XP-46 P-40 Warhawk ishini yaxshilashga qaratilgan urinishlardan biri bo'lib, ularning hech biri ishlab chiqarishga kirmagan. 1939 yil sentyabr oyida XP-46 ustida ish boshlandi. Unda 1150 ot kuchiga ega bo'lgan Allison V-1710-39 kuchli dvigateli ishlatilgan. Dizayn harakatlanishni kamaytirish uchun tozalandi va soatiga 400 mil dan yuqori tezlik bashorat qilindi.
Hech qanday qurolsiz XP-46A birinchi marta 1941 yil 15-fevralda uchdi. Ishlash kutilganidek yaxshi emas edi-maksimal tezlik atigi 355 mil / soat. Bu ishlab chiqarishdagi P-40D-ga nisbatan juda ozgina yaxshilanish edi, albatta ishlab chiqarishni buzilishini oqlaydigan etarlicha katta yaxshilanish emas edi, shuning uchun XP-46 ustida ishlashdan voz kechildi.
Curtiss Aeroplane ning AQSh armiyasi qiruvchisini etkazib berishdagi muvaffaqiyati klassik P-40 "Warhawk" qatorida edi. Biroq, bu urushdan oldingi dizayn edi va kompaniyaning qiruvchi maydonda qo'shimcha armiya shartnomalarini tuzishga bo'lgan ko'p urinishlari muvaffaqiyatsizlikka uchradi. Asl P-40 mahsulotini takomillashtirishga urinishlar ham bo'ldi va Lockheed, Republic va Shimoliy Amerika singari raqobatchilar armiyaning potentsial daromadli kelishuvlarini qo'lga kiritish uchun birlashib ketishdi.
XP-62 Curtiss tomonidan o'sha paytdagi eng katta radial pistonli dvigatel-Wright R-3350 "Tsiklon 18" atrofida juda tez qiruvchi platforma yaratish uchun ishlab chiqilgan. Bu ish Qo'shma Shtatlar 1941 yil dekabr oyida bo'lib o'tgan Jahon urushiga qo'shilishidan oldin ham boshlandi. O'sha yilning yanvar oyida Kurtis o'z rejalari bilan AQSh armiyasi ma'muriyatiga murojaat qilib, jangchining salohiyatiga ishontirdi. oy oxirigacha harakat qiling.
Tsiklon dvigateli 1936 yilda boshlangan edi, lekin u o'zini butunlay temperamentli qilib ko'rsatdi, chunki kechikish odatiy hol edi. Dvigatelning katta hajmidan tashqari, 2000 ot kuchidan oshiqroq quvvatga ega edi va mashhur Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" og'ir bombardimonchisining haydash zavodi sifatida eng yaxshi ishlatilishini topdi (bu bombardimonchi to'rtta shunday dvigatelni ishlatgan). Ehtimol, undan ham ixchamroq qiruvchi samolyotni quvvatlantirish uchun ishlatilgani - bu misli ko'rilmagan tezlik va ishlash omillarini o'sha paytdagi raqobatchilarga tenglashtirdi. Bu davrda Rayt mahsuloti o'z turidagi eng qudratli mahsulotlardan biri edi-XP-62 konstruktsiyasini quvvatlantirish va 2300 ot kuchidan yuqori ishlab chiqarishni ta'minlash uchun Wright R-3350-17 modeli tanlangan. Turbo-super zaryadlovchi ham dvigatelning bir qismi bo'lishi kerak edi. Samolyot old tomonida katta diametrli (13 futdan ortiq) olti pichoqli aylanuvchi pervanel o'rnatiladi.
Samolyot o'zining ulkan radiusidan tashqari, zamonaviy metall teridan yasalgan konstruktsiyaga, balandlikdagi parvozlar uchun bosimli kokpitga va 12 x 0,50 kalibrli Brauning og'ir pulemyotlariga mos keladigan qurolga ega bo'lishi kerak edi. Shu bilan bir qatorda, pulemyotlarni yanada kuchli frontal "zarba" uchun 20 mm diametrli to'rtdan sakkizta akkumulyator batareyasi bilan almashtirish mumkin edi.
Yakuniy mahsulot burni ostiga turbo-zaryadlovchi qabul qilish kanali o'rnatilgan, chuqur korpusli samolyotga aylandi. Kokpitning orqa tarafida ko'tarilgan korpusning orqa qismi ko'rinishni cheklab qo'ydi, lekin yonilg'i, avionika va boshqa muhim komponentlar uchun ichki hajm qo'shildi. Kokpit issiqxona uslubidagi chodir bilan qoplangan va dvigatel o'rnatilishidan bir oz narida joylashgan. Quyruq birligi dorsal umurtqa pog'onasidan chiqadigan dumaloq vertikal dumli qanotdan va o'rtaga o'rnatilgan gorizontal tekisliklardan iborat edi. Pastki korpus dumini tortish uchun odatiy tuzilishga ega edi va uni hamma orqaga tortib olish mumkin edi. Belgilangan pulemyot o'rniga, endi qurol -yarog 'sakkiztagacha qurol -aslaha bilan qurollangan edi.
Curtiss samolyotni "Model 91" nomi ostida ishlab chiqdi va 1940 yil aprelda o'z taklifini taqdim etdi. Bu keyingi oy tasdiqlandi va XP-62 prototipi va ishlab chiqarish sifatidagi XP-62A-birinchi bo'lib tayyorlandi. 1942 yil oxiri. Kurtiss muhandislari ishga kirishganida, lekin tez orada muammoli dvigatel o'z vaqtida tayyor bo'lmasligi aniqlandi.
Shunga qaramay, 1941 yil dekabr oyida maketni qayta ko'rib chiqish mumkin edi. Bu vaqtga kelib, mahsulotning og'irligi puflab ketdi va uni yengillashtirishga buyruq berildi (bu 4x20 mm o'lchamdagi to'p bilan qurollangan standartga muvofiq). Armiya 1942 yil may oyida yakuniy P-62A ishlab chiqarish uchun Curtissga rasmiy ishlab chiqarish shartnomasini topshirdi. Biroq, iyul oyida Boeing B-29 loyihasi Wright dvigatelining tanlangan zaxirasini talab qilganda, bu shartnoma bekor qilindi. Armiya ma'muriyati, shuningdek, Kurtissning P-40 va P-47 respublikasi "Thunderbolt" qiruvchi samolyotlarini ishlab chiqarish majburiyatini buzishdan xavotirda edi.
XP-62 prototipi qisqartirilgan holatda davom etdi, chunki unga shoshilinchlik hissi berilmadi. Birinchi parvoz nihoyat 1943 yil 21 -iyulda qayd etilgan, ammo bu model hali ham muhim tarkibiy qismlardan mahrum bo'lgan va ishlab chiqaruvchi qiruvchi samolyotga yaqin bo'lgan narsani anglatmaydi. Bir necha oy ichida, XP-62 dasturi to'liq bekor qilindi (bu 1943 yil 21 sentyabrda sodir bo'lgan), chunki urushning so'nggi yillarida armiya uchun yaxshi alternativalar mavjud edi. Kurtis armiyani yangi samolyotni past balandlikdagi quruqlikdagi hujum platformasiga aylantirishning afzalliklariga ishontirishga harakat qildi, lekin bu sohada mavjud samarali modellar va ishlab chiqilayotgan modellar orasida raqobat juda ko'p edi.
Oxir-oqibat, XP-62 urush yillarida paydo bo'lgan oxirgi Curtiss mahsulotlaridan biri bo'ldi. Uning P-40 konstruktsiyasi uning yagona klassik qiruvchi hissasi edi va mojaro tugagunga qadar hech qachon yaxshilanmagan. XP-62 ning yagona prototipi amalga oshirildi va uning uchish vaqti qisqa. Agar tugallansa, XP-62 maksimal tezlikni soatiga 450 milgacha (asl ko'rsatkichi soatiga 470 milya), 1500 milgacha bo'lgan masofani va xizmat ko'rsatish tavanining balandligi 35,700 futni (shu sababli uning kokpitidagi bosim tizimini) ko'rsatgan bo'lar edi. - bu ham muammoli bo'lib chiqdi). O'lchamlari uzunligi 39,5 fut, qanotlari 54 fut va balandligi 16,25 fut edi.
Curtiss C-46: ketayotgan qo'mondonlik
Curtiss C-46 Commando Ikkinchi Jahon Urushining og'ir yuk tashuvchi chempioni bo'ldi.
© Jon M. Dibbs/Samolyot rasmlari kompaniyasi
Curtiss C-46 Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida uzoq joylardagi qo'pol uchish-qo'nish bortidan ishlay oladigan baland tog'li og'ir yuk tashuvchi uchun joyni to'ldirdi.
Ular buni Curtiss ofati, Ol Dumbo, Uchayotgan kit va yaqinda Miss Piggi deb atashdi. C-46 Commando birinchi bo'lib uchganida dunyodagi eng katta egizak dvigatelli samolyot edi-B-17 yoki B-24 ga qaraganda uzunroq, balandroq va kengroq qanotli. C-46 samolyotida uchish uchun model va uslubiga qarab 20 dan 26 tonnagacha alyuminiy va po'lat bilan kurashish kerak edi. Uchuvchilar bor edi, agar siz C-46 bilan ucha olsangiz, hamma narsaga ucha olasiz, deb aytgan. Boshqalar, agar siz uni taksiga olsangiz, uchib ketishingiz mumkin deb da'vo qilishdi. Boshqalar esa, bu holatni bema'ni sonofabit deb atashdi va bunga hech qanday aloqasi yo'q edi.
Curtiss dastlab C-46 ni bosimli hashamatli avialayner sifatida Nyu-York va Chikago o'rtasidagi oltin yo'lni tinimsiz va ko'p ob-havodan yuqoriga ko'tarish uchun mo'ljallangan. Bu 24-36 o'rinli "sub-stratosfera transporti" bo'lardi, deb taxmin qiladilar kompaniyaning sotuvchilari, o'zaro kelishilgan yotoq joylari bilan konfiguratsiya qilingan holda. Lekin u hech qachon bosim o'tkazmaydi, hashamatli bo'lmaydi va hech qachon haqiqiy samolyot bo'lmaydi. Yaxshiyamki, urushdan qolgan yuzlab qo'mondonlar 1940-yillarning oxiri va 50-yillarning boshlarida rejasiz yuk va yo'lovchi tashuvchilar tomonidan ishga tushirilgan. Hukumatga har biri 313,500 dollarga tushgan C-46'lar 5000 dollargacha ortiqcha sotilgan.
1936 yilda Curtiss CW-20 samolyotining konstruktsiyasi boshlanganda, urush aralashmagan Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari uchun uzoq tahdid edi va Duglas DC-3 jiddiy tijorat samolyotlari bilan sayohat qilish imkoniyatini allaqachon ko'rsatgan edi. Dug, Boeing 247 va Curtissning 12 o'rindiqli, orqaga tortiladigan tishli Condor II biplanini eskirgan qilib qo'ydi. Curtiss kelajakda Boeing to'rt dvigatelli 307 Stratoliner va Duglas DC-4 o'rtasidagi raqobatni ko'rib chiqdi.
1920 va 30-yillarda Curtiss bitta dvigatelli qiruvchi kompaniya bo'lib, armiya va dengiz floti uchun uzoq chiziqli, keyin P-36 va P-40 Hawk qiruvchilarini armiya havo korpusi va eksporti bilan shug'ullanardi. CW-20 Condor III-bu kompaniya ilgari amalga oshirgan eng katta va eng murakkab dizayn edi.
Ishlab chiqaruvchi muhandis Jorj A. Peyj edi, u oxir -oqibat Curtissning 60 ta dizaynini boshqargan. Peyj kashshof aviator bo'lib, 1913 yilda yakkaxon bo'lgan va hatto qisqa vaqt ichida aviakompaniyaning uchuvchisi bo'lib ishlagan. Komando uning karerasining eng yuqori cho'qqisi edi. Page o'zining CW-20 konstruktsiyasini diametri 10 fut bo'lgan Guggenxaym aviatsiya laboratoriyalarining Caltech shamol tunnelida sinab ko'rdi. Tunnel sinovlari uni C-46 ga aylangan g'ayrioddiy nassellarni ishlab chiqarishga undadi. Bu qanotlarning yuqori ko'taruvchi yuzalarida turbulent sovutuvchi havo oqimini oziqlantirishdan saqlaydi.
Shamol tunneli, shuningdek, CW-20/C-46 ning eng o'ziga xos xususiyatlaridan birini-samolyotning kokpit oynasini soddalashtirishini tasdiqladi, bu esa Commando-ga sigaretaning mukammal shaklini berdi. An'anaviy old oynalar yordamida kam sonli C-46 samolyotlari qurilgan, ular "burni singan qo'mondonlar" deb nomlangan.
Page tomonidan Caltech-da tasdiqlangan yana bir o'ziga xos Commando xususiyati-bu samolyotning ikki pufakchali, sakkizinchi kesimi. CW-20 dunyodagi birinchi bosimli samolyot Boeing 307 bilan raqobatlashish uchun bosim ostida bo'lishi kerak edi. Curtiss, shuningdek, CW-20 ning asosiy kabinasi ostida katta, alohida bagaj bo'linmasiga ega bo'lishini xohlardi, bu o'sha davr uchun yangilik. Bosimli bosim uchun ideal bo'lgan bitta dumaloq kesimdagi keng idishni ham, qo'shimcha yuk maydonini ham qamrab olsak, katta frontal maydonga ega korpus yaratiladi va shu tariqa tortishish kuchayadi. Shunday qilib, Peyj yo'lovchilar kabinasini o'z ichiga oladigan keng polga mahkam bog'langan qisman aylanani va bosilmagan yuk maydoni uchun pastdan erga bog'langan, kichikroq ovoid maydonni tasvirlab berdi.
Natija, ayniqsa, kamroq tortishish edi, lekin bu behuda mashq edi. Kurtis urush vaqtidagi talablar paytida bosim tizimini ishlab chiqishga vaqt topa olmadi va urushdan keyin aviakompaniyaning samolyotning fuqarolik versiyasiga bo'lgan qiziqishning yo'qligi kompaniyani ishni bajarishga sababsiz qoldirdi. Hech qachon CW-20 yoki C-46 ga bosim o'tkazilmagan.
CW-20 prototipida salon va bagaj bo'lagi orasidagi burilishni yashirish uchun uzun alyuminiy qopqog'i bor edi, lekin og'irligi 275 kilogramm bo'lgan qo'shimcha metall ishlab chiqarish murakkabligini oshirdi va aerodinamik jihatdan hech narsa qilmadi. U tezda sakson oltita bo'lib, yalang'och holda C-46 samolyotining korpus shaklini qoldirdi. Page CW-20 konfiguratsiyasi bo'yicha dizayn patentini oldi, xuddi Coca-Cola ari belli shishasining shaklini patentlagan. Boeing besh yil o'tgach, 377 Stratocruiser modelini yaratish uchun patentni qanday chetlab o'tgani noma'lum, ammo Boeing va Duglas Curtiss patentining amal qilish muddati tugagandan so'ng 707 va DC-8 ikkita ko'pikli pufakchani loyihalashtirishgan.
Curtiss 1700 ot kuchiga ega Wright Twin siklonlarini 2000 ot kuchiga ega Pratt & amp; (Milliy arxiv)
1940 yil mart oyida Boeing sinov uchuvchisi Eddi Allen katta Curtissni birinchi parvoziga olib chiqdi. Allen mamlakatning eng tajribali ko'p dvigatelli uchuvchisi edi va Duglas DC-2 dan Boeing 314 uchuvchi qayigacha bo'lgan hamma narsada o'nlab birinchi parvozlarni amalga oshirdi. G'arbiy Sohil samolyotlarining klublar dunyosida u vaqti -vaqti bilan erkin ishlay olardi.
O'sha paytda urush bulutlari paydo bo'ldi va Kurtiss CW-20 ni o'zining asosiy Buffalo shtatidagi hangarining orqasida, inglizlar uchun P-40 ishlab chiqarishni tezlashtirdi. Afsonada aytilishicha, 1940 yil sentyabr oyida general-mayor Genri "Xap" Arnold samolyotlarni ishlab chiqarish ob'ektlarini aylanib chiqayotganda Curtisga tashrif buyurgan, CW-20 ni ko'rgan va "Menga bu samolyot kerak" deb aytilgan. O'shandan beri havo korpusi prototipni sotib oldi va uni C-55 belgisi ostida sinovdan o'tkazdi, ehtimol Arnold yuk va qo'shin tashish salohiyatidan xabardor bo'lgan.
Afsuski, C-55 xom, tugallanmagan prototip edi. Kurtissning dastlabki parvoz sinovlaridan so'ng qilgan yagona muhim o'zgarishi, egizak dumini Commandoning katta vertikal qanoti bilan almashtirish edi va Eddi Allen past tezlikdagi barqarorlik va bitta dvigatel bilan ishlashdan shikoyat qilgan edi. Havo korpusi C-55 ni Buffaloga qaytarish uchun kerakli tuzatishlar va tartiblarning uzun ro'yxatini yubordi, lekin Xap Arnoldning dizaynga bo'lgan talabi C-46 ga aylanadigan 200 taga buyurtma berdi.
Birinchi etkazib berilgan 25 ta C-46 samolyoti yalang'och ichki qismli CW-20s edi. 26-chi muhim o'zgarishlarni o'z ichiga oldi: Curtissning 1,700 ot kuchiga ega Wright R-2600 Twin Cyclone dvigatellari o'tib ketdi, ularning o'rniga eng yaxshi va eng ishonchli katta radial-Pratt & amp; Uitnining 2000 ot kuchiga ega R-2800 Double Wasp. R-2800 o'zining ikki bosqichli super zaryadlovchisiga ega bo'lib, yuqori bosimli samolyotga mos keladigan birinchi yuqori balandlikdagi Commando qobiliyatini berdi.
Balandlik ko'rsatkichi C-46 ning Ikkinchi Jahon Urushiga qo'shgan asosiy hissasi edi: bu Xitoy-Birma-Hindiston teatrining mashhur "Hump" yo'nalishi bo'yicha Himoloy tog'larini kesib o'tadigan baland balandlikdagi yagona og'ir yuk samolyoti edi. Yaponiyaliklar Birma yo'lini yopganidan keyin Chiang Kay-Shek armiyasiga yuk. C-47 samolyotlari Hump uchuvchilari "Rockpile" deb nomlagan joyni kesib o'tishdi va oxir-oqibat, Yaponiyaning chekinishi pastroq balandlikdagi Hump yo'nalishini ochganda, to'rt dvigatelli C-54 samolyot ko'taruvchisiga aylandi. Biroq, C-46 samolyotlarini etkazib berish yo'lining birinchi yillarida Hump-topping ishining asosiy qismini amalga oshirdi.
Ammo C-46 hech kimga yoqmadi. Hump yo'nalishlarida ishlatiladigan 230 ta qo'mondonlardan 31 tasi-flotning 13 foizdan ko'prog'i parvoz paytida portladi. Uzoq vaqtdan beri 55 gallon barabanli avgas yuklari sabab bo'lgan deb o'ylagan edik va Xitoyga sharqiy yo'nalishdagi yuk qanchalik sovuq bo'lmasin, C-46 ekipajlari hindistonga bo'sh qaytguncha kokpit isitgichiga tegmaydilar. gaz bug'laridan tozalash. Oxir-oqibat, qanot tanklaridagi kichik oqish va yonilg'i quyish liniyalari C-46 ning qanotsiz ildizlarida to'planganligi aniqlandi, u erda uchqun uchib ketadi. Urushdan so'ng, barcha C-46 samolyotlari to'g'ri shamollatish moslamalari, yonilg'i quyish nasoslari va himoyalangan qanotli simlar bilan o'zgartirildi.
C-46 o'zining eng mashhur muammosini-Hindiston va Xitoy o'rtasidagi Himoloy orqali o'tadigan & quotHump & quot yo'lini hal qiladi. (Milliy arxiv)
Komandos, shuningdek, ekipaj tanklarni almashtirmoqchi bo'lganida, balandlikda yonilg'i quyish liniyalarining bug 'qulflanishi bilan mashhur bo'lgan. Yagona yechim - tushish va qayta ishga tushirish edi, bu Himoloylar uchun deyarli imkonsiz edi. Urushdan keyingi fuqarolik C-46-lari yoqilg'ini bug 'pufagi orqali zo'rlik bilan itarish uchun o'z tanklariga suv osti elektr yonilg'i nasoslarini o'rnatgan.
Son-sanoqsiz nashr etilgan manbalarda Hump operatsiyalari paytida karbüratör muzlashi C-46 bugaboo sifatida ko'rsatilgan, lekin bu noto'g'ri nom. Uchuvchi uchun "karbüratör muzlashi"-bu nam havoni to'satdan uglevodlar venturi orqali oqishi natijasida sovigan, nam havoni muzga aylantiradigan, karbüratörün ichki to'sig'ini anglatadi. Haqiqatan ham, Commandos duch kelgan va ular tez -tez Himoloyda qilganlar - muzdan tushish yoki tashqi karbüratör havosining qor, yomg'ir va o'ta sovigan yomg'irdan jismoniy to'siq bo'lishi. Pistonli dvigatelning indüksiyon havo manbasini o'chiring va u ishlamayapti. Yagona davolanish - bu katta Pratt vafot etishidan oldin, iliq dvigatel nasselining ichidagi ikkinchi darajali havo kirishidan "muqobil havo" ni tez tanlash. Issiq, lekin o'lik R-2800-ni 20000 fut balandlikda qayta ishga tushirish qiyin bo'lishi mumkin.
C-46 ning to'rt pichoqli Curtiss elektr rekvizitlari ham xavfli edi. Nam Hindistonda elektr kontaktlari korroziyaga uchradi va rekvizitlar birdaniga haddan oshib ketadi. "Kema uchuvchisi uchish paytida, agar rekvizitlar tezligi oshib ketsa, barmog'ini o'chirish tizimining o'tish tugmachalarida ushlab turishi kerak edi", deb yozgan sobiq qo'mondon uchuvchi Don Downi o'zining ajoyib kitobida. Hump uchish. Oxir-oqibat C-46 samolyotlari uch pichoqli Hamilton-Standard pervanellariga ega bo'lishdi va hozirgacha juda kam sonli Commandos uchishining asosiy sabablaridan biri shundaki, bu ulkan rekvizitlar bugungi kunda juda kamdan-kam hollarda o'zgarmasdir.
Samolyot, shuningdek, gidravlik tizimi oqayotganligi sababli, xizmat ko'rsatuvchi cho'chqa edi. Hump sayohatlarida, tajribali ekipaj boshliqlari, Xitoyda aylanish vaqtida tizimni to'ldirish uchun etarli bo'lishini ta'minlash uchun, 55 gallonli gidravlik suyuqlik barabanini olib yurishardi. Boshqa ko'plab taxalluslar orasida Commando shu tariqa Leaky Tiki deb nomlangan. Kurtis juda katta samolyot kuchli boshqaruv elementlarini talab qiladi deb o'ylagani uchun, u gidravlika, lift va rulda ishlaydigan gidravlik tizimlarga, shuningdek, qo'nish moslamalari va qanotlariga ega edi. Oxir-oqibat boshqaruvni kuchaytirish tizimlari olib tashlandi va C-46 ularsiz yaxshi uchib ketdi. Garchi hech bo'lmaganda bitta C-46 Hump uchuvchisi C-47 safariga tayinlanish "sport mashinasini haydashga o'xshaydi", deb aytgan bo'lsa-da, bu so'zlar ilgari yoki undan keyin Gooney Birdga qo'llanilmagan.
Odatda qo'mondon uch kishidan iborat ekipaj bilan Hump uchib ketdi - ikkita uchuvchi va radio operatori. Ko'p manbalarga ko'ra, C-46 samolyotlarida bort muhandislari bor, deb da'vo qilishsa ham, kokpitda bunday pozitsiya yo'q. Ko'pincha ekipaj tarkibiga yuk ko'taruvchi va mexanik vazifasini bajaruvchi ekipaj boshlig'i ham kiradi.
Ekipaj spektrining boshqa uchida C-46 samolyotlari vaqti-vaqti bilan, ayniqsa tajribali uchuvchilar tomonidan, Rockpile ustida yakkalanib turardi. Samolyotning barcha boshqaruv elementlari va tizimlariga koptok stulidan o'rnatilgan C-47-dan farqli o'laroq, chap o'rindiqdan kirish mumkin edi, bu kaput qopqog'iga oson kirish uchun. C-46 shuningdek, yuklarni yuklashga katta yordam beradigan o'ylangan xususiyatga ega edi: samolyot to'xtab turgan paytda katta yuk eshigining ichidagi idishni tagligi tekis edi. Forklift-yoki, ba'zida Hindistonda bo'lgani kabi, magistraliga benzin bochkasi bilan o'ralgan fil-C-47 tepalikning qiyaligi emas, balki tekis pol bilan ta'minlangan. Qo'mondonning, shuningdek, to'xtab turgan zaminning moyilligini yumshatish uchun, ayniqsa, uzun dumaloq oyoqlari bor edi.
Tarixchi Barbara Tuchman C-46 halokatlarida Madam Chiang Kay-Shekni ayblaydi. "Ajdaho xonim Ruzveltga boshqa samolyotlarni shunchalik tinmay qo'ydiki, ular tayyor bo'lgunga qadar C-46-larni yubordi", deb yozadi Tuchman. Bir C-46 uchuvchisidan iqtibos keltirdi Hump uchish "Xotin Chiang uchun Kotex -ning har xil yukini va eri uchun Kaliforniyadan yaxshi sharob olib kelganini" esladi. Bu uchta amerikalik ekipaj Xitoyga tashilgan har ming tonna yuk uchun vafot etgan paytda, Evropada bombardimonchi uchishidan ko'ra ancha xavfli vazifalarni bajargan.
Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi paytida C-46s asosan CBI teatrida ishlagan bo'lsa-da, ular yuklarni Janubiy Atlantika bo'ylab, Braziliya va Shimoliy Afrika o'rtasida va Kumpartaga Hump tepasida sahnalashtirgan. Dengiz korpusi, shuningdek, Tinch okeanining janubidagi amfibiya orollariga sakrash kampaniyasini qo'llab-quvvatlash uchun C-46-Curtiss R5C-1 ning dengiz versiyasini uchirdi.
Evropada faqat bir nechta C-46 samolyotlari xizmat ko'rsatdi, xususan, Varsity operatsiyasi paytida, Ittifoqchilarning Reyn daryosi orqali Germaniyaga 1945 yil mart oyi oxirigacha olib kirgan qismi. Hujum paytida 72 ta qo'mondonlardan 19 tasi urib tushirildi. C-47 samolyotlari o'z-o'zidan yopiladigan yonilg'i baklari bilan jihozlangani uchun, ular ancha yaxshi ish qilishdi. C-46-larda nafaqat standart metall tanklar, balki yonilg'i quyish muammolari ham bor edi. Nemis zarbasi ularni tezlik bilan yoqib yubordi va ko'plab qulagan qo'mondonlar parashyutlarni o'zlari bilan olib ketishgani uchun, AQSh qo'mondoni general-mayor Metyu Ridgvay C-46 samolyotlari 82-chi havo-havo kuchlarini hech qachon ko'tarmasligini aytdi.
Commandosning savdodagi zaxirasi katta hajmdagi yuklarni shu kabi tayyor bo'lmagan aerodromlarga va Xitoyning istalgan joyiga tashish qobiliyati edi. & Quot (Milliy arxiv)
Ikkinchi Jahon urushi C-46 urushlarining oxirgisidan ancha uzoqda edi. Bir qator qo'mondonlar Chiang Xitoy Respublikasi Harbiy havo kuchlarining bir qismi bo'lib, Maoning qizil xitoylari bilan jang qilishdi va bir nechtasi Indochinada frantsuz harbiy-havo kuchlarida xizmat qilishdi, oxir-oqibat, urush tugagan Dien Bien-Phu qamallari paytida yuk tashishdi. Isroil Harbiy havo kuchlari 1948 yilda Arab-Isroil urushi paytida Chexoslovakiyadan litsenziyaga ega Messerschmitt Avia S-199 qiruvchi samolyotlarini Janubiy Amerika va Shimoliy Afrika orqali Isroilga tashib, Commandos uchishdi. C-46 samolyotlari Koreya urushi paytida va Vetnamda AQSh harbiy-havo kuchlarida faol bo'lgan, u erda 152 vyetnamlik Saygondan Bangkokgacha bo'lgan bitta C-46 Janubiy Vetnamni tark etgunga qadar tark etgan oxirgi sobit samolyot bo'lgan. Commando nihoyat 1968 yilda USAFdan iste'foga chiqdi, garchi zaxira bo'linmalari 1972 yil oxirigacha bir nechta C-46lardan foydalanishni davom ettirgan bo'lishi mumkin.
Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasi C-46-ni uzoq vaqtdan beri ishlatib kelgan, ham o'zining yolg'on aviakompaniyalarida-Air America, ham undan oldingi, Xitoy fuqarolik havo transportida (CAT), shuningdek, har xil yashirin operatsiyalarda. Bularning eng mashhuri 1961 yil aprelda Kubaga cho'chqalar ko'rfaziga bostirib kirishga urinish edi. Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasining halokatli operatsiyasini eslaganlar jangovar qushlarning T-33s, Sea Furys, B-26 bosqinchilarini eslashadi. beshta C-46 ham Kastroga qarshi bosqinning muhim qismi edi.
Ikkinchi Jahon Urushi Hump operatsiyalari paytida, C-46 birinchi havo jangidagi g'alabasini qo'lga kiritdi, kapitan Uolli Gayda Braunning avtomatik miltig'ini kokpit oynasidan chiqarib tashladi va butun jurnalni hujumchi Nakajima Ki.43 Oskarida bo'shatdi. Gayda befarq uchuvchini urdi va Oskar tushdi. Cho'chqalar ko'rfazidagi operatsiya paytida C-46 qo'mondonining ikkinchi "o'ldirilishini" aniqladi. Qutqarilgan kubalik parashyutchilar yukini tashlab, transport Markaziy razvedka boshqarmasining maxfiy Gvatemaladagi bazasiga qaytayotganida, unga Kastro Xoker dengizi Furilaridan biri hujum qildi. Biror narsa noto'g'ri ketdi, ehtimol juda past, juda sekin to'xtash joyi/aylanishi va Xoker Karib dengiziga kirib, uchuvchini o'ldirdi.
Curtissning C-46 ishlab chiqarilishi 1946 yilda, Sharqiy havo liniyalari Commando-ning Wright R-3350 dvigatelli yo'lovchi tashish varianti bo'lgan CW-20Es uchun buyurtmasini bekor qilganida tugadi. Sharq, ortiqcha bozorga yuzlab arzon C-47 samolyotlari kelishini tushundi va Gooneylar yoqilg'iga muhtoj bo'lgan C-46 ga qaraganda qisqa/o'rta masofali marshrutlarni yanada samarali ucha olishdi. Shunday bo'lsa -da, Kurtissga urushdan keyingi jurnallarda e'lon qilish uchun ko'p vaqt berildi, u yangi styuardessalari: "Shuning uchun men Commando uchadigan aviakompaniyalar uchunman!" Biz faqat yosh xonimlar ichki kiyimlarini ushlab turishgan deb taxmin qilishimiz mumkin.
C-46-ni takomillashtirish yanada kuchli R-2800 versiyalarini ko'chirib o'tkazgan va har xil og'irlikdagi yangilanishlarni amalga oshirgan bir nechta kompaniyalarning ixtisosiga aylandi. Ba'zi C-46 samolyotlarining maksimal og'irligi, dastlab 40,000 funtli samolyotlar, 52,500 funtgacha ko'tarildi.
Yuk tashuvchilar Curtiss Calamity-ning katta idishni va og'ir yuk ko'tarish qobiliyatini yaxshi ko'rishardi va C-46 asosan Slick Airways-ning ishga tushishi uchun javobgar edi. Earl Slik 17 ta C-46 samolyotini har biri 14,500 dollarga-2016 yilda taxminan 175,000 dollarga sotib oldi va ulardan Texasdagi yovvoyi ovchilar uchun uzun burg'ulash quvurlarini tashish uchun foydalana boshladi. Tez orada Slick mamlakatdagi eng yirik havo yuk tashuvchisi bo'ldi.
Janubiy va Markaziy Amerika aviakompaniyalari, shuningdek, havo tashuvchilari ichki makonga boradigan yagona haqiqiy yo'l bo'lgan, tog'lar ko'p bo'lgan va ko'plab aerodromlar baland, qisqa va ibtidoiy bo'lgan mamlakatlarda, Commando -ni xayoliga keltirardi. Bu kombinatsiya menga C-46 uchish imkoniyatini berdi. 1968 yilda Kosta-Rikadagi sayohat jurnalida men o'zimni Lacsa (hozirgi Avianka Kosta-Rika deb nomlangan) C-46 bortida topdim. Men jirkanch yangi shaxsiy uchuvchi edim va kokpitga bu haqda xabar yuborgan edim. Kapitan meni nafaqat oldinga taklif qildi, balki joyidan chiqib ketdi va meni biroz uchishga taklif qildi. Men yarim doira boshqaruv g'ildiragi hojatxona o'rindig'ining o'lchamidan boshqa ozgina tajribani eslayman.
Turli dunyo, har xil vaqt.
Qo'shimcha o'qish uchun muharrir Stefan Uilkinson tavsiya qiladi: Hump uchish, Jeff Ethell va Don Downi tomonidan C-46 qo'mondonligi amalda, Terri Love tomonidan Hump uchuvchi, Nedda R. Tomas tomonidan va Hump ustidan: AQSh harbiy -havo kuchlarining havo transporti operatsiyalari tarixi, general -leytenant Uilyam H. Tunner tomonidan.
Bu xususiyat dastlab 2016 yil may sonida paydo bo'lgan Aviatsiya tarixi. Obuna bo'lish uchun bu erni bosing!
Nyu -York Aeronavtika Jamiyatining taklifiga binoan, uni 1909 yil Gordon Bennet kubogi poygasida ishtirok etish uchun.
Kurtiss tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan birinchi samolyot Nyu-York aeronavtika jamiyati tomonidan 2 martda buyurtma qilingan bitta o'rindiqli model edi.
1909 yilda Glenn Kurtis Nyu -York Uorld gazetasi tomonidan e'lon qilingan 10 000 dollarlik mukofotni birinchi marta sinab ko'rishga qaror qildi.
Dastlabki gidrotexnik yoki oddiy gidro deb nomlangan, lekin hozirda dengiz samolyoti deb nomlanuvchi birinchi muvaffaqiyatli parvoz.
Model D o'sha paytda Qo'shma Shtatlarda qurilgan nisbatan eskirgan samolyot turlariga xos edi.
Ikkinchi Curtiss gidroizolyatsiyasi standart itaruvchi dizaynidan sezilarli istisno edi. Kurtis o'z parvozi uchun ishlatgan noma'lum mashina.
1912 yil 10 yanvarda San-Diyegoda sinab ko'rilgan birinchi Curtiss uchar qayig'i haqiqiy qayiqdan ko'ra ko'proq suv edi. A.
1913 yilgi aniq F modeli AQSh armiyasi va AQSh dengiz floti tomonidan ishlatilgan va sotilgan.
Curtiss JN-4 ikki o'rindiqli biplani tez orada urushlar yillarida keng qo'llanilgan "Jenni" laqabini oldi. Bo'lgandi .
1915 yil boshida 1935 yilda retrospektiv belgi berilgan Curtiss Model R prototipi paydo bo'ldi.
S-2 asosan S-1 modelida yangi qanotlari bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, bu ehtiyojni bartaraf etardi.
Model L-2 uchburchak samolyotining to'rtta namunasi qurilgan, uchtasi AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari uchun, bittasi AQSh armiyasi uchun.
Baby Skaut deb ham ataladigan asl S-1 modeli Curtiss 90 ot kuchiga ega OX dvigateli atrofida qura oladigan eng kichik samolyot edi. Qurilish.
1915-16 yillarda qurilgan paytda Curtiss Model T uchuvchi qayig'i dunyodagi eng katta dengiz samolyoti bo'lgan. .
1917 yil davomida AQSh Harbiy -dengiz flotining qurilish va ta'mirlash byurosi Glenn Kurtis bilan hamkorlikda ishlab chiqarildi.
Asosan, S-2 simsiz uchburchak hosilasi (qanotlarni mustahkamlovchi simlar yo'qligini bildiradi) qurolsiz "skaut", S-3 yoki "Uchburchak".
Yuqori qanotning markaziy qismini va ildiz qo'shimchalarini ko'tarib, qayta ko'rib chiqilgan strutting bilan S-3 ning takomillashtirilgan versiyasi.
Prototipi 1917 yil oxirida paydo bo'lgan Curtiss H.16 eng yirik va eng samarali amerikalik edi.
Bu AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari skauti S-3 ga o'xshash uchburchak edi. Bu edi.
1917 yil boshida, urush paytida AQShda shaxsiy uchish taqiqlanganidan oldin, mashhur aviatrix Ketrin Stinson Curtissga buyurtma berdi.
1917 yil davomida AQSh harbiy-dengiz kuchlari Curtiss kompaniyasiga beshta bitta o'rindiqli skaut skautli suzuvchi samolyotlar uchun shartnoma berdi.
CB (Curtiss Battleplane), norasmiy ravishda "Ozodlik jangchisi" nomi bilan tanilgan, tajribali ikki o'rindiqli qiruvchi bo'lib, 1918 yil boshida ishlab chiqarilgan va uchib ketgan.
AQSh dengiz piyodalari korpusining kapitani L L Smit tomonidan ikkita o'rindiqli patrul qiruvchi samolyot sifatida ishlab chiqilgan.
Uchinchi HA suzuvchi qiruvchi prototipi HA-2 sifatida ancha qayta ishlangan. 12 silindrli Liberty 12 suv bilan sovutilgan dvigatel bilan jihozlangan.
Charlz B Kirxem tomonidan ishlab chiqilgan, Curtiss 18-T ikki qiruvchi uchuvchi samolyoti AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari tomonidan 1918 yil 30 martda buyurtma qilingan.
AQSh armiyasining 18-T-ga bo'lgan qiziqishi Kurtissni bir xil asosiy dizaynni ikkita bo'lakli ikkita konfiguratsiyali va buyurtmani taklif qilishga undadi.
Ishlab chiqarish maqomiga ega bo'lgan AQShning mahalliy dizaynidagi birinchi bitta o'rindiqli qiruvchi Model D 300 ot kuchiga ega Hispano-Suiza H atrofida ishlab chiqarilgan.
AQSh armiyasi muhandislik bo'linmasi tomonidan bitta o'rindiqli maxsus tungi qiruvchi sifatida ishlab chiqilgan, PN-1 ning ikkita prototipi Curtiss tomonidan qurilgan.
AQSh armiyasi/AQSh harbiy -dengiz flotining odatiy raqobati tufayli, AQSh armiyasi poygachi samolyotlar, ular uchun Curtiss binosi bo'lishi kerak deb qaror qildi.
Mashhur Hawk jangchilar seriyasining avlodi, PW-8 ("Pursuit Water-sovutilgan" degan ma'noni anglatuvchi "PW" prefiksi) bitta o'rindiqli ikki o'rindiqli qiruvchi biplan edi.
Birinchi Curtiss qiruvchi samolyoti AQSh Harbiy-dengiz floti belgilash tizimi ostida qurilgan, dizayn, ishlab chiqarish ketma-ketligi va ishlab chiqaruvchi, F4C-1 (F2C va.
1925 yil mart oyida AQSh Harbiy-dengiz kuchlari to'qqizta P-1 samolyotini F6Cs sifatida ishlatishni buyurdi (F5C belgisi emas edi).
1925 yil 7 martda Kurtis XPW-8B ning 15 ta ishlab chiqarish namunasi uchun shartnoma tuzdi, bu P-1.
Falcon nomini olgan birinchi Curtiss biplani 1924 yilda paydo bo'lgan Ozodlik bilan ishlaydigan Curtiss L-113 (Model 37) edi.
Birinchi radikal dvigatelli Hawk, P-1A samolyotining 390 ot kuchiga ega Curtiss R-1454 dvigateli bilan XP-3 sifatida birlashishi natijasida paydo bo'ldi.
Yangi 600 ot kuchiga ega Curtiss V-1570-1 Conqueror dvigateli P-2 samolyotiga 1927 yil sentyabrdagi havo poygalarida qatnashish uchun o'rnatildi.
Birinchi Curtiss qiruvchi samolyoti quruqlikdagi qiruvchi samolyotning moslashuvidan farqli o'laroq, kemadan foydalanish uchun yaratilgan.
Keystone XB-1 bilan bir vaqtda, Curtiss XB-2 juda o'xshash edi, lekin u eng yaxshi samolyot ekanligini isbotladi. .
AQSh dengiz piyodalari korpusining bombardimon qilish va kuzatuv qobiliyatiga ega bo'lgan ikki o'rindiqli qiruvchi samolyotga bo'lgan talabini qondirish uchun, Kortiss havo kemasini moslashtirdi.
USAAC-ning 1927 yil 14-mayda tuzilgan shartnomasi, asosan, P-1, samolyotlariga o'xshash, havo ramkalari bo'lgan beshta samolyotni talab qildi.
1928 yil 18-iyunda USAAC Curtiss bilan a.
F8C seriyasida ko'rsatilgan bo'lsa-da, XF8C-2 va XF8C-4 F8C-1 va -3dan ancha farq qilar va ikkitomonlama rol o'ynardi.
XP-17 yangi 480 ot kuchiga ega Rayt V-1460-3 Tornado invertli havo sovutgichli dvigatel bilan birlashtirilgan birinchi P-1 ning havo korpusidan iborat edi.
1928 yil mobaynida 600 ot kuchiga ega Curtiss H-1640 Chieftain 12 silindrli havo sovutgichli radial qiruvchi elektr stantsiyasi va Curtiss kabi va'da berdi.
Yengil kema qiruvchi samolyot talabini qondirish uchun mo'ljallangan - boshqa da'vogarlar Berliner Joyce XFJ -1 va General Aviation XFA -1.
Tezlikka intilish AQSh armiyasi bombardimonchi bilan uchrashish uchun ikkita raqobatchi monoplan prototipini ishlab chiqarishga olib keldi.
1931 yilda uchinchi ishlab chiqarish P-6 (P-6A standartiga aylantirildi) xizmatdan chiqarildi va Kurtisga qaytarildi.
Curtiss B-2 yoki 18 yo'lovchidan iborat Condor samolyotini ishlab chiqarish bilan adashtirmaslik uchun, Condor 15 yo'lovchining reklamasi edi.
1932-3 yillardagi XP-31 yoki Curtiss Shrike-bu metalldan yasalgan, past qanotli, tayanchli qiruvchi samolyot edi.
Curtiss XP-23 ta'qiblar seriyasidagi oxirgi biplan edi. Ko'p jihatdan butunlay yangi dizayn va a.
Birinchi YA-8 Curtiss A-8 dvigatel bilan ishlaydigan radial versiyasini ishlab chiqarish maqsadga muvofiqligini tekshirish uchun ishlatilgan. .
The Hawk II was essentially an export version of the XF11C-2 with a Wright R-1820F-3 Cyclone rated at 710hp at 1676m .
The fourth production F11C-2 (Goshawk) was completed with manually-operated retractable main undercarriage members accommodated by a deepened forward fuselage. It was powered .
Based on a US Navy Bureau of Aeronautics design for a two-seat fighter, the XF12C-1 all-metal parasol monoplane, ordered on 30 June .
Perhaps the most unusual single-seat fighter developed by Curtiss was the Model 70, which was designed from the outset to be flown .
On 16 April 1932, the US Navy ordered two prototypes of a new shipboard fighter under the designations XF11C-1 and XF11C-2, the .
The US Army had ordered 46 of the A-8B Shrike, but maintenance problems with the liquid-cooled engines of the .
Last of the Curtiss biplanes to be used operationally by the US Navy, the SOC Seagull has a service history .
Requiring a new two-seat fighter, the US Navy ordered a prototype from Curtiss in 1932 under the designation XF12C-1. .
The P-36 or Curtiss Model 75 Hawk, commonly called the Mohawk, began life as a private venture, soldiered bravely .
Soon after receiving an order from the USAAC for an evaluation quantity of its Model 75 fighter, Curtiss began to consider .
The CW-19L Coupe was designed by George Page as an advanced all-metal two-seat cantilever low-wing monoplane for the private owner. .
Designed by Donovan R Berlin to participate in a USAAC fighter contest scheduled to take place on 27 May 1935, the Model .
The export version of the BF2C-1, the Hawk III, differed from the US Navy fighter-bomber in reverting to the wooden wing .
The 'long-nosed' P-37 was a Curtiss attempt in the late 1930s to couple the P-36 Mohawk design with the .
One of the early production Curtiss P-36 aircraft was given an 864.4kW Allison V-1710-19 (G-13) engine (and designated XP-40) instead .
Completed late in 1938 as a company-owned demonstrator, the Hawk 75-R was essentially similar to the USAAC's P-36A. Its Pratt & .
In 1938, chief engineer Willis Wells of the St Louis Airplane Division of the Curtiss-Wright Corporation began the development of a single-seat .
The Curtiss XP-42, a conversion of a P-36A Mohawk airframe, was employed as a testbed at Wright Field, Ohio, beginning .
In 1937 the US Navy invited proposals for the design of a scout monoplane which would offer improved performance over .
The experimental contract for the Helldiver was awarded by the US Navy on 15 May 1939 and the prototype XSB2C-1 .
The Commando was evolved from the Curtiss-Wright CW-20 which was originally laid out as a 36-passenger pressurised commercial transport in .
The prototype Curtiss Wright CW-22 two-seat low-wing general-purpose or advanced training monoplace was developed at the Curtiss-Wright St Louis factory in .
Prior to the final termination of P-40 development, some effort was expended in combining aerodynamic refinement with increased power to produce .
The P-60 designation applies to a family of widely different Curtiss fighters, each reflecting the urgency of the builder's unsuccessful .
The XP-46 of 1939 was a late attempt by Curtiss to capitalize on lessons from early fighting in Europe and .
In 1940, with Europe already at war, the US Army Air Corps knew that it was essential to begin preparations .
The Curtiss XP-55 Ascender is perhaps best known of the three pusher fighters built for a 1941 competition in response .
On 30 June 1941, Curtiss received a prototype development contract for the XF14C-1 single-seat shipboard fighter designed around the 2,200hp Lycoming XH-2470-4 liquid-cooled .
The Curtiss XP-62 was the final propeller-driven fighter built by its manufacturer and the second largest single-seat fighter of orthodox .
Development of the Curtiss SC Seahawk began in June 1942, when the US Navy requested the company to submit proposals .
In May 1944, Curtiss indicated to the AAF that it wished to abandon further work on the P-60 series fighters because .
In late 1943 Curtiss received a US Navy order for two single-seat torpedo-bomber aircraft prototypes under the designation XBTC-1. A .
US Navy interest in the mixed-power concept for shipboard fighters - aircraft employing a piston engine for cruise and an auxiliary turbojet .
The Curtiss XF-87 Blackhawk fighter was an eye-catching and truly graceful all-black aircraft which attracted plenty of attention in flights .
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36 Hawk which reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service. The Warhawk was used by most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in frontline service until the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter of World War II, after the P-51 and P-47 by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation's main production facilities at Buffalo, New York.
The North American Aviation P-51 Mustang is an American long-range, single-seat fighter and fighter-bomber used during World War II and the Korean War, among other conflicts. The Mustang was designed in April 1940 by a design team headed by James Kindelberger of North American Aviation (NAA) in response to a requirement of the British Purchasing Commission. The Purchasing Commission approached North American Aviation to build Curtiss P-40 fighters under license for the Royal Air Force (RAF). Rather than build an old design from another company, North American Aviation proposed the design and production of a more modern fighter. The prototype NA-73X airframe was rolled out on 9 September 1940, 102 days after the contract was signed, and first flew on 26 October.
The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, deb ham tanilgan Curtiss Hawk Model 75, is an American-designed and built fighter aircraft of the 1930s and 40s. A contemporary of both the Hawker Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109, it was one of the first of a new generation of combat aircraft—a sleek monoplane design making extensive use of metal in its construction and powered by a powerful radial engine.
The Ryan XF2R Dark Shark was an American experimental aircraft built for the United States Navy that combined turboprop and turbojet propulsion. It was based on Ryan Aeronautical's earlier FR Fireball, but replaced the Fireball's piston engine with a turboprop engine.
The Seversky P-35 is an American fighter aircraft built by the Seversky Aircraft Company in the late 1930s. A contemporary of the Hawker Hurricane and Messerschmitt Bf 109, the P-35 was the first single-seat fighter in United States Army Air Corps to feature all-metal construction, retractable landing gear, and an enclosed cockpit.
The Curtiss-Wright XP-55 Ascender is a 1940s United States prototype fighter aircraft built by Curtiss-Wright. Along with the Vultee XP-54 and Northrop XP-56, it resulted from United States Army Air Corps proposal R-40C issued on 27 November 1939 for aircraft with improved performance, armament, and pilot visibility over existing fighters it specifically allowed for unconventional aircraft designs. An unusual design for its time, it had a canard configuration, a rear-mounted engine, swept wings, and two vertical tails. Because of its pusher design, it was sarcastically referred to as the "Ass-ender". Like the XP-54, the Ascender was designed for the Pratt & Whitney X-1800 engine, but was re-designed after that engine project was canceled. It was also the first Curtiss fighter aircraft to use tricycle landing gear.
The Republic P-43 Lancer was a single-engine, all-metal, low-wing monoplane fighter aircraft built by Republic, first delivered to the United States Army Air Corps in 1940. A proposed development was the P-44 Rocket. While not a particularly outstanding fighter, the P-43A had a very good high-altitude performance coupled with an effective oxygen system. Fast and well-armed with excellent long-range capabilities, until the arrival of the Lockheed P-38 Lightning, the Lancer was the only American fighter capable of catching a Japanese Mitsubishi Ki-46 "Dinah" reconnaissance plane at the speeds and heights at which they flew. In addition, the P-43 flew many long-range, high-altitude photo recon missions until replaced by F-4/F-5 Lightnings in both the USAAF and RAAF.
The Curtiss P-60 was a 1940s American single-engine single-seat, low-wing monoplane fighter aircraft developed by the Curtiss-Wright company as a successor to their P-40. It went through a lengthy series of prototype versions, eventually evolving into a design that bore little resemblance to the P-40. None of these versions reached production.
The Curtiss XP-62 was a prototype single-engine interceptor aircraft, that was built at the request of the United States Army Air Forces, by the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. It first flew in 1943.
The General Motors/Fisher P-75 Eagle was an American fighter aircraft designed by the Fisher Body Division of General Motors. Development started in September 1942 in response to United States Army Air Forces requirement for a fighter possessing an extremely high rate of climb, using the most powerful liquid-cooled engine then available, the Allison V-3420. The program was cancelled after only a small number of prototypes and production aircraft had been completed, as it was no longer required in its original role, could not be quickly deployed, and possessed no significant advantages over aircraft already in production.
The Grumman XP-50 was a land-based development of the shipboard XF5F-1 Skyrocket fighter, entered into a United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) contest for a twin-engine heavy interceptor aircraft. The USAAC placed an order for a prototype on 25 November 1939, designating it XP-50, but it lost the competition to the Lockheed XP-49.
The McDonnell XP-67 "Bat" yoki "Moonbat" was a prototype for a twin-engine, long-range, single-seat interceptor aircraft for the United States Army Air Forces. Although the design was conceptually advanced, it was beset by numerous problems and never approached its anticipated level of performance. The project was cancelled after the sole completed prototype was destroyed by an engine fire.
The Republic XP-69 was an American fighter aircraft proposed by Republic Aviation in 1941 in response to a requirement by the United States Army Air Corps for a high-speed fighter. Manufacturers were encouraged to consider unorthodox designs although the design was ordered as a prototype it was canceled because of delays with the engine that was to power it.
The Vultee XP-54 Swoose Goose was a prototype fighter built by the Vultee Aircraft Company for the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF).
The Bell P-76 was the proposed designation for a production model derivative of the XP-39E, a single-engine American fighter aircraft prototype of World War II.
The Curtiss XP-42 was an experimental fighter built by Curtiss Aircraft in the late 1930s to research engine cooling and improving the performance of the Curtiss P-36.
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was a WWII fighter aircraft that was developed from the P-36 Hawk, via the P-37. Many variants were built, some in large numbers, under names including the Hawk, Tomahawk and Kittyhawk.
The Curtiss YP-20 was an American biplane fighter project developed by Curtiss for the United States Army Air Service.
Over twenty variants of the North American P-51 Mustang fighter were produced from 1940, when it first flew, to after the Second World War, some of which were employed also in the Korean War and in several other conflicts. Numerous examples of the aircraft survive to this day, often as warbirds or heavily modified air racers.
The Curtiss P-37 was a fighter aircraft made by Curtiss-Wright in 1937. A development of the Curtiss P-36 Hawk, the P-37 never entered production.
Curtiss XP-40Q Fighter
Although not readily apparent at the time, Curtiss-Wright’s Airplane Division (Curtiss) was already in a state of decline at the start of World War II. The company’s final two truly successful aircraft, the P-40 Warhawk fighter and C-46 Commando transport, had already flown. While the Curtiss SB2C Helldiver carrier-based dive bomber would achieve some success toward the end of the war, its development was prolonged and plagued with issues, and the aircraft was never liked by its pilots and crews. Throughout the war years, Curtiss continually strove to develop world-beating aircraft but only managed to build one dead-end prototype after another. A brief glimmer of hope lay in the last model of the P-40, the P-40Q (Curtiss model 87X).
The Curtiss XP-40Q-1 (42-9987) with its standard canopy and sleek nose. Note the scoop for the engine air intake above the cowling.
XP-40Q development was initiated by 1943. The goal was to improve the P-40 to equal or surpass the performance of newer fighter aircraft. It was thought that the improved performance of the P-40Q would justify the aircraft entering production, and its similarities with P-40s then being produced would minimize tooling and production delays. In addition, there would be some part interchangeability with older P-40 aircraft, and current P-40 pilots and crews would be familiar with the new aircraft and its systems.
Three XP-40Q prototypes were built their origins and histories have always been a point of disagreement between sources. All XP-40Qs were built up from other P-40 airframes. They all had only four .50-cal machine guns with 235 rpg. All of the XP-40Q aircraft were powered by two-stage supercharged Allison V-1710 engines and a four-blade propeller.
Another view of the XP-40Q-1. Note the radiators and oil coolers mounted in the wing center section.
The XP-40Q-1 was the first aircraft, and it was built in 1943 from a P-40K-10 (serial 42-9987) that had been damaged in a landing accident on 27 January 1943. The Q-1 was painted olive drab and had the standard P-40 wing and canopy. The nose of the aircraft was lengthened to accommodate the V-1710-101 (F27R) engine. At 3,200 rpm, the -101 engine produced 1,500 hp (1,119 kW) at 6,000 ft (1,829 m) and 1,325 hp (988 kW) for takeoff. The Q-1’s engine air intake was positioned above the cowling. The radiator and oil cooler were moved from the P-40’s iconic chin location to the wing center section, just below the fuselage (similar to the XP-40K). The XP-40Q-1 had a 37 ft 4 in (11.4 m) wingspan and was 35 ft 4 in long (10.8 m)—about 2 ft (.6 m) longer than a standard P-40.
The Q-1’s first flight reportedly occurred on 13 June 1943 from the Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York. It is not clear if the aircraft suffered another accident, or if Curtiss was unhappy with its configuration and decided to modify it further. Regardless, by November 1943, the Q-1 had been modified and redesignated XP-40Q-2. The aircraft’s rear fuselage was cut down and a bubble canopy installed. Engine coolant radiators were positioned in the wings just outboard of the main gear. The oil cooler and engine air intake were relocated to the classic P-40 chin position, but the scoop was shallower and more elegant. The Q-2 retained the olive drab paint.
The Curtiss XP-40Q-2 (still 42-9987) after modification with a bubble canopy. The oil cooler and engine air intake have been relocated to the scoop under the engine. The coolant radiators have been moved outside of the main gear. The wings are still the standard P-40 wings, but they were later clipped by about one foot.
Still utilizing the -101 engine, the Q-2 was noted for having excellent visibility and handling. The aircraft had balanced controls and was very maneuverable, with a tight turn radius. Capt. Gustav Lundquist had evaluated the Q-2 and judged it to be the best P-40 he had flown he recommended that further flight testing should be conducted. In December 1943, the Air Materiel Command recognized the XP-40Q-2’s performance and recommended that two additional prototypes be constructed.
Reportedly, the Q-2 was delivered to Eglin Field, Florida for testing in January 1944, but it was back at the Curtiss plant in Buffalo, New York in March for a series of flight tests. By this time, the Q-2 had its wingtips clipped about one foot each, and a V-1710-121 (F28R) engine was installed. The -121 produced 1,800 hp (1,342 kW) with water injection at 3,200 rpm up to 20,000 ft (6,096 m) and 1,425 hp (1,062 kW) for takeoff.
The XP-40Q-2A (42-45722) looking very much like the XP-40Q-2 but with clipped wings. This aircraft would change little throughout its existence.
A flight evaluation from April 1944 again noted the XP-40Q-2 as superior to all other P-40s and a very good aircraft overall. The XP-40Q-2 had a 35 ft 3 in (10.7 m) wingspan and was 35 ft 4 in (10.8 m) long. With full engine power at 3,000 rpm and water injection, the aircraft achieved 420 mph (676 km/h) at 15,000 ft (4,572 m) and had a maximum climb rate of 4,410 fpm (22.4 m/s) at 5,000 ft (1,524 m). At 3,200 rpm and with water injection, maximum speed was 422 mph (679 km/h) at 20,500 ft (6,248 m), and the climb rate increased by as much as 530 fpm (2.7 m/s) depending on altitude. However, the 3,200 rpm engine speed was only shown to offer an advantage between 12,000 and 33,000 ft (3,658 and 10,058 m). With just military power, the Q-2 recorded a speed of 407 mph (655 km/h) at 24,000 ft (7,315 m) and a climb rate of 3,210 fpm (16.3 m/s) at sea level. The aircraft could climb from sea level to 20,000 ft (6,096 m) in 4.8 minutes, 30,000 ft (9,144 m) in 8.9 minutes, and 39,000 ft (11,887 m) in 26.1 minutes. The Q-2’s service ceiling was 39,000 ft (11,887 m), and it had a gross weight of 9,000 lb (4,082 kg). The aircraft’s range was 700 miles (1,127 km).
The Q-2 was damaged when it nosed over after a test flight on 24 March 1944. The aircraft was repaired and then sent to Wright Field, Ohio in mid-1944. The aircraft was damaged again when it ground looped while landing on 31 July 1944. It is not clear if the aircraft was repaired or if the damage was too severe.
This image of the XP-40Q-2A illustrates the clipped wings. Note the size of the bubble canopy and how to could be a bit smaller. The four .50-cal wing guns are easily seen. The XP-40Q was definitely a nice looking aircraft.
The next aircraft was the XP-40Q-2A. It was built from the initial P-40K-1 (serial 42-45722) that had been converted to the (unofficial) XP-40N. During the XP-40N conversion, the aircraft had a bubble canopy installed. This modification predated and served as the template for the bubble canopy that was installed on the Q-2.
The Q-2A was very similar to the final configuration of the Q-2—with a bubble canopy, clipped wings, and -121 engine. However, some modifications to the cockpit and canopy were made, and automatic radiator and oil cooler shutters were added. The Q-2A had a natural metal finish.
The Q-2A’s first flight occurred prior to the end of March 1944. The aircraft was plagued with engine trouble that resulted in a number of forced landings. The Q-2A spent most of its test time down for repairs. As a result, the Army Air Force (AAF) focused on the next aircraft, the Q-3, and loaned the Q-2A to Allison for engine tests. The Q-2A most likely had the same specifications and performance as the -121-powered Q-2.
The XP-40Q-3 was the last aircraft in the series. The Q-3 was built in early 1944 from a P-40N-25 (serial 43-24571) and was the only XP-40Q actually classified as such by the AAF. The aircraft was very similar to the XP-40Q-2A except for some refinements to the canopy and windscreen. The canopy was a bit smaller, and the flat windscreen was longer and more angled than the windscreen used on the preceding aircraft. Overall, the changes improved pilot visibility. The Q-3 had a -121 engine and a natural metal finish.
The last of the Curtiss P-40Qs: the XP-40Q-3 (43-24571). This aircraft later had anti-glare paint applied to the upper cowling, its serial number painted on the the tail, and ” painted on the chin scoop. Note the radiator air inlets in the wings.
Delivered to AAF in April 1944, the Q-3 suffered an engine failure during an early test flight. The aircraft was moderately damaged in the subsequent forced landing. At this time, other aircraft with superior performance were available, and there was no AAF interest in repairing the Q-3 because there was no need for a P-40Q. It is doubtful that much performance testing was conducted on the Q-3, but the results should have been similar to those of the Q-2.
In March 1946, Allison still had the XP-40Q-2A (the second XP-40Q) when the AAF declared the aircraft as surplus. It is not clear if Allison purchased the aircraft and then later resold it or if it was sold as surplus directly from the AAF. Regardless, Joe Ziegler acquired the aircraft, and it was registered as NX300B. Given race number 82, the Q-2A was entered in the 1947 Thompson Trophy Race (run on 1 September 1947), but it did not qualify. Ziegler started the race anyway and was running in fourth place when the engine caught fire after just completing the 13th lap. Ziegler pulled up and off the course and bailed out of the Q-2A. Zeigler suffered a broken leg, and the Q-2A was destroyed.
This view of the XP-40Q-3 illustrates the revised canopy compared to the XP-40Q-2A. Note the oil cooler exit doors on the cowling just in front of the wing.
The story of the XP-40Q aircraft is a confusing one involving only three airframes but somewhere around eight designations and a number of different configurations. The P-40Q was one of the finest fighters Curtiss ever built, but the aircraft was two years or so too late. Its performance and capabilities were matched or exceeded by other aircraft already in service. Even if the P-40Q airframe had been ready two years earlier, the two-stage Allison engines would not have been ready, as they were still having developmental trouble in 1944. Sadly, the XP-40Q scenario was played out again and again as Curtiss tried to create another successful aircraft but only managed to produce aircraft that were ill-timed and outclassed.
Note: There is no indication that any of the XP-40Q aircraft used any type of a laminar flow wing. There is also no indication that any XP-40Q information was passed from Curtiss to North American Aviation (NAA) during the NA-73X’s (P-51’s) development. Not only are the two aircraft different in almost every way, there is no part of their separate developmental timelines that coincide. NAA did purchase some information from Curtiss at the request of the British government, but that information pertained to the XP-46 and arrived after the NA-73X was already designed.
The XP-40Q-2A seen at Cleveland, Ohio for the Thompson Trophy Race in 1947. Other than some paint, including its registration and race number, the aircraft had changed little since its AAF days. It is truly unfortunate that the aircraft would soon be destroyed as a result of an engine fire.
The Curtiss XP-42, a conversion of a P-36A Mohawk airframe, was employed as a testbed at Wright Field, Ohio, beginning in March 1939 to determine whether stream-lining could reduce drag in a radial-powered fighter and make it competitive with more advanced fighters employing inline engines. This concept was seen as an alternative to adapting the P-36A airframe to an inline powerplant, as had been done with the prototype P-40 Warhawk. Delivered to the Army in March 1939, the XP-42 was powered by a 783kW Pratt & Whitney R-1830-31 Twin Wasp radial enclosed by a bullet-shaped, sheet-metal cowling extended forward to culminate in a large, pointed spinner. An airscoop below the spinner provided cooling air, while smaller intakes above the engine provided air to the carburettor. It was immediately clear that this sleek, long-nosed configuration offered none of the advantages of the inline engine employed not only by the P-40 but also by such types as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 and North American Mustang. The aerodynamic nose shape provided almost no reduction in drag, and cooling problems proved almost insurmountable. While the XP-42 was marginally faster than the open-cowl P-36A, its performance did not compare favourably with the P-40 or with other, newer fighters of the immediate pre-war period.
A variety of nose configurations was tried on the XP-42, altering its fuselage length with each change, but none vindicated the enclosed radial engine and Curtiss's production facilities, in the event, were taken up with the inline-powered P-40. When hostilities began, the XP-42 had been ruled out as a possible production aircraft but continued to aid in research. In 1942, the XP-42 tested an all-flying stabilizer, similar to the stabilator found on modern jets. The XP-42 had begun flying in natural metal finish and was camouflaged during one of its minor rebuilds. The airframe, which contributed knowledge to designers and engineers, was eventually taken out of service as other wartime priorities beckoned. Curtiss would continue to explore new fighter ideas with XP-46, XP-60 and XF-87, but the company's predominant role in the fighter field was fast becoming history.
Sturm what are you talking about? At that point in US Air Corp history performance requirements were issued to all interested companies and designs were openly competed. A lot of attempts were made to improve the breed of several designs. The p-36 design went to the P-40, P-42, P-46 and P-60, just for one example. There were several variations on the P-60. None of them were improvements over existing designs, so why bother with them. The North American P-51 was not even asked for but offered to the British as a better design than the P-40. First an acceptable design did not really come into its own until the Allison engine was replaced by the Rolls Royce Merlin. So there is little evidence of favoritism. Had there been then Curtiss with its long line of fighters from the 1920's and 30's would have remained the favorite, clearly they did not. Certainly nothing, absolutely nothing in comparison to the NAZI's.
Leo, what do you mean in your question? The US Army Air Corp tried just about anything that came along. Just look at the P-45, -46, -48, -49, -50. And there are several more. No matter how you cut it the best designs were the more conservative designs.
- Republic of China Air Force operated 50 Hawk II. 
- Cuban Air Force received three P-6S fighters with the 450 hp (336 kW) Wasp radial engine.
- Japan bought one P-6S, possibly updated with a Conqueror engine.
- Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force received eight examples of a P-6D with the Conqueror engine in 1930, another six were license-built by Aviolanda in 1931 and sent to Dutch East Indies as well. Three P-6 were lost before war: two in midair collision on 27 February 1936 and one probably after crash-landing 5 February 1935.
- Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari armiyasi havo korpusi
- Bolivian Air Force used the P-6S during the Chaco War. On 22 December 1932 a P-6 Hawk from Fortín Vitriones attacked Paraguayan gunboat ARP Tacuary which was anchored at Bahía Negra near ( 20䓍″S 58䓊″W / 20.23°S 58.16694°W / -20.23 -58.16694 )
BOOK ON CURTISS FARM RECALLS ITS HISTORY
Every Christmas, the late Otto Schnering, owner of Cary-based Curtiss Candy Company Farms, threw a large company party in the bullpen of the farm, although, judging by the sentiments of former employees, it was more of a family affair.
Schnering "was very well-liked," Dean Dunn, a former employee said. "It was a big family."
Now, 28 years after the farm was sold to G.D. Searle, and subsequently moved to Elburn, several former employees have joined together to publish a 172-page book that tells the history of the farm. The book includes 165 photographs.
Readers got their first look at the finished product Dec. 20, when the book rolled off the presses.
"There area lot of people living around the valley today . . . that worked for the farm (which ran along Cary-Algonquin Road). That's the reason we're writing this," Dunn said. "At one time, it was estimated about half the town of Cary worked at the farm or was employed with it in some way."
Nancy Johnson Helmar of Cary, one of the co-authors of the book, grew up on the farm, where her father was employed caring for the chickens, turkeys and ducks.
Helmar remembered the farm as a fun place where she and her friends got together for baseball games and roller skating. She told how each year, horseback-riding competitions were held for the kids.
Helmar said that the farm was self-sufficient. It included a private well and dump, and Schnering gave free eggs, milk and chickens to the employees. He also dug and stocked several trout ponds on the property.
Helmar remembered growing up on the farm and wrote that portion of the book. But, internationally the farm was renowned for its top-quality cattle, Belgian horses, Shropshire sheep and Yorkshire hogs. It also was a leading enterprise in the field of artificial insemination of cattle.
According to Dunn, Schnering founded the farm in 1942 to produce milk for his candy products. At one time, Schnering's operation included 10,000 acres of farmland in four counties north and west of Chicago.
Schnering died in 1953, and the farm continued to operate until 1968.
"I called the kids that lived on the farm," Helmar said, "and found out what they were doing (when the book came out). I haven't seen them since I was a kid, but you never lose those friendships. They're friends for life."
In 1907, Glenn Curtiss was recruited by the scientist Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, to be among the founding members of Bell's Aerial Experimental Association (AEA), with the purpose of helping establish an aeronautical research and development organization.  According to Bell, it was a "co-operative scientific association, not for gain but for the love of the art and doing what we can to help one another." 
In 1909, the AEA was disbanded  and Curtiss formed the Herring-Curtiss Company with Augustus Moore Herring on March 20, 1909,  which was renamed the Curtiss Aeroplane Company in 1910.  
Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company
The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company was created on January 13, 1916 from the Curtiss Aeroplane Company of Hammondsport, New York and Curtiss Motor Company of Bath, New York. Burgess Company of Marblehead, Massachusetts, became a subsidiary in February 1916. 
With the onset of World War I, military orders rose sharply, and Curtiss needed to expand quickly. In 1916, the company moved its headquarters and most manufacturing activities to Buffalo, New York, where there was far greater access to transportation, manpower, manufacturing expertise, and much needed capital. The company housed an aircraft engine factory in the former Taylor Signal Company-General Railway Signal Company.  An ancillary operation was begun in Toronto, Ontario that was involved in both production and training, setting up the first flying school in Canada in 1915. 
In 1917, the two major aircraft patent holders, the Wright Company and the Curtiss Company, had effectively blocked the building of new airplanes, which were desperately needed as the United States was entering World War I. The U.S. government, as a result of a recommendation of a committee formed by Franklin D. Roosevelt, then Assistant Secretary of the Navy, pressured the industry to form a cross-licensing organization (in other terms a Patent pool), the Manufacturer's Aircraft Association.   
Curtiss was instrumental in the development of U.S. Naval Aviation by providing training for pilots and providing aircraft. The first major order was for 144 various subtypes of the Model F trainer flying boat.  In 1914, Curtiss had lured B. Douglas Thomas from Sopwith to design the Model J trainer, which led to the JN-4 two-seat biplane trainer (known affectionately as the "Jenny").  
The Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company worked with the United States' British and Canadian allies, resulting in JN-4 (Can) trainers (nicknamed the "Canuck") being built in Canada.  In order to complete large military orders, JN-4 production was distributed to five other manufacturers. After the war, large numbers of JN-4s were sold as surplus, making influential as the first plane for many interwar pilots, including Amelia Earhart.  A stamp was printed to commemorate the Curtiss JN-4, however a printing error resulted in some having the aircraft image inverted, which has become very valuable, and one of the best known rare stamps, even being featured in a number of movies.
The Curtiss HS-2L flying boat was used extensively in the war for anti-submarine patrols and was operated from bases in Nova Scotia, Canada, France and Portugal. The John Cyril Porte of the Royal Navy and Curtiss worked together to improve the design of the Curtiss flying boats resulting in the Curtiss F5L and the similar Felixstowe F.3. Curtiss also worked with the US Navy to develop the NC-4, which became the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean in 1919, making several stops enroute. By the end of World War I, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company would claim to be the largest aircraft manufacturer in the world, employing 18,000 in Buffalo and 3,000 in Hammondsport, New York. Curtiss produced 10,000 aircraft during that war, and more than 100 in a single week.
Peace brought cancellation of wartime contracts. In September 1920, the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company underwent a financial reorganization and Glenn Curtiss cashed out his stock in the company for $32 million and retired to Florida.  He continued as a director of the company but served only as an advisor on design. Clement M. Keys gained control of the company and it later became the nucleus of a large group of aviation companies. 
Curtiss seaplanes won the Schneider Cup in two consecutive races, those of 1923 and 1925. The 1923 race was won by U.S. Navy Lieutenant David Rittenhouse flying a Curtiss C.R.3 to 177.266 miles per hour (285.282 km/h).
Piloted by U.S. Army Lt. Cyrus K. Bettis, a Curtiss R3C won the Pulitzer Trophy Race on October 12, 1925, at a speed of 248.9 miles per hour (400.6 km/h).  Thirteen days later, Jimmy Doolittle won the Schneider Trophy in the same aircraft fitted with floats with a top speed of 232.573 miles per hour (374.290 km/h).
The Curtiss Robin light transport was first flown in 1928, becoming one of the company's biggest sellers during the Great Depression, and the 769 built helped keep the company solvent when orders for military aircraft were hard to find.
On July 5, 1929, Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company together with 11 other Wright and Curtiss affiliated companies merged to became the Curtiss-Wright Corporation. One of the last projects started by Curtiss Aeroplane was the ambitious Curtiss-Bleecker SX-5-1 Helicopter, a design that had propellers located midpoint on each of the four large rotors that drove the main rotors. The design, while costly and well engineered, was a failure. 
Curtiss Aviation School
Curtiss also operated an flying school at Long Branch Aerodrome in Toronto Township, Ontario from 1915 to 1917 before being taken over by the Royal Flying Corps Canada. 
Atlantic Coast Aeronautical Station
Glenn H. Curtiss sponsored the Atlantic Coast Aeronautical Station on a 20-acre tract east of Newport News, VA Boat Harbor in the Fall of 1915 with Captain Thomas Scott Baldwin as head. Many civilian students, including Canadians, later became famed WW1 flyers. Victor Carlstrom, Vernon Castle, Eddie Stinson and General Billy Mitchell trained here. The school was disbanded in 1922.