning merosi atrofida munozarani qo'zg'atadigan katalizator bo'lib xizmat qilishi mumkin.
Haqiqatan ham, 2014 yilda o'z filmi uchun reklama gastrollari paytida Erkaklar yodgorliklari, Aytishlaricha, Jorj Kluni mulkchilik masalasida tortishgan. O'sha paytda e'lon qilingan xabarlarga ko'ra, aktyor Fransiyani portretni Italiyaga qaytarishga undagan va oxir -oqibat bu masala bo'yicha ikki xalq o'rtasida mavjud bo'lgan ishqalanishga ko'proq e'tibor qaratgan.
Va janjal suyagi o'tgan yili yana sarlavhalarga aylandi Luvr yozdi fotoshopda Mona Lizaning surati 2018 yil iyul oyida Frantsiyada bo'lib o'tgan jahon chempionatidan keyin frantsuz futbol chizig'ini kiygan.
Ajablanarlisi shundaki, bu harakat italiyalik muxlislar orasida qo'rg'oshin baloniga o'xshab tushdi muzeyga qarshi g'azablanish uchun Twitter -ga o'tdi. Tabiiyki, ko'p o'tmay, tasvirning muqobil versiyalari Internetda tarqala boshladi, g'azablangan italiyaliklar Mona Lizaning Italiya futbol jamoasini qo'llab -quvvatlashini ko'rsatish uchun rasmni diqqat bilan ko'rib chiqishdi.
Mona Lizani kim o'g'irlagan?
1911 yil 21 -avgust, dushanba kuni ertalab, Parijdagi Luvr muzeyi ichida, Sauvet ismli chilangar, qulflangan eshik oldida qolib ketgan noma'lum kishiga duch keldi. Oq tayoq kiygan odam, xuddi Luvrning texnik xodimlari singari, Sauvetga eshik tutqichi yo'qolganini ko'rsatdi. Foydali Sauvet kaliti va qisqichlari bilan eshikni ochdi. Bu odam muzeydan chiqib, Parijning issiq to'lqiniga kirdi. Leonardo da Vinchining "Mona Liza" asari uning tagida yashiringan.
Asrning san'at o'g'irligi Mona Lizani hozirgi holatiga aylantirishga yordam berdi. Dunyodagi mashhur gazetalar - 1911 yildagi yangi hodisa - va frantsuz politsiyasi aybdorni hamma joyda qidirdi. Bir payt ular hatto Pablo Pikassodan gumon qilishdi. Frantsiyada jinoyat uchun faqat bir kishi hibsga olingan: shoir Giyom Apolliner. Ammo politsiya o'g'rini nihoyat o'zini tashlab yuborganida topdi.
"La Jokondoni" o'g'irlash - portretdagi ayol, ehtimol, Florensiyalik ipak savdogarining rafiqasi Liza del Jokondo - unchalik qiyin bo'lmagan. Asosiy narsa asabiylashish edi. Luvrning boshqa rasmlari singari, u deyarli qo'riqlanmagan. U devorga o'rnatilmagan. Luvr dushanba kuni yopildi. Avgust - Parijdagi eng tinch oy. O'sha dushanba kuni ertalab, bir nechta qarovchilar asosan tozalash bilan band edi.
Ertalabki soat 7.20 da o'g'ri, ehtimol, tunab qolgan omborxonasida yashiringan. Bir necha xonani qo'riqlayotgan sobiq keksa askar adashib ketguncha kutib turishi kerak edi, keyin ramkani ilgaklaridan ko'tarib, rasmdan ramkani olib tashladi va Da Vinchi chizgan yog'och panelni itarib yubordi. smok O'g'ri Mona Lizani qisman kichkina bo'lgani uchun tanlagan: atigi 53 sm x 77 sm. Uning bir qoqilishi qochishning eshigini qulflangan holda topdi. U chilangar uni qutqarish uchun kelgunga qadar tornavida bilan eshik dastagini olib tashlagan edi. Ertalab soat 8.30da Mona Liza yo'q bo'lib ketdi.
O'n ikki soatdan keyin, deb yozadi frantsuz yozuvchisi Jerom Koignard Undan tashqari, bu noto'g'ri, jinoyat haqidagi bir nechta kitoblardan biri, mas'ul qo'riqchi hamma narsa normal bo'lganini xabar qildi. Hatto ertasi kuni, seshanba kuni, hali hech kim Mona Lizaning yo'qligini payqagan edi. Luvrdagi rasmlar tez orada yo'q bo'lib ketadi. Muzeyning fotosuratchilari o'z studiyasiga asarlarni o'z xohishlariga ko'ra olib chiqib ketishlari mumkin edi.
Rassom Lui Berud seshanba kuni ertalab Luvr salonidagi Carré muzeyiga Mona Lizani chizish uchun kelganida va devordan atigi to'rtta temir ilgak topganida, u fotosuratchilarda bor deb taxmin qilgan. Berud qo'riqchi bilan hazillashdi: "Albatta, Paupardin, ayollar o'z sevgililari yonida bo'lmaganda, ular o'z fotosuratchilari bilan birga bo'lishadi". Ammo Mona Liza hali ertalab soat 11 da bo'lmaganida, Berud Paupardinni fotosuratchilardan qachon qaytib kelishini so'rash uchun yubordi, deb yozadi amerikalik yozuvchi R.A. Skotti o'zining so'nggi hisobida, Yo'qolgan tabassum. Fotosuratchilar uni olib ketishmaganini aytishdi va signal kuchaytirildi. Xizmat ko'rsatadigan zinapoyaning burchagida, politsiya rasm bo'lgan shisha qutini topdi va bundan ikki yil oldin Kertessa de Beran sovg'a qilgan ramka.
Gazetalar o'g'rilikni birinchi sahifalariga joylashtirgan. "Bizda hali ham ramka bor", deb qo'shib qo'ydi har kuni Petit Parisien. Haddan tashqari o'ng harakat Française gazetasi yahudiylarni aybladi.
Critics had pointed out the lack of security, but the museum had taken only a few eccentric corrective measures: teaching the elderly guards judo, for instance. Jean Théophile Homolle, director of all France’s national museums, had assured the press before leaving on his summer holidays that the Louvre was secure. “You might as well pretend that one could steal the towers of the cathedral of Notre-Dame,” he said. After the theft, the French journalist Francis Charmes would comment: “La Joconde was stolen because nobody believed she could be.”
“Some judges regard the painting as the finest existing,” noted The New York Times. But even before Mona Lisa disappeared she was more than a painting. Leonardo’s feat was to have made her almost a person. “Mona Lisa is painted at eye level and almost life-size, both disconcertingly real and transcendent,” writes Scotti. Many romantics responded to the picture as if to a woman. Mona Lisa received love letters and was given a touch more surveillance than the Louvre’s other works, because some visitors stared at the “aphrodisiac” painting and became “visibly emotional”, writes Coignard. In 1910, one lover had shot himself before her eyes. After the theft, a French psychology professor suggested that the thief might be a sexual psychopath who would enjoy “mutilating, stabbing, defiling” Mona Lisa.
But nobody knew who the thief was, nor how he would profit from his haul. Monsieur Bénédite, the Louvre’s assistant curator, told The New York Times: “Why the theft was committed is a mystery to me, as I consider the picture valueless in the hands of a private individual.” If you had the Mona Lisa, what could you do with her?
The stricken Louvre closed for a week, but when it reopened, on Tuesday August 29, queues formed outside for the first time ever. People were streaming in to see the empty space where Mona Lisa had hung. Unwittingly, Coignard writes, the Louvre was exhibiting the first conceptual installation in the history of art: the absence of a painting.
Among the many who saw it were two Prague writers travelling through Europe on the cheap: Max Brod and Franz Kafka. On their travels they had had a brilliant idea: to write a series of guidebooks (On the Cheap in Switzerland, On the Cheap in Paris, etcetera) for other budget travellers. Kafka always was ahead of his time.
Meanwhile, the Mona Lisa was becoming a sensation. “In a thousand years,” wrote the Da Vinci-devotee Joséphin Péladan, “people will ask of the year 1911: ‘what did you do with the Joconde?’” Scotti writes: “Chorus lines made up with the face of Mona Lisa danced topless in the cabarets of Paris … Comedians asked, ‘Will the Eiffel Tower be next?’”
The painting was celebrated in new popular songs (“It couldn’t be stolen, we guard her all the time, except on Mondays”). Mona Lisa postcards sold in unprecedented numbers worldwide. Her face advertised everything from cigarettes (“I only smoke Zigomar”) to corsets. In fact, no painting had ever previously been reproduced on such a scale. As Scotti said, she had suddenly become both “high culture” and “a staple of consumer culture.” The Dutch painter Kees van Dongen was one of the few to puncture the hype: “She has no eyebrows and a funny smile. She must have had nasty teeth to smile so tightly.”
The French police were under international pressure to find the thief. All they had to go on was a fingerprint he had left on the wall, and the doorknob he had thrown into a ditch outside. Sauvet, the plumber who had let him out, was shown countless photographs of Louvre employees past and present, but could not recognise the thief. Employees and ex-employees were interrogated and fingerprinted—a newfangled technique in 1911—but nobody’s print matched the thief’s.
The Parisian police suspected the heist must be the work of a sophisticated ring of art thieves. In late August, they thought they had found them. A bisexual Belgian adventurer named Honoré Joseph Géry Pieret had appeared at the offices of Le Journal, and sold the newspaper an Iberian statuette that he had previously stolen from the Louvre. He also talked of having stolen a statue of a woman’s head from the museum, and having sold it to a painter friend. If these crooks had taken the statuettes, the police reasoned, they probably had the Mona Lisa too.
Géry often stayed in Paris with his friend Apollinaire, the poet, who had once called for the Louvre to be burned down. Apollinaire and Picasso were chums. After Géry’s revelations, the two men panicked. Picasso still kept two ancient Iberian statuettes, stolen by Géry, in his cupboard in Montmartre. In fact he had used the heads as models for a brothel scene he had painted in 1907. “’Les Demoiselles d’Avignon’ was the first picture to bear the mark of cubism,” Picasso recounted years later. “You will recall the affair in which I was involved when Apollinaire stole some statuettes from the Louvre? They were Iberian statuettes … Well, if you look at the ears of Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, you will recognise the ears of those pieces of sculpture!” Perhaps he had even commissioned Géry’s theft with the Demoiselles in mind.
At midnight on September 5, Picasso and Apollinaire sneaked out of Picasso’s apartment and lugged the statuettes for miles in a suitcase across Paris. They had agreed to dump them into the River Seine. But, writes Scotti, in the end they didn’t dare. On September 7, detectives arrested Apollinaire. He broke down and named Picasso. Both men cried under interrogation. Yet in court Picasso contradicted everything he had told police, and swore ignorance of the whole business. Shown Apollinaire, he said: “I have never seen him before.” Eventually the police gave up on them.
In December 1912 the Louvre hung a portrait by Raphael on its blank wall. The Mona Lisa had been given up for dead.
The world had mostly forgotten her when on November 29 1913 an antique dealer in Florence named Alfredo Geri received a letter postmarked Poste Restante, Place de la République, Paris. The author, who signed himself “Leonardo”, wrote: “The stolen work of Leonardo da Vinci is in my possession. It seems to belong to Italy since its painter was an Italian.”
Geri showed the letter to Giovanni Poggi, director of Florence’s Uffizi gallery. Then Geri replied to “Leonardo.” After some toing-and-froing, “Leonardo” said it would be no trouble for him to bring the painting to Florence.
Geri’s shop was just a few streets from where Da Vinci had painted the Mona Lisa 400 years before. On the evening of December 10 “Leonardo” unexpectedly walked in. He was a tiny man, just 5ft 3in tall, with a waxed moustache. When Geri asked whether his Mona Lisa was real, “Leonardo” replied that he had stolen her from the wall of the Louvre himself. He said he wanted to “return” her to Italy in exchange for 500,000 lire in “expenses.” He had only 1.95 French francs in his pocket.
Geri arranged to come with Poggi to see the painting in “Leonardo’s” room in the Tripoli-Italia hotel the next day. They went up to room 20 on the third floor. Leonardo locked the door, dragged a case from under his bed, rummaged in it, threw out some junk, pulled out a package, and unwrapped it to reveal the Mona Lisa.
The three men agreed that Poggi and Geri would take the painting to the Uffizi to authenticate it. On their way out the two were stopped by an alert hotel clerk, who thought they were stealing a painting from the hotel wall. At the Uffizi, Poggi established from the pattern of cracks in the painting that it was the real thing. When news reached the Italian parliament—”The Mona Lisa has been found!”—a fist-fight between deputies immediately turned into embraces, writes Scotti.
After handing over the painting, “Leonardo” had calmly gone sightseeing in Florence. But to his surprise, he was arrested in his hotel room by Italian police. As Monsieur Bénédite of the Louvre had warned, the picture had proven valueless in the hands of a private individual.
The thief turned out to be Vincenzo Peruggia, a 32-year-old Italian who lived in Paris. He was a house painter-cum-glazier. He suffered from lead poisoning. He lived in one room at 5 rue de l’Hôpital Saint-Louis, in a neighbourhood of eastern Paris that even today, a century on, is largely immigrant and not entirely gentrified. The Mona Lisa had spent two years mostly on his kitchen table. “I fell in love with her,” Peruggia said from jail, repeating the romantic cliché. The court-appointed psychiatrist diagnosed him as “mentally deficient”.
The French police really ought to have found him. Peruggia had briefly worked in the Louvre. In fact, he had made the Mona Lisa’s glass frame—the very one he had removed that August morning. A detective had even visited his apartment, but had failed to spot the painting. Moreover, Peruggia had two previous criminal convictions for minor incidents (one a scuffle with a prostitute) so the police had his fingerprints. Unfortunately, the famous detective Alphonse Bertillon—the real-life French Sherlock Holmes—who was on the Mona Lisa case, only catalogued the right fingerprints of suspects. Peruggia had left his left print on the Louvre’s wall.
He was locked up until his trial began in Florence on June 4 1914. Questioned by police, journalists, and later in court, Peruggia gave varying contradictory accounts of how exactly he had got in and out of the Louvre. He had walked out, carrying the painting, “with the greatest nonchalance”, he told the court. He said he had initially got on the wrong bus, and had finally taken the Mona Lisa home in a taxi.
Under questioning, Peruggia emerged as the kind of disgruntled immigrant who in a different time and a different place might have turned to terrorism instead of art theft. In Paris he had often been insulted as a “macaroni.” French people had stolen from him, and put salt and pepper in his wine. When he had mentioned to a colleague at the Louvre that the museum’s most esteemed paintings were Italian, the colleague had chuckled.
Peruggia had once seen a picture of Napoleon’s troops carting stolen Italian art to France. He said he had become determined to return at least one stolen painting, the handily portable Mona Lisa, to Italy. In fact, he was labouring under a gargantuan misapprehension: the French hadn’t stolen the Mona Lisa at all. Da Vinci had spent his final years in France. His last patron, the French king François I, had bought the painting, apparently legally, for 4,000 gold crowns.
After Peruggia’s arrest there had been a brief flare-up of patriotic “peruggisme” in Italy, but it soon died down. Most people were disappointed in Peruggia’s calibre. He was more Lee Harvey Oswald than the criminal mastermind they had imagined. “He was, quite clearly, a classic loser,” says Donald Sassoon in his book Becoming Mona Lisa. Despite Peruggia’s claims to patriotism—”I am an Italian and I do not want the picture given back to the Louvre”—it emerged in court that he had visited London to try to flog the painting to the dealer Duveen, who had laughed at him.
The mention of this story prompted Peruggia’s only show of anger during the trial. He had previously described the attempted sale himself, but in court he loudly denied it. One judge said, “Nevertheless, your unselfishness wasn’t total. You did expect some benefit from restoration.”
“Ah, benefit, benefit,” sighed Peruggia. “Certainly something better than what happened to me here.” The courtroom laughed.
Yet he had compiled lists of dealers and art collectors, who, he presumably hoped, might buy his painting. He had also written to his family in Italy saying that soon he would be rich. (“Romantic words, your honour,” Peruggia explained in court.) Joe Medeiros, an American filmmaker who is finishing a documentary about the theft, believes Peruggia was motivated chiefly by an immigrant’s pride. “He was a guy who wasn’t typically respected,” says Medeiros, “and I think he thought he was better than he was given credit for, so he set out to prove it. And I guess in some strange, perverse way he did prove it. He wasn’t as dumb as people thought.”
The Heist That Made The Mona Lisa Famous
Mona Lisa, a name that strikes a chord with every individual regardless of them being artistic or not. A painting so electrifying that every household wants one hanging on their walls. Painted by the great Italian artist, mathematician, scientist and poet, Leonardo Da Vinci, the majestic piece conceals many mysteries.
It is said that, Mona Lisa was the mistress of a famous man from Florence, Italy, and it is assumed that he made Da Vinci paint her portrait. Some argue that it is purely an imaginative piece of art.
But what is it that makes Mona Lisa such a masterpiece? And Why did the famous illustrator, Pablo Picasso get into trouble for it?
Historians say that the portrait of the Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo Da Vinci between 1503-17. However, some argue that it was an image captured by the then French Emperor, King Francois-1 and kept in his harem.
Therefore, the portrait of Mona Lisa was then returned to the Louvre Museum in Paris, France in 1797. The portrait has been preserved in there ever since.
It was not until 1911 that the rest of world knew much about the Mona Lisa except France. The Mona Lisa’s painting became famous all over the world owing to a theft.
On 21 st August, 1911, the Mona Lisa in the Louvre museum was stolen by some thugs. Previously, the painting had been given for a photoshoot of a movie which made the museum in-charge suspect the film-makers of the robbery. He complained to the police about how long the filmmakers had not returned the valuable painting.
The museum was closed for a few weeks as part of the investigation. During the investigation, police suspected the French writer, Guillaume Apollinaire because Apollinaire was known to have contacts with people who stole and sold paintings from museums. Soon he was taken into custody.
At the trial, Apollinaire mentioned the name of his friend, the famous painter, Picasso, as the one behind the robbery on the pretext that Picasso had also previously stolen precious items and paintings. In the wake of this allegation, the police arrested Picasso.
Picasso was eventually released after learning that it was the museum staff itself who were involved in the burglary.
Vincenzo Perugia, one of the staff members who helped frame the Mona Lisa at the museum, was the main culprit. Vincenzo was Italian just like Leonardo, the creator of the painting, and he was of the strong belief that The Mona Lisa rightly belonged in Italy and not France.
Popularity of the Mona Lisa
Right after the theft, Vincenzo hid the picture in his house for two years.
Others involved in the theft were making innumerable copies of Mona Lisa paintings and selling them all over America.
The original picture was then sold to a museum director in Florence.
It was exhibited in the museum for a few weeks in 1913. When the police learned of the new museum exhibiting the stolen painting, they managed to track down the miscreants.
Vincenzo was arrested and the picture was returned to the museum in France.
When leading illustrator, Pablo Picasso had been arrested in connection with the theft of Mona Lisa, the popularity of the painting increased drastically. People from all over the world gathered to see the magnificent work of art.
During world war 2, the image of the Mona Lisa was moved from the Louvre museum to other locations, and once things started to look up for France, the painting was brought back to the original location.
While the real Mona Lisa portrait is still there in the frame of a bullet proof glass. Fake pictures are available to people all over the world.
Mona Lisa heist: how do you steal the world’s most famous painting?
Leonardo Da Vinci's Mona Lisa is the most famous painting in the world, partly thanks to this crime. In 1911, it went missing for two years, seemingly snatched by an invisible thief. The police were confounded, the press enchanted. They were both asking the same question – how was the Mona Lisa stolen?
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Published: August 21, 2020 at 4:05 am
In 1911, the Mona Lisa shot to global stardom when she became the victim of one the most daring art heists in history. Overnight, the famed painting by Leonardo da Vinci seemingly disappeared into thin air – and the police were baffled.
Modernist enemies of traditional art were suspected of the crime, with the finger of blame pointed at avant-garde poet and playwright Guillaume Apollinaire (who was arrested and then released) as well as Pablo Picasso.
For two years the whereabouts of the painting remained a mystery. Then in November 1913, the thief – a petty criminal named Vincenzo Peruggia – contacted a Florentine art dealer and offered to bring him the painting for a reward of 500,000 lire.
Who stole the Mona Lisa?
Peruggia had moved to Paris in 1908 and had worked at the Louvre for some time. Dressed in a white smock worn by Louvre employees, he had hidden inside the gallery until it closed for the night. He then removed the painting from its frame and strolled out with it hidden under his smock when the museum opened as usual the following morning.
The theft was genius in its simplicity – Peruggia, in his regulation smock, had attracted no notice and was out of the area by the time the theft was realised. His reason for the theft? Peruggia believed that the painting had been stolen from Florence by Napoleon and that he was simply returning it to its true home in Italy.
He was arrested, but served just eight months in prison thanks to a sympathetic Italian tribunal and a psychiatrist who testified that he was “intellectually deficient”. Much rejoicing accompanied Mona Lisa’s return to Paris, while Peruggia became something of a hero to the Italian people, receiving love letters and cakes from female fans whilst in prison.
The disappearance of the Mona Lisa
For centuries, the Mona Lisa attracted only a few art enthusiasts and other visitors. But on August 21, 1911, someone took great notice of the painting and stole it right off the museum’s wall. A day passed before the museum realized that the Mona Lisa was gone.
The Louvre closed for a week to investigate the heist. The media covered the investigation, including the several conspiracy theories about what happened: the heist was nothing but a publicity stunt by the Louvre, the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire was the thief, or the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso was behind it.
A week later, the Louvre reopened, and thousands of people came to see the empty wall where the Mona Lisa had hung. And as days turned into months, more speculations on the painting’s whereabouts were published. The articles further sensationalized the heist by quoting Walter Pater’s description of the Mona Lisa. Soon, the news of the disappearance reached New York, Brazil, Japan, and the rest of the world.
In 1913, Alfredo Geri, an art dealer from Florence, Italy, received a letter from Vincenzo Peruggia, who claimed to have the Mona Lisa. The police arrested Peruggia and found the Mona Lisa in his apartment, just a few blocks from the museum. Peruggia confessed he lifted the masterpiece from the wall, put it under his tunic, and quietly walked out of the Louvre. His motivation? He firmly believed that the Mona Lisa belonged to an Italian museum, not in a French one like the Louvre.
Once the painting was back to the Louvre, thousands of people from all over the world came to see it. The portrait of a woman with a captivating gaze and a mysterious half-smile became an overnight sensation. But it has sustained its fame, making it today’s most famous artwork in the world.
Beyond the Mona Lisa’s captivating gaze and enigmatic smile, a daring heist made it more famous and mysterious. Pater may be right with its disappearance, the Mona Lisa might have learned the secrets of the grave and beyond.
The famous Mona Lisa was stolen (1911)
The famous poet Guillaume Apollinaire was initially suspected of stealing the Mona Lisa, who once said that the entire Louvre should be burned.
The most famous theft of works of art in history, when the most famous painting in the world was stolen – Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa, took place on August 21, 1911. It was stolen from the Louvre in Paris by one of the museum’s employees, named Vincenzo Peruggia. His motives were twofold. On the one hand, he was Italian and believed that the Mona Lisa should be exhibited in Italy because it was painted by Leonardo. Peruggi’s friend, on the other hand, copied the images, so Peruggia believed that in the event of the theft of the original, the price of the copies would rise.
The disappearance of the Mona Lisa was noticed by one museum visitor the next day. Instead of the Mona Lisa, only four nails remained where she stood. He asked the head of security where the picture was, and he thought he was taking a picture. It was later established that the picture was not with the photographer, so an alarm was raised. The Louvre Museum is closed for a week for investigation.
The famous poet Guillaume Apollinaire, who once said that the entire Louvre should be burned, was initially suspected of stealing the painting. Apollinaire was arrested and imprisoned. He tried to shift the blame to Pablo Picasso, who was also detained. In the end, both were acquitted.
It turned out that Vinzenzo Peruggia, who was an employee of the Louvre, stole the painting by entering the museum during normal business hours (when he was not on duty) and hiding in a broom closet. When the museum closed, he went outside carrying the Mona Lisa hidden under his coat.
Vinzenzo Peruggia hid the Mona Lisa for about two years in his Paris apartment. He was arrested only when he was trying to give a painting to the famous Uffizi Gallery in Florence and get the award in return. Peruggia believed that the painting should be hung in some Italian gallery. After his arrest, he was sentenced to 6 months in prison, but many Italians celebrated him for his patriotism.