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Kommagen I Antioki, Gerkules bilan qo'l berib ko'rishish

Kommagen I Antioki, Gerkules bilan qo'l berib ko'rishish


Nemrut tog'ining megalitik tosh boshlari va jannat darvozasi

Amazon Services LLC Associates dasturining ishtirokchisi sifatida, bu sayt malakali xaridlardan daromad olishi mumkin. Boshqa chakana veb -saytlardan xaridlar uchun ham komissiya olishimiz mumkin.

Turkiyaning janubi -sharqida, Nemrut tog'ida, dengiz sathidan 2000 metrdan ortiq balandlikda, yo'qolgan Commagene qirolligining qadimiy xarobalari yotadi.

Ming yillar oldin, aniqrog'i miloddan avvalgi 62 yilda Kling Antioxus u erda sirli qirollik ma'badini qurdi va uning abadiy yodda qolishiga ishonch hosil qildi.

Arslonlar, burgutlar, fors va yunon xudolarining haykallari, shuningdek, qirolning haykallari hayratlanarli darajada qurilgan.

Kichik ohaktoshlardan tashkil topgan 50 metr balandlikdagi (diametri 145 metr) tepalikni uchta shimoliy, sharqiy va g'arbiy tomondan o'rab oladi:

Sharqiy terasta biz haykallar qo'yilgan ikki qatorli tosh stellarni topamiz: ulardan biri Makedoniya Antiox I ajdodlari bilan, ikkinchisi esa fors ajdodlari bilan.

G'arbiy terastada, shuningdek, Leo ’s munajjimlar bashorati va Antiox I ning xudo bilan qo'l berib ko'rsatgan stelalari bor.

Shimoliy terasta mavjud stelalarda na kabartmalar, na yozuvlar mavjud.

Kommagen I Antioxi o'zining baland haykallari (balandligi 8-9 metr) bilan o'ralgan tog 'tepasida qurilgan dafn marosimiga ega edi. Bundan tashqari, podshohni xudolar, bitta sher, ikkita burgut va german, zevs, oromasdes (fors xudosi Ahura Mazda bilan bog'liq) kabi turli xil arman, yunon va fors xudolari tasvirlangan ulkan haykallarga, Tike va Apolo- Mitra ham shu joyda qurilgan.

Arxeologlar haykallar bir paytlar o'tirgani va har bir xudoning ismlari yozilganligini isbotlagan.

Endi haykallarning boshlari erga sochilib ketgan, boshlari shikastlangan (ayniqsa burunlar), ular ataylab ikonoklastlar tomonidan yasalgan.

Bundan tashqari, katta frizning bir qismi bo'lgan, deb taxmin qilinadigan bas-relyefli tosh plitalar ham bor.

Shoh Antioxning "Xudolar bilan qo'l berib ko'rishgani" tasvirlangan haykallar, go'yo xudolar uni o'zlaridan biri deb tan oladilar va uni yulduzlarga kutib oladilar.

Bu qirollik ibodatxonasi, shuningdek qirollik, eramizning birinchi asrida g'alati tarzda tark etilgan.

Hozircha mutaxassislar qirolning afsonaviy dafn xonasini kashf qilishmagan.

Biroq, tadqiqotchilar, qirol Antioxning tog'ga o'rnatgan milini topdilar, u mutaxassislarning fikriga ko'ra, ilg'or astronomiya bo'yicha ajoyib bilimlarga ega.

Shaft gorizontalga 35 graduslik burchak ostida tog 'yonbag'riga kiradi va uning uzunligi taxminan 150 metrga teng. Qizig'i shundaki, pastda hech narsa yo'q.

Kompyuter tahlillari shuni ko'rsatdiki, yilning ikki kunida Quyosh nurlari milning tubini Leoning burjiga to'g'ri kelganda va Orionga to'g'ri kelganda bir marta yoritadi.

Bu tungi osmonda, ayniqsa, hayajonli joy, chunki bu yo'l Somon Yo'li galaktikasi ustidan o'tadigan yo'l.

Qizig'i shundaki, bu qadimgi dunyoga "Osmon darvozasi" deb nomlangan.

Shunisi qiziqki, Jannatda Geyts bor edi, biri shimolda, ikkinchisi janubda.

Ko'proq Katta hikoya:


1 -holat: “Uchburchaklar prizma va#8221 shakli

Birinchidan, biz bugun bizga tanish bo'lgan klassik Evropa silindrsimon toji qadimgi dunyoda berilmaganligini tushunishimiz kerak. Klassik antik davrda qirollik bosh kiyimining ko'p turlarini, odatda gulchambar, varaq yoki diadem deb nomlangan tasma bilan taqib yurardi. Tojning kashfiyotchisi arman va fors podshohlari kiygan, Konstantin I tomonidan qabul qilingan va keyinchalik Rim imperiyasining keyingi barcha hukmdorlari taqib yurgan diadem edi. Qadim zamonlarning ba'zi shoh bosh kiyimlarida quyosh nurlari paydo bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, bu odatiy hol emas edi. "Radiant toj" tojini Rim imperatorlari Rim imperiyasi va xristianlikni qabul qilishidan oldin Sol Invictus kultining bir qismi sifatida kiyganlar. Arman Tiarasini zamonaviy Evropa tojining prekursorlaridan biri deb hisoblash mumkin. Shunday qilib, agar biz klassik Evropa qirollik toji qadimgi odamlarning shohona bosh kiyimlari emasligini hisobga olsak, shuni tushunamizki, qirollik bosh kiyimlari har xil vaqtda har xil mintaqalarda bo'lishi mumkin edi. Keling, dalillarni ko'rib chiqaylik.


Kommagen qirolligi

The Kommagen qirolligi (Qadimgi yunoncha: Βασίλειον τῆς Kómkámγηνῆς)-qadimgi yunon-eron podsholigi, Eronning Orontidlar sulolasining ellinlashgan tarmog'i tomonidan boshqarilgan. [4] Qirollik o'zining poytaxti bo'lib xizmat qilgan qadimiy Samosata shahrida va uning atrofida joylashgan edi. Samosataning temir davri nomi Kummuh, ehtimol, o'z nomini Commagene deb atagan. [5]

Kommagen madaniy jihatdan Armaniston, Parfiya, Suriya va Rim o'rtasida "bufer davlat" sifatida tavsiflangan [6], shuning uchun u aralashgan. [7] [8] [9] Kommagen podshohligi podshohlari Orontesdan kelib chiqqanligini Fors Doro I bilan ajdodlari deb bilishadi, uning oilasi podshoh Doro I dan chiqqan Artaxerxes II ning qizi Rodogunga uylanishgan. 10] [11] Kommagen hududi taxminan zamonaviy zamonaviy Adiyaman va Antep shimoliy viloyatlariga to'g'ri keldi. [12]

Miloddan avvalgi II asr boshlariga qadar Commagene viloyati haqida kam narsa ma'lum. Ko'rinib turibdiki, ozgina dalillardan kelib chiqqan holda, Commagene katta davlatning bir qismini tashkil etdi, unga Sofen qirolligi ham kirdi. Bu holat v. Yilgacha davom etdi. Miloddan avvalgi 163 yil, mahalliy satrap Komagenlik Ptolemey, Salavkiylar podshosi Antiox IV Epifan vafotidan keyin o'zini mustaqil hukmdor sifatida ko'rsatdi. [13]

Commagene Qirolligi miloddan avvalgi 17 yilgacha imperator Tiberiy tomonidan Rim provinsiyasi bo'lganiga qadar o'z mustaqilligini saqlab qoldi. Kommagen Antiox IV taxtga Kaligulaning buyrug'i bilan qayta tiklanganidan keyin, o'sha imperator tomonidan undan mahrum qilingan, bir necha yil o'tgach, uning vorisi Klavdiy tomonidan qayta tiklanganida, u mustaqil shohlik sifatida qayta paydo bo'ldi. Qayta paydo bo'lgan davlat eramizning 72-yiligacha davom etdi, Vespasian imperatori nihoyat uni Rim imperiyasi tarkibiga kiritdi. [14]

Qirollikning eng ko'zga ko'ringan qoldiqlaridan biri-Nemrut tog'idagi arxeologik joy, qirol Antiox Teos tomonidan bir qator sintetik grek-eron xudolariga, shuningdek o'ziga va xudojo'y Kommagen eriga bag'ishlangan ma'bad. [15] Hozir u Jahon merosi ro'yxatiga kiritilgan. [16]

Madaniy o'ziga xoslik

Kommagen qirolligining madaniy o'ziga xosligi turlicha tavsiflangan. Per Merlatning taxmin qilishicha, Kommagen shahrining Doliche shahri, atrofidagi boshqalar singari, "yarmi eronlashgan va yarmi ellinlashgan". [9] Devid M. Lang Commagene -ni "sobiq arman sun'iy yo'ldosh shohligi" deb ta'riflaydi, [8], Blömer va Vinter esa uni "ellinistik qirollik" deb atashadi. [17] Frank Maklin buni "janubiy Anatoliyadagi kichik ellin arman podsholigi" deb ta'riflaydi. [7] U erda aramey tilining mahalliy lahjasi aytilgan bo'lishi mumkin, deb taxmin qilar ekan, [18] Fergyus Millar shunday deb hisoblaydi: “Furotning ba'zi joylarida, masalan, Komagene, mahalliy madaniyat haqidagi savollarga javob beradigan hech narsa yo'q. " [19]

Jamoat yodgorliklarida ishlatilgan til odatda yunon tili bo'lsa -da, Commagen hukmdorlari forsga yaqinligini yashirishmagan. Kommagen qirollari Orontidlar sulolasidan kelib chiqqan deb da'vo qilishgan va shuning uchun Armaniston qirolligiga asos solgan oila bilan bog'liq bo'lishgan, ammo bu da'volarning to'g'riligi aniq emas. [13] Nemrut tog'idagi Antiox Teosning muqaddas joyida, qirol yunon tilida Fors va Armaniston qirollik oilalaridan kelib chiqishini nishonlayotganda, Zevs-Oromasdes kabi aralash yunon va eron ismli xudolarning haykalchalarini o'rnatdi. yozuv [8] Miloddan avvalgi va eramizning birinchi asrlari mobaynida Sofraz Koydagi qabrga qo'yilgan nomlar "lotincha shaxsiy ismlarning erta kiritilishi bilan tipik ellin sulolasi nomlari" ning aralashmasini ko'rsatadi. [20] Lang Komagenada grek-rim madaniyatining hayotiyligini qayd etadi. [6]

Garchi uning kelib chiqishi haqida oz narsa aniq ma'lum bo'lsa-da, 2-asrda yashagan yunon shoiri Samosatalik Lucian Samosatada sobiq Kommagen podsholigida tug'ilganligini da'vo qilgan va o'zini bitta satirik asarda "Ossuriya" deb ta'riflagan. [18] Kommagenani Rim bosib olgandan keyin yaxshi yozganiga qaramay, Lucian o'zini "hali ham vahshiy va kamzul kiygan" deb da'vo qildi.qandis"Ossuriya uslubida". Bu uning ona tili oromiy lahjasi bo'lishi mumkinligi haqidagi mumkin bo'lgan, ammo aniq emas, deb qabul qilingan. [21]

Tarix

Commagene dastlab kichik Syro-Xet qirolligi edi, [22] zamonaviy janubi-markaziy Turkiyada joylashgan, poytaxti Samosata (zamonaviy Samsat, Furot yaqinida). Bu birinchi marta Ossuriya matnlarida eslatib o'tilgan Kummuhuodatda Ossuriya ittifoqchisi bo'lgan, lekin oxir -oqibat miloddan avvalgi 708 yilda Sargon II davrida viloyat sifatida qo'shilgan. Keyin Ahamoniylar imperiyasi miloddan avvalgi 6 -asrda Kommagenani, miloddan avvalgi 4 -asrda Aleksandr Makedonskiyni bosib olgan. Iskandar Zulqarnayn imperiyasi parchalanib ketganidan so'ng, bu hudud ellinistik selevkiylar tarkibiga kirgan va Komagene miloddan avvalgi 163 yilda Yunon-Suriya Selevkiylar imperiyasi tarkibidagi davlat va viloyat sifatida vujudga kelgan. Ehtimol, Kommagen ellin davrining boshlarida Armaniston qirolligining bir qismi bo'lgan va Armaniston fathidan ko'p o'tmay Salavkiylar podsholigiga qo'shilgan bo'lishi mumkin [23].

G'arbda Kilikiya va shimolda Kapadokiya bilan chegaralangan ellinistik Kommagen qirolligi, miloddan avvalgi 162 yilda, vayron qilinayotgan Selevkiylar imperiyasining satrasi Ptolomey o'zini mustaqil deb e'lon qilganida paydo bo'lgan. Ptolomey sulolasi Parfiya podshohlari bilan bog'liq edi, lekin uning avlodi Mitridat I Kallinik (miloddan avvalgi 109 - miloddan avvalgi 70 -yillar) ellinistik madaniyatni qabul qilib, Suriya yunon malikasi Laodis VII Teaga uylandi. Shunday qilib, uning sulolasi Aleksandr Makedonskiy bilan ham, Fors shohlari bilan ham aloqada bo'lishi mumkin edi. Bu nikoh, shuningdek, Kommagen va Salavkiylar imperiyasi o'rtasida tuzilgan tinchlik shartnomasining bir qismi bo'lishi mumkin. Shu paytdan boshlab Kommagen qirolligi fors tilidan ko'ra yunoncha bo'lib ketdi. Sofen bilan u mintaqada ellinistik va rim madaniyatini uzatish uchun muhim markaz bo'lib xizmat qilishi kerak edi. [6] Tafsilotlar chizilgan, ammo Mitridat Kallinik Buyuk Tigranlar II davrida armanlarning hukmronligini qabul qilgan deb hisoblashadi. [24]

Mitridatlar va Laoditsaning o'g'li - Kommagen qiroli Antiox I Teos (miloddan avvalgi 70–38 -yillar hukmronlik qilgan). Miloddan avvalgi 64 yilda Pontiy VI Mithridatesga qarshi yurish paytida Antiox Rim generali Pompeyning ittifoqchisi bo'lgan. Diplomatik mahorati tufayli Antiox Kommagenani rimliklardan mustaqil tuta oldi. 17 yilda Kommagen Antiox III vafot etgach, imperator Tiberiy Kommagenani Suriya viloyatiga qo'shib oldi. Jozefusning so'zlariga ko'ra, bu harakat mahalliy zodagonlar tomonidan qo'llab -quvvatlangan, biroq oddiy xalq ko'pchilik tomonidan qarshilik ko'rsatgan, ular avvalgidek o'z podshohlari ostida qolishni afzal ko'rishgan [19] Tatsit, boshqa tomondan, "Rimni eng afzal ko'rgan, lekin boshqalar qirollik qoidasi ". [25]

Miloddan avvalgi 38 yilda Kaligula Antiox III o'g'li Antiox IVni [25] qayta tikladi va unga Kilikiyaning yovvoyi hududlarini boshqarishga berdi. [26] Antiox IV Rim imperiyasi davrida Kommagenaning yagona mijoz shohi edi. Kaligula taxtdan ag'darilgan va 41 yilda Klavdiy qo'shilganidan keyin qayta tiklangan Antiox 72 yilgacha hukmronlik qildi, imperator Vespasian sulolani taxtdan ag'darib tashladi va "Antiox" rimliklardan qo'zg'olon ko'tarmoqchi edi "degan da'volarga asoslanib, bu hududni Suriyaga qayta qo'shib oldi. gubernator Caesennius Paet ". [27] Paetus Kommagenga olib borgan Legio VI Ferrata, bir kun davomida Antioxning o'g'illari Epifan va Kallinik bilan bo'lgan jang durang bilan yakunlandi va Antiox taslim bo'ldi. [28] Legio III Gallica eramizning 73 yiligacha bu hududni egallab olardi. [28] I asrda Mara Bar Serapionning suriyalik tilida yozgan maktubida Evfrat daryosi bo'yida rimliklardan qochgan qochqinlar tasvirlangan va rimliklarning qochqinlarni qaytarishga ruxsat berishdan bosh tortgani xafa bo'lgan [29] bu Rimning 18 yoki 72 ni bosib olishini tasvirlab berishi mumkin. [30] ] Antiox IV avlodlari Anatoliya, Gretsiya, Italiya va Yaqin Sharqda farovon va ajralib turdilar. Antiox IV avlodlariga vasiyat qilib, Afina fuqarolari 116 yilda vafot etgach, shaharning xayrixohi bo'lgan Filopapposning sharafiga dafn marosimini o'rnatdilar. Antiox IV ning yana bir avlodi tarixchi Gay Asini Kvadrat edi. , III asrda yashagan.

Geografiya

Komagene Furotning o'ng qirg'og'idan Toros [31] va Amanus tog'lariga cho'zilgan. Commageneni Suriyaning bir qismi hisoblaydigan Strabon [32] qirollikning unumdorligini qayd etadi. [33] Uning poytaxti va bosh shahri Samosata edi (hozir Otaturk to'g'oni ostida suv ostida qolgan).

Vaqt o'tishi bilan Commagene chegaralari o'zgarib turdi. Antiox Teos davrida Kommagen qirolligi ayniqsa katta hududni boshqargan. [17] Doliche "taxminan 35 yil" [17] Kommagen hukmronligi ostida edi [17] Antiox Teos tomonidan boshqarilgandan so'ng, u miloddan avvalgi 31 -yilda Rimning Suriya provinsiyasi tarkibiga qo'shilgan bo'lishi mumkin edi. [20] Germaniya o'zini Rim davrida o'zini Kommagen shaharchasi deb e'lon qildi, garchi dastlab bunday bo'lmagan. [17] Boshqa tomondan, Zeugma, bir muncha vaqt Commagene tomonidan boshqarilgan bo'lsa -da, xalq va an'anaviy ravishda Cyrrhestica mintaqasiga tegishli deb hisoblangan [17] Strabonning aytishicha, uni Commagenaga Pompey tayinlagan. [34]

Arxeologik qoldiqlar

Rimliklar Kommagenani bosib olgach, Nemrut tog'idagi buyuk qirollik ma'badi tashlab ketildi. Rimliklar o'z mollarining dafn marosimlarini talon -taroj qilishdi va Legio XVI Flavia Firma ko'prik qurib, bag'ishladilar. Atrofdagi qalin o'rmonlar rimliklar tomonidan o'tin, yog'och va ko'mir uchun kesilgan va tozalangan, bu hududda katta eroziyaga olib kelgan. [ iqtibos kerak ]

Kommagen qirolligiga tegishli yana bir muhim arxeologik joy - Mitridatlar II davrida Damlikadagi Zevs Soterning muqaddas joyi. [35]

Commagene -da burgut tepasida ustun bor, u tepalikka Karakush yoki Qora qush nomini bergan. U yerdagi yozuv uchta ayol yashaydigan shoh qabrining [36] mavjudligini ko'rsatadi. Biroq, bu qabrning ombori ham talon -taroj qilingan. Saytdagi asosiy qazishmalar Myunster universitetidan Fridrix Karl Dyorner tomonidan olib borilgan. Boshqa qirollik dafn marosimi Arsameyada bo'lib, u ham Kommagen qirollarining qarorgohi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. [37]

Adyaman muzeyida Kommagen qirolligidan ko'plab qadimiy asarlar namoyish etilmoqda. [38]


Mitra va xudolarning o'ng qo'lini siqish (1 qism)

(Bu "Ko'rinib turgan qozon: Zardushtiylik, so'fiylik, masonlik, Vikka, Druidri va Thelema haqidagi ocherklar" dan parcha. Nabarz. ISBN: 978-0-9556858-4-2. Amazon va http: // www. .lulu.com/spotlight/webofwyrd):

Rim mitrasining kelib chiqishi haqidagi munozaralar davom etmoqda va Rim mitrasining dini yunon, rim va fors madaniyatining elementlaridan foydalangan holda sinkretik din bo'lganligi aniq bo'lsa -da, turli elementlarning ishlab chiqarishda qanchalik ta'sirli ekanligi aniq emas. oxirgi Rim dini. Munozarada ko'rib chiqishga arziydigan jihatlardan biri - qo'l siqish harakati o'rtasidagi o'xshashlik, ham fors mitasi, ham rim mitrasining an'analarida ko'rinadi. Zamonaviy davrda, qo'lni o'ng qo'l bilan silkitib qo'yish, odatda, ishonch belgisi sifatida qaraladi, chunki qurol qo'lida hech qanday qurol ushlanmagan.

Qo'l berishning eng qadimgi shakllarini Bobil shohlari v. Miloddan avvalgi 1800 yil, u taxtga o'tirishdan oldin "Mardukning qo'llarini olishi" kerak edi. "Oltin novda" dagi ser J. Frayzerning so'zlariga ko'ra: "Bobilda, tarixiy davrlarda, Shohlik idorasi amalda umrbod bo'lgan, lekin nazariy jihatdan u faqat yillik bo'lganga o'xshardi. Har yili Zagmuk bayramida shoh Bobildagi Esagil ibodatxonasida Marduk tasvirining qo'llarini ushlab, o'z kuchini yangilashi kerak edi. Hatto Bobil Ossuriya hukmronligi ostida o'tganida ham, bu mamlakat monarxlari har yili Bobilga kelib, Yangi yil bayramida qadimiy marosimni o'tkazib, taxtga bo'lgan da'vosini qonuniylashtirishi kutilgan edi. '[1]

Mitra haqida eng birinchi eslatma miloddan avvalgi XIV asr loydan qilingan planshetda bo'lib, u erda Xetlar va Mitanni o'rtasidagi kelishuvning kafili hisoblanadi. Mitra - shartnoma va kelishuv xudosi, uning nomi Avestanda shartnoma yoki shartnoma degan ma'noni anglatadi.

Miloddan avvalgi miloddan avvalgi 61-31 -yillar, Commagene Antiox I, Nemrud Dog'da, o'ng qo'lini Mitraning o'ng qo'li bilan silkitib tasvirlangan. Mitraning yelkasida nurli toji va frigiyalik ko'rinadigan qalpoqchasi va plashi bor. Mitra chap qo'lida Barsomni muqaddas novdalarni ushlab turadi, uni Zardushtiylik Avestosida tasvirlangan. Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 50-yillarda qirol va mitra o'rtasidagi o'ng qo'l siltash birinchi navbatda ahamiyatsiz bo'lib tuyulishi mumkin edi, chunki men, Antiox, Nemrud Dog'dagi boshqa xudolar bilan, shu jumladan Axura Mazda va Mitra bilan ham qo'l berib ko'rishganman. Biroq, Mitra "shartnoma" degan ma'noni anglatadi, u kelishuvlar va qasamlar xudosi, bu haqda professor Klaus ham aytib o'tgan: "Mitra qasam xudosi, qasam himoyachisi edi. U vijdon, kelishuv va sadoqat xudosi edi. Plutarxda Buyuk Podshoh o'z xizmatchilaridan biriga sodiqlik bilan bog'langanligini eslatgani, Mitra bilan qasam ichgani haqida aytilgan: "Mitra nuriga va shohning o'ng qo'liga ishonib, haqiqatni ayting." (Vit Aleks 30.8). [3]

Bu Eronning Kirmanshoh shahri yaqinidagi Taq-Bo'ston relyefi, Sosoniylar imperiyasi Ardashir II (379–383 yillar) ning investitsiya sahnasini ko'rsatadi. O'rtada shohga hukmronlik qilish huquqi beriladi, Axura Mazda, u o'ng qo'li bilan diademni shohning o'ng qo'liga beradi. Ikkisi sajda qilgan dushman ustida turibdi. Chapda, quyosh nurlari tojini kiygan, muqaddas novdalar shoxlarini ushlab, muqaddas lotus gulining ustida turgan Mitra, u ham o'z hukmronligiga o'z barakasini bermoqda. Mitraning vazifalaridan biri shohona omadni yoki ilohiy shon -sharafni himoya qilish edi (xvarna yoki Farr). Mitraning gimnida (Yasht 10) ilohiylik xvarnani hadya etuvchi sifatida tilga olinadi.

Yuqoridagi misollar, qadimgi Yaqin Sharq imperiyalarida, xudolar bilan qo'l siltash, xudo vakili bilan jismoniy aloqa orqali shohlarga ilohiy Shohlik huquqini berishga imkon berganligini ko'rsatadi. Bu tinchlik shartnomasi yoki hukmronlik huquqini berish bo'lsin, qo'l siqish paytida paydo bo'ladigan ilohiy shartnoma. Amal odamni xudolar bilan bir qatorda turishga aylantiradi.

Ilohiy qo'l siqish Fors Mitrasidan Rim Mitrasigacha olib borilgan, biroq buni tekshirishdan oldin, o'ng qo'li bilan qo'l siqishlarning boshqa misollari bor, ularni 2 -bo'limda ko'rib chiqish kerak.

rklein/images/shalthe3 … bu erda professor Ralf V.Kleinning ruxsati bilan takrorlangan.

[3] Manfred Klauss, Mitraning Rim dini: Xudo va uning sirlari (Edinburg, Shotlandiya: Edinburg universiteti matbuoti, 2000), 4 -bet.


Nemrut tog'idagi haykallar va#8211 G'arbiy Teras

Birinchidan, men quyosh botganda tashrif buyurganimda, g'arbiy terasta shou yulduzi edi. Albatta, quyosh g'arbda botadi va g'arbiy terastaning Nemrut tog'idagi haykallarni o'zining past nuri bilan ajoyib tarzda yoritadi.

Apollon

Apollon bu qadimiy qabrda otasi Zevsning yonida turadi. Apollon haykali ko'milgan holda topilgan va jiddiy shikastlangan. U shifo va tibbiyot xudosi edi.

Albatta, Zevs eng yuqori darajadagi xudodir, shuning uchun uning haykali eng katta va markaziy o'rinni egallaydi.

Herakllar

Herakl kim edi? U Zevs va Alkmenening o'g'li edi. U tabiatning oldida odamning zo'ravonlik kuchi va chidamliligini ifodalaydi. Biroq, uning barcha ishlari ijobiy, chunki u tabiiy ofatlar va fojialarni yo'q qila oladi. Bu falsafa haqiqatga aylanmaydi, chunki uning yorilgan haykali ustidan quyosh nuri tushmaydi. Turkiyaning Nemrut tog'i haykalida Herakl o'zining forscha ekvivalenti Artagnes sifatida tasvirlangan.

Antiox

Men uchun Antiox Turkiyaning Nemrut tog'ining eng haykalli haykalidir. Bundan tashqari, quyosh botishi bilan suratga olish eng yaxshi rasmda. Ammo Antiox kim? Aslida, bu ulkan qabrni yaratgan shoh Antiox. Endi bu mantiqiy! U shunday qilib yaratdi, shuning uchun u o'zini eng yaxshi joyda eng yaxshi ko'rinadigan haykalga aylantirdi.

Kommagen

Qirol Antioxning haykali yonida Komagene haykali joylashgan. Ammo Commagene kim? Kommagen - sobiq Kommagen qirolligida unumdorlik ma'budasi edi.


SPLENDOURS QADIMGI TURKIYA VA ANADOLIYA

2022 yil may oyida qadimiy kelib chiqishi Mikki Pistorius va maxsus mehmon Jim Uillis uyushtirgan 12 kunlik, 11 kechalik eksklyuziv ekskursiyada Turkiya va Anatoliyaning sirlarini o'rganing, umr bo'yi ma'naviyat, qadimiy din va yo'qolgan tsivilizatsiyalar.

Jim Uillis din va ma'naviyat bo'yicha o'n ikkita kitob muallifi Yo'qolgan tsivilizatsiyalar (Visible Ink Press, 2019) va Kvant akashik maydoni (Findhorn/Ichki an'analar, 2019). U yarim yillik duradgor sifatida ishlayotganda jahon dinlari va instrumental musiqa sohasida kollej professori bo'lib ishlagan, shuningdek, o'z radio-shousining boshlovchisi, badiiy kengash direktori va mehmon o'qituvchisi. tarixiy tadqiqotlardan zamonaviy ma'naviyatgacha bo'lgan mavzular haqida.

Mikki Pistorius Jurnalistlik faoliyati bosma va televideniyeda boshlandi. U DPhil psixologiyasini oldi, qotib qolgan jinoyatchilar profilini yaratdi va shu mavzu bo'yicha bir qancha kitoblar muallifi. U BA Xonlarni Bibliya arxeologiyasi bo'yicha tugatgan va bronza davriga yaqinligi bor. U Odisseyni materik Gretsiyadagi Mykena shahridan Turkiyaning Troya shahriga kuzatib, Aleksandr Makedonskiyning izidan Pokistonda Taxilaga bordi va Frantsiyadagi Gautevilgacha bo'lgan Tankred salibchilarining ajdodlarini kuzatdi. U tropik orolda yashaydi va yozadi.

Tajriba Istanbul: Moviy masjid, Ayasofiya masjidi (namoz vaqtlari ruxsat berilgan) va Bazilika sardobasi - Anqara muzeyi - Alaca Xoyuk - Xattusa - Kapadokiya: Derinkuyu yer osti shahri - Goreme qoyali cherkovlari - Asikli Höyük - Katal Xoyuk - Koniyaning dervishlari - Go'bekli Tepe ( ikki marta) - Xarran - Shanliurfa - Nemrut Dag va boshqalar.

Jim Uillis va Mikki Pistoriusning muzokaralari va ko'rsatmalari bilan tashrif buyuriladigan saytlar, qadimgi Anatoliya va Go'bekli tepa haqidagi eng so'nggi yangiliklar va nazariyalar, shuningdek tsivilizatsiyaning kelib chiqishi haqida bilib oling.

ERDAN BIRD SAVDO

Ancient Origins o'z o'quvchilariga 2019 yil dekabr oyining oxirigacha bo'lgan rezervasyonlarda har bir kishiga 4025 AQSh dollari miqdoridagi XUSUSIY QISHNI taklif qiladi!

Bu har bir kishi uchun 200 dollar (yoki er -xotin uchun 400 dollar)!

Ushbu eksklyuziv sayohatda o'z joyingizni saqlab qolish uchun ma'lumotlaringizni ro'yxatdan o'tkazing. Joyni ta'minlash uchun ariza to'ldirilgandan keyin 48 soat ichida har bir kishi uchun 800 AQSh dollari miqdorida depozit to'lanishi kerak. To'lov tafsilotlari shakl oxirida ko'rsatilgan.

2022 yil 15-26 may kunlari TURKIYAGA QADIMGI TURKIYA GASTURI

12 KUN/11 Kecha

Uchrashuv joyi ISTANBUL XALQARO AEROPORTI

Ekskursiya boshlanish joyi - Istanbul va Rsquos xalqaro aeroportining qabulxonasi. Yetib kelganida, barcha mijozlarga kelish vaqti va sanasidan qat'i nazar, Istanbuldagi mehmonxonaga pul o'tkaziladi. Ekskursiya oxirida barcha mijozlar Adiyaman aeroportiga xuddi shu umumiy transferda olib kelinadi.


Mening sayohat quvonchlarim

Bu erda tarix shunchaki ajoyib emasmi? Va siz tasvirlab bergan ajoyib tosh kabartmasiga tushish uchun. Men doimo Amerikaning yoshligini eslatib turardim. Qiziqarli nuqtai nazar.

yana bir yoqimli xabar va Nemrut maydoniga qaytish uchun eslatma.

@Jessica, ha! Turkiya meni hayratda qoldirishda davom etmoqda. Atrofda ko'proq xarobalar bo'lishini kuzatib boring.

@Alan, rahmat! Yana bu hafta keladi.

Xursandchilik, men sizga juda havas qilaman. sen mening orzularim bilan yashaysan. Turkiya tarixga to'la va hali ham sayyohlar bilan to'la va o'rganilmagan.

Bu qanday ajoyib sayt, men u erda bo'lganimga ancha bo'ldi - ko'p quvonchli xotiralarni qaytarganingiz uchun tashakkur!

@Dolce Fooda, marhamat, bizga tashrif buyuring! Turkiya tarixga to'la. va hozir Vashingtondan to'g'ridan -to'g'ri reyslar bor. :-)

@Ozlem, xursand bo'ldim, siz uchun baxtli xotiralarni esladim! Biz Istanbuldan juda ko'p turklarni bilamiz, ular mamlakatning bu qismiga jo'nab ketishmagan. Erim va 39 -yillardagi hamkasblarimiz bizni Turkiyaga qilgan sayohatlarimizdan hayratda va charchagan!

Men sizning har bir xabaringiz bilan Turkiyaga borishni xohlayman. hammasi shunchalik sehrli!

@Joys, eshitganimdan xursandman! O'ylaymanki, men Turkiyaning yaxshi elchisi bo'ldim. -)


Kommagen Arxiv munajjimlar bashorati

Sizni yarim yunon, yarim arman qadimgi podshohi Kommagen I Antiox bilan tanishtirishga ijozat bering. U miloddan avvalgi I asrda Kichik Osiyoda yashagan (hozirgi Turkiyada) va, ehtimol, astrologiya va germetikaga katta qiziqish bildirgan. Taxminan bizning dekabr oyiga to'g'ri keladigan yunon-makedoniya oyining 16-kunida tug'ilgan “Audynaios ”, Commagene Antiochus, ehtimol, yoy edi.


Bu qadimgi shoh hozir qandaydir tarzda modada. Men bu maqolani 2015 yil dekabr oyida qandaydir tarzda u bilan bog'liq uchta dolzarb mavzu o'rtasida yozyapman: qonli Suriya urushi, yahudiylarning Hanukka chiroqlar festivali va ellinistik munajjimlik.

Antioxning o'zi hayotdan ko'ra kattaroq odam bo'lishi mumkin edi, lekin uning shohligi "Commagene" zamonaviy Isroilga qaraganda kichikroq edi. Uning davrida (eramizdan avvalgi I asr), uning shohligi Parfiya, tobora kengayib borayotgan Rim va Ptolemey-Misr imperiyasi kabi tahdidli imperiyalar bilan o'ralgan edi.

Geografik nuqtai nazardan, Commagene zamonaviy Suriya chegaralaridan 25 mil shimolda joylashgan, bu erda hozirda qonli to'qnashuvlar bo'lib turibdi va son -sanoqsiz qochqinlar boshi berk ko'chadan qochishga harakat qilmoqda. Bu bizning shoh qahramonimizni hozirgi kun bilan bog'laydigan birinchi element.

Ikkinchi havola Aleksandr Makedonskiyning vorisi bo'lgan va miloddan avvalgi 165 yilda Makkab yahudiylari tomonidan mag'lubiyatga uchragan yunon qiroli bilan bog'liq.

Tasodifan, bu shoh - Antiox deb ham ataladi - Kommagen podshohi Antioxning onasining ajdodi edi! Mana, Kommagen Antioxini hozirgi davr bilan bog'laydigan ikkinchi element.

Va yaqinda Antioxga uchinchi bog'lanish ellinistik astrologiya bilan qayta tiklandi, u, ehtimol, Kommagen Antioxining qiziqishini juda chuqur, ezoterik darajada ushlab turgandi. Uning davrida ellinistik astrologiya Mesopotamiya ildizlari orqali shakllana boshladi va ayniqsa Mesopotamiyaga juda yaqin bo'lgan Komagen geografik hududida shakllana boshladi.

Antiox, "Taniqli Xudo" va "8221-Yunon tilidagi Epifan Teos" unvoniga ega, yoki megalomaniak yoki zukko siyosatchi edi. Uning shohligi kichkina va oxir -oqibat ulkan imperiyalar tomonidan yutib yuborilishini yaxshi bilgan Antiox sun'iy ravishda o'z shohligini ko'tarishga, mashhur "Kommagen sulolasini" yuksaltirishga va o'rnatishga urinib ko'rdi. "Nimrut tog'ida ulkan maqbara qurilishi," Komagene "ning eng baland tog'i, va u aytganidek," mening ruhim abadiy xudolar bilan yashaydi ".

Ko'p ming tonna tosh va shag'aldan foydalanib, uning ishchilari tog 'cho'qqisini mukammal piramidaga o'xshatdilar. Ular sharq va g'arb burchaklarida ikkita alohida terasta yaratdilar va shunga o'xshash xudolarning haykallarini qo'shdilar, shu jumladan, Antiox va#8217 haykallari! Bu ulkan haykallar ostidagi relyeflar Antiox va asosan xayoliy doston haqida hikoya qiladi. Aytishlaricha, piramida ichiga uning qabrini qo'yishgan.

G'arbiy terastadagi sherning relyefi biz uchun va, ehtimol, astrologiyaning butun tarixiga qiziq. Biz bilamizki, qadimdan sher shohlik ramzi bo'lgan. Garchi bu ma'badda/maqbarada sher haykallari ko'p bo'lsa -da, bu o'ziga xos sher plitasi boshqacha: uning yuzasida bir nechta yulduzlar aniq tasvirlangan! Darhaqiqat, 19 ta sakkiz qirrali yulduz butun sher bo'ylab, ba'zilari esa sher atrofida tarqalgan. Xuddi shu kattalikdagi emas, bu 19 yulduzlarning ba'zilari kattaroq, ba'zilari esa kichikroq. Bunday tafsilot tasodifiy bo'lishi mumkin emas.

Bu relyefni haykaltarosh qilgan rassom o'z qo'llari bilan yaxshi ishlagan va sherning tanasi atrofida 19 yulduzning joylashuvi yana bir savolni tug'diradi: bu tartib tasodifiymi yoki faqat dekorativmi yoki chuqurroq narsa bormi? Hatto havaskor astronom ham aytishi mumkinki, bu tartib tasodifiy emas.

Kommagen Antioxining davridan beri ikki ming yildan ko'proq vaqt o'tdi, lekin osmondagi burjlar deyarli bir xil konfiguratsiyani saqlab qolgan. Faqat o'n ming yillar o'tgach, ular sezilarli darajada o'zgaradi. Odatda, yunon astronomlari odatda 19 yulduzli Leo turkumini kuzatgan. Buni bilib, hamma narsa mos kela boshlaydi va bu sher plitasining ba'zi yulduzlari kattaroq, ba'zilari kichikroq ekanligi mantiqan to'g'ri keladi: ular o'zlarining haqiqiy kattaliklariga deyarli mos keladi!

Shunday qilib, biz tushunamizki, bu relyef astronomik tasvir bo'lib, u Leo turkumining xudosi bo'lishi mumkin. Ammo men taxmin qilmoqchi bo'lganimda, yana bir savol paydo bo'ladi: Nemrut tog'idagi sher haykalining tasviri aslida munajjimlar bashorati ekanligiga qanday amin bo'lishimiz mumkin? Shubhasiz, u hech kimga o'xshamaydi, yoki hech bo'lmaganda aylana munajjimlar bashorati va uning atrofida sayyoralar joylashgan.

Agar bu munajjimlar bashorati bo'lsa, unda odatda munajjimlar bashorati va sayyoralar, yuksalish, uylar va hk. Bizning munajjimlar bashorati haqidagi zamonaviy taxminlarimiz bu erda ko'rganlarimizga to'g'ri kelmaydi. Shunga qaramay, bu asosiy relyef haqidagi dalillar munajjimlar bashorati ssenariysiga ishora qiladi. Aqlli ko'z kerak - va qandaydir yunoncha tushuncha!

Biz bu sher plitasida 19 yulduz borligini oldin aytib o'tgan edik. Aslida, 22 kishi bor, lekin ulardan uchtasi - sherning orqasida suzib yurganlari - uchta sababga ko'ra boshqalardan ajralib turadi:

1) Ular boshqalarga qaraganda ancha katta.
2) Ular boshqa 19 yulduz singari sakkizta emas, o'n olti burchakli nurlardan iborat.
3) Ularning ustiga yunoncha ismlar bor. Aslida ularning yunoncha ismlari sirli tabiatning kalitidir!

Yunoncha —ΠΥΡΟΕΙC ΗΡΑΚΛ (ΕΟΥC) – chapdagi o'n olti burchakli “star ” iborasi Geraklning olovli degan ma'nosini bildiradi. Albatta, bu qadimiy yunon astronomiyasi yoki adabiyoti haqida birorta ma'lumotga ega bo'lmasangiz, mantiqiy emas. In classical Greece, “the Fiery one” referred to the planet Mars which in ancient Greek texts we often encounter simply as ΠΥΡΟΕΙC—the “Fiery.” We will see below why the full title “the fiery one of Hercules” is displayed here.

The Greek phrase—CΤΙΛΒΩΝ ΑΠΟΛΛΩΝΟC—over the central sixteen-pointed “star” means the glittering one of Apollo. But without someone’s knowledge about Greek astronomy or literature, again this sentence will not make much astrological sense. In classical Greece, the name of the planet Mercury was known as “the Glittering one.” We often encounter it in ancient Greek texts simply as CΤΙΛΒΩΝ—the Glittering.

And the Greek phrase–ΦΑΕΘΩΝ ΔΙΟC—over the right sixteen-pointed “star” means: the radiant one of Jupiter. This is the easiest item to identify on the Lion slab because indeed it refers to planet Jupiter. In classical Greece, “the Radiant one” was the name of planet Jupiter. We often encounter it in ancient Greek texts simply as ΦΑΕΘΩΝ – the “Radiant”.


When planets and gods commune

At this point, the Lion slab takes a whole new meaning and becomes apparent that this is not a mere representation of the constellation of Leo, but there is still more to it. It most probably has astrological connotations. Otherwise the three fully named planets over the Lion’s back would make no sense. Why would they inscribe and depict just the planets of Mars, Mercury and Jupiter on the slab? Why not Venus and Saturn too? The latter are conspicuously absent!

The sequence of planets over the lions back might be another important clue. They do not follow the classic sequence—Mercury, Mars, Jupiter—but they are enumerated in this rather erratic manner: Mars, Mercury, Jupiter. Did the sculptor commit an error in the sequence of the planets? Or is the famous scholar Otto Neugebauer correct in claiming the sequence of these planets is either accidental or manneristically repeats the late Babylonian enumeration of the planets—Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Mars? If we omit Venus and Saturn, we get Jupiter, Mercury, Mars, the exact sequence of the planets on the lion slab although mirrored in reverse. I personally think Neugebauer’s assumption does not hold much water. In contrast to what we know today, he lacked some crucial archaeological findings.

I believe the lion slab is “semiotically” connected to the gigantic statues of the deities at the pyramid’s base. At both the eastern and western terraces, the same array of deities is replicated in exactly the same order: the deified Antiochus on the very left, the all=important Greek goddess Tyche—Fortune, Jupiter at the center, Mercury and, finally, Mars on the very right. If we start enumerating these statues from right to left we get Mars, Mercury, Jupiter. That’s exactly the sequence of the three planets on the lion slab!

Of course there are a couple of objections here:

Why should we enumerate the gods/planets at the base of the pyramid from right to left when, on the lion slab, we enumerate the three planets from left to right?

Why are the two major statues/deities—Apollo and Mars—located on the left, the “lesser” side of Jupiter, while a mortal like Antiochus stands on Jupiter’s right, “good” side?

The answer to the second question is simple: The Mesopotamians always took the observers’–the pilgrims in this case—point of view into account, so actually Antiochus stands on the lesser, left side of Jupiter. In the first question, it was a matter of “staging.” Since Jupiter as the king of the gods had to be at the very center of the statues’ array, the only viable option left was to enumerate the Mars-Mercury-Jupiter sequence on the reverse, ending with Mars on the far right. Even so, the lion slab and the array of the statues are intrinsically attuned! The full planetary denomination over the lion’s back—for example, “the glittering one of Apollo” for Mercury—enabled the pilgrims to correlate the lion’s esoteric symbolism to that of the gods’ gigantic statues.


A lunar "necklace" - Signs vs Constellations

There is a last decisive clue on the lion slab we haven’t touched so far. A clearly visible type of sickle-shaped ornament is shown on the lion’s chest. In the long Mesopotamian, and probably global, tradition, a sickle-shape symbolizes the Moon. Here, we can see the message that the lion slab shows the Moon in the constellation of Leo.

This isn’t an astronomical slab but an astrological one commemorating some major event either for Antiochus or the kingdom of Commagene, taking place under the auspices of the constellation of Leo!

Did you notice I’ve been writing “constellation of Leo” instead of “zodiacal sign of Leo?” Although both the constellations and the zodiac are divided into 12 sections bearing the same names, constellations and zodiacal signs are two radically different things. The constellations remain (relatively) fixed on the celestial vault while the zodiacal signs are slowly shifting. Today, for example, the constellation of Leo largely corresponds to that section of the sky where the zodiacal sign of Virgo is. In some 2500 years the constellation of Leo will be corresponding to the zodiacal sign of Libra. That’s why I am cautious with the use of the terms “constellation” and sign”. But by a remarkable coincidence in Antiochus’ times, the tropical and sidereal zodiacs were almost coinciding and were off by just 4 degrees. So astrologically speaking, the “constellation of Leo” and the “zodiacal sign of Leo” were almost the same back then.

To what extent Commagene astrologers were aware of conceptual differences between constellations and the zodiac, we are not sure. Within the realm of the Hellenistic world, Hipparchus had discovered precession of the equinoxes in 130 BCE. From that point on, astrologers had to take a gigantic leap in consciousness to comprehend and assimilate that there was a new “entity” called “zodiacal sign,” which was quite different and independent from its namesake constellation! Generations would definitely pass before astrologers began to adjust to this new idea.

But let’s turn back to the lion slab which obviously depicts a horoscope! To our modern eyes, we may not see it because we instinctively compare it with the modern horoscopic blueprints with which we are familiar—the ones with the zodiacal circle, the planetary symbols, the houses, the Ascendant and so on. But we shouldn’t apply modern preconceptions to artifacts that are more than 2000 years old. At that time, for instance, the Ascendant was a concept not yet developed. There were no astrological houses at least not in the modern sense. Apparently the zodiac had already been invented, but it was handled as a theoretical concept without much usefulness. The astrologers of that era were following old traditions and verbally wrote down planetary positions in the signs, writing the words instead of the symbols.

Those were times of a major transition in astrology. The “omen lore” era where horoscopes consisted of simple planetary omens inscribed on mud-bricks was coming to an end, and the gigantic wave of the new, revolutionary Hellenistic astrology was emerging on the horizon. If we could see Mount Nemrut’s lion slab through the eyes of an educated person in that culture, we would immediately see a very advanced horoscope!

Apparently, this lion slab horoscope serves two major purposes: On one hand, it astronomically marks as a short calendar, the date of some important event. On the other hand, this short “certificate” gives testimony to the event’s having taken place during some extraordinary cosmic occurrence that vibrationally “sealed” it for ever!

But what was that important event and when did it occur?


Determining the date of the "event"

Thanks to the lion horoscope and modern computers, it’s rather easy to establish the date of this unknown event. We are looking for when the Moon and the planets of Mars, Mercury and Jupiter were all in the constellation or zodiacal sign of Leo. We will not get many such dates. And thanks to information provided by the inscriptions at the site, we know this important event was related either to Antiochus or to his father Mithridates who ascended to the throne in 109 BCE. We can further narrow the time frame to the period between 140 BCE and 38 BCE, when Antiochus died. We then can obtain the results you see in the next table:

I immediately dismiss case 2 because Antiochus wasn’t even born in 98 BCE and it doesn’t correspond to any major event in the lives of Antiochus or of Mithridates. It also doesn’t obey the Mars-Mercury-Jupiter sequence we see depicted on the lion slab. I also dismiss case 4 because Antiochus was rather old by then and his Mount Nemrut statue portrays him as a young man. This case also fails to obey the crucial Mars-Mercury-Jupiter sequence.

We are left then with cases 1 and 3. Case 1—July 14th, 109—corresponds to the coronation year of King Mithridates, Antiochus’ father. Some scholars claim the lion horoscope is “cast” for the Mithridates coronation. I disagree. Why would they elect a coronation horoscope, leaving the Sun, the most regal of the “planets” out of the sign/constellation of Leo and in Cancer instead?

Case 3 is the most satisfactory of them all. It not only meets the requirements, the Sun is in the sign/constellation of Leo, the ultimate “certificate” of royalty! But then, very reasonably, you will say to me, “There is no sun depicted on the lion horoscope.” I don’t think that’s true. The entire lion slab depicts the Sun in Leo so there was no need to inscribe the Sun symbol on it.

Such an absolutely rare and unique accumulation of planets in the regal sign of Leo could not have gone unnoticed by an erudite man, well-versed in astrology and hermeticism—our man Antiochus I Theos! Those years were extraordinary from another point of view as well: the regal star Regulus, lying at the “heart” of the Leo constellation a few inches above the lunar “sickle” we identified on the lion slab, had just entered the zodiacal sign of Leo.

Antiochus took full advantage of this extraordinary cosmic occurrence to deify himself and to establish an illustrious dynasty that included the construction of his enormous sanctuary/mausoleum on the summit of Mount Nemrut. He most likely performed a sort of “Theurgy” there on August 3rd, 62 BCE and equaled himself and his dynasty to the gods. This was probably when he gave himself the title of “Epiphanes Theos” —“Manifest God” and propitiated his kingdom. He wasn’t very successful however. A few decades after his death, the Romans annexed Commagene to their huge empire. Nevertheless, the Antiochus monument and the lion horoscope have survived more than 2000 years, still creating fascination in people all over the world. In that sense, the legacy of Antiochus I of Commagene has indeed been immortalized while horoscope of the lion has been a perfect election after all.


Mount Nemrut

Antiochus is famous for building the impressive religious sanctuary of Nemrud Dagi or Mount Nemrut. When Antiochus reigned as king he was creating a royal cult for himself and was preparing to be worshipped after his death. Antiochus was inspired to create his own cult in the Greek form of the religion Zoroastrianism. Antiochus left many Greek inscriptions revealing many aspects of his religion and explaining his purpose of action. In one inscription, Antiochus wrote erecting his tomb in a high and holy place should be remote from people and should be close to the gods and be in rank with them. Antiochus wanted his body to be preserved for eternity. The gods he worshipped were a syncretism of Greek, Armenian, and Iranian gods, such as Hercules-Vahagn, Zeus-Aramazd or Oromasdes (associated with the Iranic god Ahura Mazda), Tyche, and Apollo-Mithras. The monumental effigies of the site show both Persian and Greek icnonographic influences. Persian influences can be seen in the clothes, headgear and the colossal size of the images, while the depiction of their physical features derives from Greek artistic style.

Antiochus practised astrology of a very esoteric kind, and laid the basis for a calendrical reform, by linking the Commagene year, which till then had been based on the movements of the Sun and Moon, to the Sothic-Anahit (Star of Sirius) and Hayk (Star of Orion) cycle used by the Egyptians as the basis of their calendar. This would suggest that Antiochus was knowledgeable about, if not fully initiated into Hermeticism.

Antiochus’ tomb complex was constructed in a way that religious festivities could occur. Each month Antiochus had two festivities: his birthday which was celebrated on the 16th of each month and his coronation which was celebrated on the 10th of each month. He allocated funds for these events from properties legally bound to the site. He also appointed families of priests and hierodules, whose descendants were intended to, continue the ritual service in perpetuity. Priests wore traditional Persian robes and adorned with crowns of gold the images of the gods and Antiochus' ancestors. The priests offered incense, herbs, and other unspecified "splendid sacrifices" on altars set before each image. All the citizens and military garrison were invited to the banquets in honor of the illustrious deceased. During feasts, grudging attitudes were forbidden and Antiochus decreed that the people should enjoy themselves, eat and drink wine, and listen to the sacred music performed by the temple musicians.

Antiochus’ tomb was forgotten for centuries, until 1883 when archaeologists from Germany excavated it. According to the inscriptions found, Antiochus appears to have been a pious person and had a generous spirit. In another city of the kingdom Arsameia, ruins have found of the royal palace. This palace is known as Eski Vale yoki Old Castle. In Arsameia, Antiochus has left many inscriptions in Greek of his public works program and how he glorified the city.


Videoni tomosha qiling: #tezkor #abdulloh #domla YIGIT VA QIZ QOL BERIB KORISHISH MUMKINMI???? (Yanvar 2022).