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Jozef Glidden o'zining tikanli simli dizayniga patent olish uchun ariza beradi

Jozef Glidden o'zining tikanli simli dizayniga patent olish uchun ariza beradi

1873 yil 27 oktyabrda Illinoys shtatining De Kalb fermeri Jozef Glidden AQSh Patent idorasiga o'zining o'tkir tikanli panjara simining yangi aqlli dizayni uchun ariza topshiradi, bu ixtiro Amerika G'arbining qiyofasini abadiy o'zgartiradi.

Glidden hech qachon birinchi tikanli sim emas edi; u faqat De Kalb okrug yarmarkasida Genri Rouzning bitta torli tikanli simlari ko'rgazmasini ko'rganidan so'ng o'z dizaynini o'ylab topdi. Biroq, Gliddenning dizayni, tikanli simli simlarni mahkam ushlab turish uchun bir -biriga o'ralgan ikkita simni ishlatib, Rouzga qaraganda ancha yaxshilandi. Tez orada Glidden simlari ommaviy ishlab chiqarish texnikasiga juda mos kelishini isbotladi va 1880 yilga kelib Glidden uslubidagi 80 million funtdan ortiq tikanli sim sotildi va bu uni mamlakatdagi eng mashhur simga aylantirdi. Pere va oddiy dehqonlar Glidden simlari o'z mulklarini to'sib qo'yishning eng arzon, kuchli va bardoshli usuli ekanligini tezda aniqladilar. Muxlislardan biri yozganidek: "Bu joyni talab qilmaydi, tuproqni charchatmaydi, o'simliklarni soyabon qilmaydi, kuchli shamollarga qarshi dalildir, qor yog'ishiga yo'l qo'ymaydi, bardoshli va arzon".

Bu oddiy ixtironing Buyuk tekisliklar hayotiga ta'siri juda katta edi. To'g'ridan -to'g'ri o'rmonzorlar bo'lmaganligi sababli, panjara qurmoqchi bo'lgan dehqonning uzoq o'rmonlardan poezd va vagon bilan jo'natilgan qimmat va katta yog'ochli relslarni sotib olishdan boshqa chorasi yo'q edi. Arzon va ko'chma tikanli simlar taklif qilmasa, kam fermerlar Buyuk tekisliklarda o'z uylarini qurishga urinishgan bo'lardi, chunki ular o'z xo'jaliklarini qoramol va qo'ylarni boqishdan himoya qila olmasdilar. Tikanli simlar ham ochiq chorvachilik sanoati davrini tezda tugatdi. Bir necha yil ichida ko'plab chorvadorlar minglab kichik uy xo'jaliklari bir paytlar chorva mollari bemalol yuradigan ochiq maydonni to'sib qo'yishganini va chorva mollarini bir necha kilometr o'tmagan Dodge shahridagi temir yo'llarga haydashning eski usuli ekanligini aniqladilar. Abilena endi mumkin emas edi.


Jozef Glidden o'zining tikanli simli dizayniga patent olish uchun ariza beradi - TARIX



Tikanli sim
Jozef F. Glidden
Oilaviy meros
Uy -joylarni tiklash


Taqvim
Mablag 'yig'ish
A'zolik
Ko'ngillilar


Muzey haqida ma'lumot
Axborot byulletenlari
Ommaviy axborot vositalari
Notalar kitobi
Sovg'alar do'koni
Havolalar
Kengash / xodimlar

Jozef Farvell Glidden 1813 yil 18 yanvarda Nyu -Xempshirda tug'ilgan. U va ukasi Joziya 1841-1842 yillardagi dehqonchilik davrida Illinoys shtatining DeKalb okrugiga kelishdi. Donni odatdagidek maydalash va keltirgan foydasi orqali Yusuf yosh DeKalb qishlog'idan bir mil narida 600 gektar er sotib oldi. U yog'ochdan yasalgan idishni qurdi va O'rta G'arbiy dehqon sifatida hayot boshladi. Yillar davomida Jozef qishloq xo'jaligining turli sohalarini ta'qib qildi va dehqonchilik san'atini eng qulay turmush tarzi deb bildi. 1873 yildagi tikanli simlar uchun patent olish to'g'risidagi ariza, Shimoliy Illinoys shtati oddiy maktabining joylashgan joyiga bergan ulkan hissasi va bu erdagi fuqarolik majburiyatlari, nima uchun uni "DeKalb okrugining buyuk chol" deb atashganini isbotlaydi.

Lucinda Warne Glidden Jozefning ikkinchi xotini bo'lgan va "G'olib" patentini tasdiqlaganida 20 yildan ortiq sherik bo'lgan. Uning bevasi Gliddenga uylanishi DeKalb jamoasida hamma uchun qiziqish uyg'otdi. Turmush qurganlaridan ko'p o'tmay, qizil g'ishtli uy yog'ochdan yasalgan idishni almashtirdi. Bu do'stona uchrashuvlar va qiyin munozaralar joyiga aylandi. Qora tuproqli dehqonchilik muammolari doimiy mavzular edi.

Lusinda, keyingi xotiralarida, 1872-73 yil qishda, kiyim-kechakdagi sutli shishadan yasalgan katta simli soch qisqichlari yo'qolib qolganini aytdi. Avvaliga u 20 yoshli qizi Elva Frensisni olib ketadi deb o'ylagan. Degan savolga Elva: "Yo'q, onam", deb javob berdi. Jumboq Lucinda bezovtalanishda davom etdi, kechki ovqatdan keyin erining ko'ylagining cho'ntagiga cho'nib, yo'qolgan ikkita soch turmagini echib olganini payqadi. - Yusuf, mening sochlarim bilan nima qilyapsan? deb so'radi u. U panjara uchun g'oya ustida ishlayotganini aytdi.


Oldindan taxmin qilish mumkinki, boshqa ixtirochilar Maykl Kellining dizaynini yaxshilashga harakat qilishdi, ular orasida Kal Kaliforniyadagi dehqon Jozef Glidden bor edi.

1873 va 1874 yillarda Mishel Kellining ixtirosi bilan raqobatlashish uchun turli dizaynlarga patentlar berilgan. Ammo tan olingan g'olib Jozef Gliddenning ikki simli simga mahkamlangan oddiy simli barbur dizayni edi.

Jozef Gliddenning konstruktsiyasi tikanli simni yanada samaraliroq qildi, u tikanlarni joyiga qulflash usulini kashf etdi va simni ommaviy ishlab chiqarish uchun mashinani ixtiro qildi.

Jozef Gliddenning AQSh patenti 1874 yil 24 -noyabrda berilgan. Uning patenti boshqa ixtirochilarning sud qiyinchiliklaridan omon qolgan. Jozef Glidden sud ishlarida va sotishda ustun keldi. Bugungi kunda u tikonli simlarning eng tanish uslubi bo'lib qolmoqda.


Jozef Glidden o'zining tikanli simli dizayniga patent olish uchun ariza beradi - TARIX

Tikanli simlarning rivojlanishi

1863 yilgacha bir nechta odamlar tikanli simlar deb hisoblanadigan fextavonie shakllarini yaratgan. Bu asarlarning hech biri ommaviy bozorga chiqmagan. 1863 yilda Maykl Kelli o'ralgan simlarga o'ralgan panjara turini ishlab chiqdi. Agar uning ixtirosi to'g'ri targ'ib qilinganida, u tikanli simlarning otasi sifatida ajralib turishi mumkin edi. Faqat o'n yil o'tgach, boshqa ixtirochi tikanli simlar sanoatining rivojlanishiga turtki beradigan patentni topshirdi.

1873 yilda Illinoys shtatining DeKalb tuman yarmarkasida Genri M. Rouz qilichbozlik bo'yicha yangi g'oyani namoyish etdi. Bu yog'ochdan yasalgan temir yo'l bo'lib, u temir yo'lning yon tomonlaridan chiqib ketgan. O'sha yilning 13 -mayida patentlangan panjara, temir yo'l bilan aloqa qilganda hayvonni "urish" va chorva mollari o'tib ketmasligi uchun mavjud panjara bilan bog'lanish uchun mo'ljallangan edi.

Bu panjara Jozef Glidden, Yoqub Xaysh va Isaak Ellvudning har uchtasining e'tiborini tortdi. Har bir odam boshini (tikanlarni) to'g'ridan -to'g'ri simga yopishtirib, Rouzning panjarasini yaxshilashni o'ylardi. Ularning har biri o'z yo'llari bilan tez orada ularni birlashtiradigan ixtiro ustida ishlashdi.

Afsonada aytilishicha, Gliddenning rafiqasi Lucinda uni o'z bog'ini o'rab olish g'oyasi bilan undagan. Glidden tajriba o'tkazdi, qisqa simni uzun simli ipga burab, qahva tegirmonini o'zgartirib. Tegirmonning bir tomonida ikkita pim bor, biri o'rtada, ikkinchisi o'rtada simni joylashtirish uchun etarli darajada markazdan tashqarida. Krank burilganda, pinlar simni burab, pastadir hosil qildi. Keyin sim har bir uchidan taxminan bir dyuym burchak ostida kesilib, o'tkir nuqtani hosil qildi. Barblar ikkita parallel simli iplardan biriga o'rnatildi. Ikkita sim tel eski silliqlash g'ildiragining chetidagi ilgakka bog'langan. Tikanlar joylashtirilgach, g'ildirak burildi va ikkita simni burab, tikanlarni joyiga qulflab qo'ydi.

Bu vaqt mobaynida, apparat sotuvchisi Isaak Ellvud o'zining tikanli simlarning o'z versiyasini takomillashtira olmadi. 1874 yil 24 -noyabrda Jozef Gliddenga "G'olib" deb nomlangan ijodi uchun patent berilganda, u va Ellvud hamkorlik o'rnatish uchun sheriklik tuzdilar. Barb Fence kompaniyasi.

Yoqub Xaysh ham shu vaqtgacha o'z simini patentlagan edi, lekin uni ilgari surish va sotishga jiddiy urinmagan. Xaysh, tikanli simlar uchun kredit olishni xohlagan holda, Glidden va Ellvudning sheriklik tuzish g'oyasini yoqtirmadi va ularni qulatishga harakat qildi. Haish Glidden 1873 yil oxirida patent olish uchun ariza berganini, lekin rad etilganini bilgach, Xaysh 1874 yil iyulda "#8220S-Barb ”" ijodiga patent berdi. Bir necha kundan so'ng u Glidden va jiddiy huquqiy nizo kelib chiqdi. Garchi Xayshga birinchi patent berilgan bo'lsa -da, Glidden nizoni yutdi, chunki u patentini Xayshdan oldin topshirgan edi. Xaysh mag'lubiyatini tan olishni istamay, "tikanli simlar ixtirochisi" unvoniga sazovor bo'ldi.

1862 yilda Homestead qonunining kuchga kirishi minglab ko'chmanchilarni yangi Kanzas shtatiga jalb qildi. Ko'chmanchilar ekinlarni erkin yuradigan qoramollardan himoya qilish uchun o'z erlarini to'sib qo'yishni boshladilar va bizon chorvachilik ekinlariga zarar etkazsa, javobgarlikni belgilash zarurati tug'ildi. Bundan tashqari, har kuni millarcha panjaralar qurilishi bilan qonuniy panjara belgilash zarurati tug'ildi. Kanzasda qonunchilar bu masalani muhokama qilishdi va to'g'ri qilichbozlik uchun qonuniy majburiy ta'riflarni yozishdi. Qishloq xo'jaligi erlari o'tlatish uchun ishlatilgan bo'lsa, Kanzas shtatining qonuniga ko'ra, birinchi navbatda, mol -mulkni qonuniy ravishda to'sib qo'yish og'ir yuk edi. Bu qaror chorva mollarini tinimsiz boqishga ruxsat beruvchi erkin yaylov qonunlariga asoslangan edi. Garchi dehqon panjara qurishga mas'ul bo'lsa -da, to'siq belgilangan mezonlarga javob bersa, unga ko'p afzalliklari berilgan. Biroq, keyingi yillarda mas'uliyat o'zgardi va chorvadorlar o'z chorva mollarini to'sib qo'yish uchun javobgar bo'ldilar. "Devordan chiqib ketish" talabi "panjara qilish" talabiga aylandi. [ Davomi ]


Temir yo'llar va tikanli simlar

Temir yo'llar, yo'llar qonuniy ravishda to'silgan xususiy erdan o'tib ketadigan joyda, qonuniy ravishda belgilangan panjara qurishi kerak edi. Biroq, temir yo'llar er egalariga berilgan imtiyozlarni olmagan. Chorvachilik huquqi buzilganida, ular (er egalariga berilganidek) qaytarilish huquqidan ozod qilingan.

Yana bir muammo shundaki, qo'shni dehqonlar va chorvadorlar o'z ehtiyojlari uchun temir to'siqlardan sim "qarz" olishni boshladilar. Ko'p sonli tikanli simlar qonuniy ravishda sotilganligi sababli, o'g'rini topish va o'g'irlangan simni qaytarib olish deyarli imkonsiz edi. Muammo bilan kurashish uchun "G'olib" ning noyob variantlari faqat temir yo'lda foydalanish uchun yaratilgan. Dizayn bir yoki bir nechta an'anaviy dumaloq chiziqlar orasiga to'qilgan bir yoki bir nechta kvadrat simlardan iborat edi. Ko'p yillar davomida temir yo'l kompaniyalari asosiy xaridorlari bo'lgan Barb Fence kompaniyasi. Tikanli simlar G'arbni tinchlantirishga urinishda yana g'alaba qozondi. [Ko'proq ]

G'arbni o'rab turgan sim, Genri D. va Frensis Makkallum, Oklahoma universiteti matbuoti, 1985 yil (bosmadan).

Bobbed Wire Bible IX, Jek Glover tomonidan, Cow Puddle Press, 1996 (nashrdan chiqqan).


Tikanli simlarning tarixi

Yigirmanchi asr davomida tikanli simlar urush, o'lim, vayronagarchilik va inson azoblarining timsoliga aylandi. Biz hammamiz Birinchi jahon urushidagi tasvirlarni bilamiz, tikanli simlar bilan o'ralgan erlar va unda jasadlar osilgan. Ammo bu birinchi jahon urushida qolmadi, axir, tikonli simlar juda samarali va iqtisodiy jihatdan tejamkor. Ikkinchi Jahon urushi paytida nemislar uni kontslagerlar uchun ishtiyoq bilan ishlatishgan va urushdan keyin temir parda va Berlin devorining ibtidoiy versiyasi tikonli simlardan iborat bo'lgan.

Va u hali ham chegaralarni himoya qilish va jamiyat uchun xavflarni qamash uchun ishlatiladi. Ammo bu urush ramzining ixtirosi hech qanday harbiy ehtiyojdan kelib chiqmagan. 19-asrning oxirida Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlaridan kelgan tadbirkor va chorvador chorva mollarini ma'lum bir hududda saqlamoqchi bo'lgan va tajriba o'tkazgan. U ixtirosi nafaqat shaxsiy boyligini, balki Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va butun dunyo tarixini o'zgartirishini bilmas edi. Uning ixtirosi Yovvoyi G'arbni tugatdi va undan keyingi asrda urush olib borilishiga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Mahalliy amerikaliklar tikanli simni "Iblis arqoni" deb atashining sababi bor.

Dastlabki versiyalar

Tikanli sim 1874 yilda amerikalik tadbirkor va chorvador Jozef Farvell Glidden tomonidan ixtiro qilingan. Bu biz bilgan tikanli simlar turi, bugungi kunda mustahkam, mustahkam va iqtisodiy jihatdan tejamkor. Bu soddaligi bilan samarali: ikkita po'lat sim muntazam tikanlar bilan o'ralgan. Glidden dastlab bu mollarni Amerikaning yirik ranchosiga joylashtirish va xususiy mulkni belgilash usuli sifatida ixtiro qilgan.

Biz biladigan tikanli simlarning Glidden versiyasiga kirishdan oldin, men uning oldingi versiyalarini tezda ko'rib chiqmoqchiman.

Chunki 1860 yilda frantsuz ixtirochisi Leon Ejen Grassin-Baledan o'zining tikanli simli versiyasiga patent oldi. U daraxtlarni yovvoyi va hayvonlardan himoya qilish uchun ishlatilgan shaklni yaratdi. Aytishlaricha, bu versiya o'z maqsadiga muvofiq bo'lgan, lekin uni ishlab chiqarish va keng miqyosda ishlatish qiyin bo'lgan. Dehqonlar va dehqonlar bundan foydalanishni ko'rmaganlar. Etti yil o'tgach, Lucien B. Smit o'zining tikanli simli versiyasiga patent oldi va uni "tikanli sim" deb atadi. Ommabop ilmiy maqolaga ko'ra, 1867-1874 yillar mobaynida "pichoqli qilichbozlik" uchun 200 dan ortiq turli xil patentlar qayta ishlangan. Dizaynning o'zgarishi bor edi, ba'zilarining uchlari o'ralgan yoki o'tinlari o'zgaruvchan edi. Ammo bu turdagi tikanli simlarning barchasi hali ham qo'lda ishlab chiqarilgan, shuning uchun uni ommaviy ishlab chiqarish uchun samarasiz qiladi.

Endi Jozef Gliddenga kelsak, uning muvaffaqiyati qisman qulay sharoit tufayli bo'ldi. Uning vaqti mukammal edi va uning mahsuloti raqobatchilardan ko'ra yaxshiroq edi, chunki uni mexanik tarzda ishlab chiqarish mumkin edi. Vaqtga kelsak, 1862 yilda Avraam Linkolnning uy -joy to'g'risidagi qonuni millionlab gektar maydonlarni ochdi. Har bir kattalar 160 gektar maydonga ariza yozib, dehqonchilik qilishlari mumkin edi. Ammo og'ir sharoitlar tufayli daraxtlar yo'q edi va yog'och to'siqlar erni yopish uchun unchalik samarali emas edi.

Amerikaning Illinoys shtatidagi Dekalb shaharchasida Glidden 243 gektar er sotib oldi, u erda chorvachilik xo'jaligi qurmoqchi edi. Qoramollarni yopiq hududda ushlab turish juda qiyin edi. Hikoya shundaki, chorva mollari muntazam ravishda chiqib ketgan, faqat rafiqasi boqqan bog'da boqishni boshlagan. Birozdan so'ng, Yusuf yechim haqida o'yladi: u bir nechta rulonli temir sim sotib oldi. Keyin u qahva tegirmonidan foydalanib, simni tikanlarga mahkam o'radi va tikanlarni joyida ushlab turish uchun ikkinchi simni ishlatdi. Yakuniy mahsulot juda samarali bo'ldi. Bu chorva mollarini nazoratda ushlab turdi va shu bilan birga uning erlarini belgilashning ajoyib usuli edi.

U 1874 yilda tikanli simlarni patentladi, lekin ko'p o'tmay uning o'ziga xosligi haqida savollar tug'ildi. Glidden 1892 yilgacha hal qilinmagan huquqiy nizolarga aralashdi. Siz 1892 yilgi asl ishni rasmiy veb -saytida ko'rishingiz mumkin, uning havolasi tavsifda. Glidden bu ishni yutishdan oldin, u DeKalbda "Barb's Devors Company" ni tashkil qilgan. Bu unga tez pul topib, boy va badavlat tadbirkor bo'lishga olib keldi. Glidden tikanli simlarga beshta patent oldi va 1877 yilga kelib u har yili uch million funt tikonli sim ishlab chiqarardi.

Oddiyligi tufayli yangiliklar tez tarqaldi va mintaqada o'nlab tikanli simlar fabrikalari paydo bo'ldi. Bu zavodlarning hammasi ham patentga ega emas edi, shuning uchun tikonli simlarning noqonuniy ishlab chiqarilishi ham oshdi. Eng yaxshi misollardan biri bu Jon Bet-A-Million Warne Geyts. Texas shtati tarixiy assotsiatsiyasining ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, u litsenziyasiz patentlangan, "moonshine" deb nomlangan tikanli simlarni ishlab chiqaruvchi va tarqatuvchi eng yirik kompaniyani qurdi va bu unga katta boylik keltirdi.

Tikanli simlarning mashhurligi butun mamlakat bo'ylab o'sdi va qoramollarni yopiq holda saqlashning bu samarali usuli haqidagi yangiliklar Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari bo'ylab tarqalgach, hamma bir bo'lakni xohladi. Tel, bir qarashda, yog'och panjara kabi mustahkam ko'rinmasdi. Shunday qilib, arzon va kuchsiz tuyulgan sim qoramollarning chiqib ketishini to'xtatishga muvaffaq bo'lganda ajablanib bo'lganini tasavvur qiling. Bu faqat mahsulot atrofidagi g'ayratni qo'shdi.

Sizga tushuncha berish uchun: 1884 yilda "Prerie dehqon" gazetasida "sanoatlashgan tarixda teng bo'lmagan hodisa" haqida maxsus nashr chop etilgan. 1882 yilda o'sha gazetada tikanli simlar haqida ba'zi statistik ma'lumotlar e'lon qilindi: o'sha yili 82 million kilo sotildi, bu 1874 yildan 18000 barobar ko'p. Jozef Gidden millioner bo'lishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, bu kamdan-kam uchraydigan yutuq edi. Yillar davomida u biznesmendan tashqari, sherif, Dekalb okrugi kuzatuvchilar kengashi a'zosi va qishloq xo'jaligi ijroiya qo'mitasining a'zosi bo'ldi. 1876 ​​yilda u hatto AQSh Senati saylovlarida demokratik partiyadan nomzod bo'lgan. 1906 yilda Glidden vafot etganda, u Glidden House mehmonxonasi, DeKalb Rolling Mill, fabrika, DeKalb Chronicle gazetasi va dehqonchilik maydonlarini o'z ichiga olgan million dollarlik boylikka ega bo'lgan AQShning eng boy odamlaridan biri edi. Illinoys va Texasda. Ayova shtatidagi kichik Glidden shaharchasi uning nomi bilan atalgan.

Urushda tikanli simlar

Tikanli simlarning ixtirosi Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari va jahon tarixiga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Qo'shma Shtatlarga kelsak, bu kolonizatsiyaning oxirgi bosqichi va g'arbga yurishning tez sur'atlar bilan rivojlanishiga olib keldi. Tikanli simlar xususiy hududni yopishni nihoyatda osonlashtirdi, bu esa haqiqiy Yovvoyi G'arbning tugashiga olib keldi.

Dehqonlar va chorvadorlar o'rtasidagi qarama -qarshiliklar hajmi oshdi. O'z hududini tikanli simlar bilan belgilab qo'ygan dehqonlar, uni uchinchi shaxslar uchun yopib qo'yishdi va boshqa chorva mollarini bu erda boqishni imkonsiz qilishdi. Hatto bu omad haqida "Baxtli Luqo" hikoyasi ham bor: dashtdagi tikanli sim. Aslida, kovboylar va chorvadorlar dehqonlar bilan Yovvoyi G'arbni baham ko'rishni boshlashlari kerak edi. Mulkni to'sib qo'yish qobiliyati tufayli, ersizlar va mulkdorlar o'rtasidagi tafovut avvalgidan ko'ra aniqroq bo'ldi.

1885 yilga kelib, Glidden tikanli simlarni ommaviy ishlab chiqarishni boshlaganidan atigi 11 yil o'tgach, butun Texas Panhandle simli o'tkazildi. Uning ta'siri chorvachilar va dehqonlar o'rtasidagi to'qnashuvlardan tashqari, yovvoyi tabiat uchun halokatli edi. To'satdan ko'plab hayvonlar o'tloqlaridan yoki ichgan buloqlaridan ayrilib, tabiiy yashash joylaridan foydalana olmadilar. Ko'zi ojizligi bilan tanilgan yovvoyi bufalo simni ko'ra olmasdi va tez -tez ochilib, chanqab yoki yaralaridan o'lib o'lardi. Bu tubjoy amerikaliklar uni iblis arqoni deb atashining sababi edi.

Yovvoyi G'arbdan tashqari, tikonli simlar Birinchi jahon urushi dahshatlarining timsoliga aylandi. . Xandaqlardan tashqari, u chegaralarni yopish uchun ishlatilgan. Mashhur misollardan biri Dodendraad, o'lim simidir: Birinchi jahon urushi paytida Gollandiya-Belgiya chegarasini nazorat qilish uchun nemis harbiylari tomonidan o'ldirilgan elektr panjara. Bu to'siqlar kontrabanda va harbiy qochishlarning oldini olish uchun qo'yilgan. Chegaradagi o'lim simlari 1915 yildan 1918 yilgacha o'nlab odamlarning o'limiga olib keldi, ko'pincha kontrabandachilarni o'ldirdi, lekin vaqti -vaqti bilan fuqarolarni ham bilmasdi.

Ammo Dodendraad - tikonli simlardan foydalanish uchun juda kam uchraydigan misol. Chunki xandaq urushi va nemis va frantsuz xandaqlari orasidagi hech kimning erlari Birinchi Jahon urushi baxtsizligining kuchli belgisidir. Urush paytida G'arbiy frontga million kilometrdan ortiq tikanli sim yotqizilgan. Hamma osilgan jasadlarning fotosuratlarini biladi. Urush paytida tikanli simlar xandaq urushining umidsizligining timsoliga aylandi va o'z joniga qasd qilish ayblovlari bilan frontda millionlab odamlarning hayoti behuda ketdi.

Garchi bu halokatli va dahshatlar uchun ishlatilgan bo'lsa -da, biz uning muvaffaqiyatini inkor eta olmaymiz. Tikanli simlarning muvaffaqiyatining guvohi - uning ajoyib xilma -xilligi. 1972 yilda nashr etilgan Jek Gloverning "Bobbed simli Injil" asarida 700 dan ortiq tikanli simli tugunlar keltirilgan. Va hatto bugungi kunda ham o'zgarishlar hali tugamagan. 1980 -yillarda po'lat simlarning moddasi uglerod tolasi bilan aralashtirib, yanada moslashuvchan, ammo baribir mustahkam va bardoshli simlarni yaratdi. Simlarni haddan tashqari issiqlik ta'sirida uglerod molekulalari kristallangan. Bu kimyoviy reaktsiyani keltirib, simning kuchini saqlab qolganda, uning og'irligini keskin kamaytiradi. Bundan tashqari, 21-asrning boshlarida sim uchun zangga qarshi qoplamaning tarkibi o'zgardi. Bu tikonli simlarning umr ko'rish davomiyligini uch baravar ko'paytirishga olib keldi. 19 -asrda rasman tikanli simlar sahnaga chiqqan va u butun dunyoni o'zgartirib yuborgan bo'lsa ham, u hali ham rivojlanmagan.


Tikanli simli qilichbozlik sanoati

Ko'pchilik tikanli simlardan azob chekayotgan paytda, Jozef Glidden va uning biznes sherigi Isaak Ellvud "Barb Fence Company" ni tashkil qilishdi va bu yangi tashkil etilgan sanoatning bumidan gullab -yashnamoqda. 1875 yilda tikanli sim ishlab chiqaradigan zavod qurildi. O'sha yili 600,000 funtdan oshdi. tikanli simlar yig'ildi. 1876 ​​yilda Glidden kompaniyadagi o'z ulushini sotdi, lekin Ellvud sarmoyada qoldi va boylikni davom ettirdi.

Jon Varn Geyts Texasda tikonli simlarning mashhur sotuvchisiga aylandi va oxir -oqibat o'zining "Southern Wire Company" deb nomlangan tikanli sim ishlab chiqaruvchi kompaniyasini tuzdi. Bu ishlab chiqarilgan tikanli sim litsenziyasiz va "moonshine/patentlanmagan" tikanli sim deb nomlangan.


Beanz jurnali

Tikanli simlar va dasturiy ta'minot cheksiz da'volarga, nokautlarga va yangiliklarga olib keldi. O'zgarishlar unchalik emas, to'g'rimi?

Yaqinda men o'ldirishim uchun yarim soat vaqtim bor edi, shuning uchun men epizodning bir qismini tomosha qildim Amerika tanlovchilari, AQSh kollektsionerlariga sotiladigan antiqa buyumlar va keraksiz narsalarni qidirish uchun Qo'shma Shtatlarga sayohat qilgan ikki yigit haqida. Ular noma'lum muzeyni topdilar, u erda uning egasi o'z shahriga muzey litsenziyasi uchun 750 dollar to'lashni emas, yopishni xohladi. Lekin meni qiziqtirgani - uning tikanli sim yig'ishi.

Siz tikanli simlar juda zerikarli deb o'ylashingiz mumkin va hech qanday aloqasi yo'q yoki kompyuter fanlari yoki dasturlash bilan parallel emas. Bu tel o'ralgan va o'tkir va devor ustunlari orasiga qisilgan, hikoya oxiri.

Tikanli sim - bu texnologiya. Har xil turdagi tikanli simlar uchun yuzlab, ehtimol minglab patentlar mavjud. Va tikanli simlarning texnologiya va sohadagi tarixi bugungi kunda dasturiy ta'minot patentlari kabi bahsli.

Meni nima o'yladi, chunki Off Beat -dagi ushbu maqola men jurnalni yaratishda ishlatgan tadqiqot ko'nikmalarimdan foydalangani uchun, siz qanday qilib tikanli simlarni patentlaysiz? Haqiqatan ham juda ko'p farqlar bormi, biri boshqasidan ko'ra yaxshiroqmi? Odamlar patent himoya qilish uchun bir -birlarini sudga berishganmi?

Keling, aylanamiz va tikanli simlar, patentlar va texnologiya tarixining noaniq burchagini o'rganamiz.

Tikanli sim? Haqiqatan ham?

Sizning bobongizga yoki buvisingizga yoki chindan ham keksa odamga o'xshamasdan, AQSh iqtisodiyoti keng tarqalgan edi. Bugun siz xuddi shu modelli kompyuterni Nyu -York yoki Kaliforniyadagi Best Buy -dan sotib olishingiz mumkin. Bu yangi hodisa, ko'pchilik odamlar bundan ellik yil oldin boshidan kechirgan tajriba emas. Ko'p odamlar tovuqlarni shahar shaharlarida boqishgan. Ba'zilarida bog'chalari bor edi. Masalan, Jeyn Ostin yoki Mark Tvenni o'qing, shunda siz Trader Joe yoki Safeway -da oziq -ovqat xarid qiladigan belgilarni topa olmaysiz. Bozorlardan sotib olgan odamlar o'z shaharlaridagi mahalliy do'kondan, oziq -ovqat, qurol -yarog ', kiyim -kechak, o'yinchoqlar va boshqa narsalar saqlanadigan do'kondan foydalanishgan.

Buning tikanli sim bilan nima aloqasi bor?

Odamlar AQShda joylashganda (shuni ta'kidlashim kerakki, tubjoy amerikaliklar zarar ko'radi), ular o'z xo'jaliklari va mulklarini to'sib qo'yishni xohlagan. AQShning sharqiy qirg'og'ida odamlar toshdan foydalanib, mulk chegaralarini belgilashgan. Boshqa joylarda odamlar yog'och to'siqlar qurdilar. Tikanli simlar AQShning o'rtasidagi keng tekislikdagi tekis dashtlarda buzg'unchilar muammosini hal qildi. Tikanli simlar sizning chorva mollaringizni uyda ushlab turardi.

Biroq, tekisliklar bilan o'ralgan uchastkalar sigirlarni Texasdan shimolda Chikagogacha sizning eringiz ustidan boqishni qiyinlashtirdi yoki imkonsiz qildi. Chorvachilar katta podalarni so'yish joylariga haydashgan, dehqonlarning ehtiyojlariga zid edi. Va panjara haqida kamroq g'amxo'rlik qila oladigan tubjoy amerikaliklar.

Bugungi kunda dasturiy ta'minotning katta muammosi, mamlakatlar va qit'alar bo'ylab tarqalgan millionlab foydalanuvchilar uchun faoliyat ma'lumotlarini olish, saqlash va olishdir. Tikanli sim bilan katta tukli muammo haqiqatan ham katta va tukli edi: tikanli simga ruxsat bermagan buqa yoki sigir ularni erkin yurishni to'xtatdi.

Tikanli simlarning tarixi

Endi siz (umid qilamanki) tikanli sim - bu muammoni hal qilish uchun mo'ljallangan texnologiya ekanligiga rozilik bildirganingizdan so'ng, Bessini sizning eringizda qanday ushlab turish yoki o'chirish mumkinligi, tikanli simlar tarixini o'rganishga ruxsat bering.

Tikanli simlar tarixi bo'yicha birinchi qidiruv natijasi bir muhim faktni aniqladi: tikonli simni ixtiro qilgan odam birinchi bo'lib pul topmagan. Yoki birinchi bo'lib patent egasi. Bu g'oya o'g'irlangan, boshqacha aytganda.

Genri M. Rouz, dehqon, 1873 yilda DeKalb okrugi ko'rgazmasida panjara panjarasiga biriktirilishi kerak bo'lgan o'tkir simli yog'och panjarani ko'rsatdi. Bugun siz qanday yaxshi dasturchi bo'lishni o'rganish uchun texnologik konferentsiyalarda qatnashasiz. 1873 yilda siz eng yangi mahsulotlar bilan tanishish va yaxshiroq dehqon bo'lishingizga yordam beradigan odamlar bilan uchrashish uchun tuman yarmarkasiga tashrif buyurdingiz.

Uch kishi Rose ’s ixtirosini ko'rib chiqishdi va uni mahsulotga aylantirishdi. Yog'ochli temir o'rniga, o'tkir uchlari hozirda ishlatilgan bitta simga ulangan.

Uch kishi - Yoqub Xaysh, Jozef Glidden va Isaak Ellvud. Rose ’s dizaynidan ilhomlanib, Glidden va Ellvud mustaqil ravishda sim dizaynlarini yaratdilar. Ellvud Gliddenning tikonli simli versiyasini ko'rganida, u Gliddenning yaxshiroq echimi borligini tan oldi. Ular tikanli simlarni patentlash va sotish uchun birgalikda biznesga kirishdilar. Bu orada, Jeykob Xaysh Gliddenning tikanli simlarning versiyasini ko'rdi, hasad qildi, dizaynini o'zgartirdi, so'ng patentga ariza berdi. Keyin u Glidden va Ellvudning tel konstruktsiyalari uchun patent berishdan to'xtatish uchun aralashuv hujjatlarini taqdim etdi.

Ayta olasizmi, tikanli simli trol? Patent trolliga o'xshaydi. Qaysi biri yaxshiroq ishlaydi degan savol qiziq va ochiq manba yoki asosiy texnologiya g'oyalari va dash zanjirlari darhol tikanli sim bilan paydo bo'lgan. Mulkchilik natijasida o'nlab yillar mobaynida ko'plab sud jarayonlari boshlandi va ko'plab advokatlar ish bilan ta'minlandi, samarasiz faoliyat behuda ketdi.

Qanday bo'lmasin, hikoyaga qaytish. Xaysh Glidden va Ellvudga qarshi tikanli sim ishlab chiqarish va sotish bilan shug'ullanadigan kompaniyalar yaratdi. Sharqiy sohilda bitta simli fextavonie ishlab chiqaruvchisi, Massachusets shtatining Washburn and Moen kompaniyasi Xayshga sherik bo'lish uchun murojaat qilib, ularga yangi turdagi simni sotishga ruxsat berdi. Haish ularni rad etdi. Glidden va Ellvud bitim tuzishdi. Glidden royalti to'lovini oldi. Ellvud o'z ishini Washburn Moen bilan birlashtirdi. Tez orada ular o'z pozitsiyalarini mustahkamlash uchun ko'plab tikonli simlarning ko'plab patentlarini sotib olishdi. O'nlab yillar davomida raqobat boshlandi. Va sud ishlari.

Tikanli simli patentlar va sud ishlari

Ko'rinib turibdiki, tikanli simlar tarixining qiziqarli qismlaridan biri shundaki, hech qanday haqiqiy tarix yo'q. Tikanli simlarga misollar Rose ’ ning o'tkir simli panjarasi paydo bo'lishidan oldin mavjud edi. Biroq, ularning hech biri ishlab chiqarilmagan va katta miqdorda sotilmagan. Va qanday tarixlar Xaysh va Ellvud o'rtasidagi savdolardan kelib chiqadi.

Bu Glidden va Ellvudni sotish uchun patentlardan foydalangan Yoqub Xaysh edi. U erdan o'yin boshlandi.

Xo'sh, tikanli simlarni loyihalashning necha yo'li bor?

InsaneTwist.com deb nomlangan veb -sayt 800 ga yaqin 2000 ga yaqin variantga ega. AQSh Milliy bog'lari xizmati saytida 500 dan ortiq patent borligi aytilgan. Ellvud kompaniyasi tezda tikanli simlar bozorida ustunlikka erishdi. Bu raqobatbardosh patent va dizaynga ega bo'lgan 150 ga yaqin kichik ishlab chiqaruvchilarni bozorni monopollashtirish uchun o'z kompaniyasiga qarshi da'vo qo'zg'atishga olib keldi. Bu kichkina qovurilgan sim ishlab chiqaruvchilarga moonshiners deb nom berilgan.

Milliy bog'lar xizmati saytida, shuningdek, 500 dan ortiq patentlarda 2000 ta variant borligi qayd etilgan, chunki alohida dehqonlar o'zlari tikanli simni o'rab olishgan. Ular ko'rgan dizaynlarini ishlatgan, ko'rgan dizaynlarini takomillashtirgan yoki o'z g'oyalarini yaratgan.

Bir diqqatga sazovor tafsilot: Halid ’s patent da'volaridan Glidden va Ellvudni blokirovka qilishdan tortib, Ellvud kompaniyasini sudga berishdan oldin, Ellvud kompaniyasini sudga berishdan oldin boshqalarga aylandi.


Tikanli simlar, kovboy balosidan tortib Eski G'arbning qimmatbaho yodgorliklarigacha

Nega kimdir zanglagan tikanli sim uchun 500 dollar to'laydi? Xo'sh, agar 18 dyuymli uzunlikdagi namunalar yoki kesmalar 1907 yildagi Tomas J. Barnes patentining yagona namunasi bo'lsa (yuqorida ko'rsatilgan), ba'zi odamlar bundan ham ko'proq to'lashlari mumkin. Darhaqiqat, tikanli simlarni yig'uvchilar uchun, yoki u ham shunday deyilganidek, so'nggi bir necha yillar zanglab ketish edi, chunki o'nlab yillar davomida chayqalib ketgan nodir simlarning namunalari bozorga kirib kelmoqda.

Bu yo'l chetida siz ko'rgan narsalar emas, garchi tikonli simlarning dizayni 100 yildan ko'proq vaqt davomida o'zgarmagan bo'lsa. Tikanli simlarni yig'uvchilarni hayajonga soladigan narsa, 1874 yildan 20-asrning birinchi o'n yiligacha ishlab chiqarilgan simlarning kam misollari, o'sha paytda tikonli simlar millionlab dollarlik biznes bo'lgan va hamma bu harakatni xohlagan.

Simlar bozori fextavoniega bo'lgan yangi talab bilan bog'liq edi. Temir yo'llar yangi qurilgan yo'lni ta'minlashi kerak edi (oxirgi pog'ona 1869 yilda qit'alararo temir yo'lda ishlatilgan), chorvadorlar o'z chorva mollarini tobora kengayib borayotgan ochiq maydonda boqishlariga emas, balki mulkiy chegaralarda saqlashga majbur bo'lishdi. dehqonchilik erlariga aylantirilmoqda.

"Tikanli simlar birinchi marta paydo bo'lganida juda ko'p norozilik bo'lgan", deydi "tikanli simlarni identifikatsiya qilish entsiklopediyasi" sevimli mashg'ulotining rasmiy qo'llanmasi bo'lgan Xarold L. Xagemeyer. "Qadimgi chorvadorlarga bu umuman yoqmadi. O'sha vaqtga qadar poligonlar ochiq edi. Chorvachilar zarur bo'lsada, to'siqlarni kesib, ustunlarni yoqish uchun maxsus ekipajlarni yuborishdi. Bu 10 yil davom etdi, ehtimol unchalik uzoq emas. Bu erda Texasda gubernator nihoyat to'siqlarni kesishni jinoyatga aylantiradigan qonunga imzo chekdi va boshqa shtatlar ham xuddi shunday qilishdi. Aynan o'sha masofali urushlarga tikanli simlar sabab bo'lgan ”.

Tikanli simlarning fazilatlari 19-asrda e'lon qilingan. Ellvud uy muzeyidan olingan rasm.

19 -asrning oxirida kovboy madaniyatiga bo'lgan nostaljik nuqtai nazarimizda mashhur bo'lgan tikanli simlar G'arbni o'zlashtirdi. "Texasdan Montana va boshqa joylarga boradigan ko'plab izlar bor edi", deydi Xagemeyer. «Tikanli simlar qo'yilganda, u iz haydovchilarining yo'llarini kesib tashladi. Karl Parkerning so'zlariga ko'ra, Montana dagi terichi o'zining 400 dan ortiq tikanli simlarining bir qismini Show & amp Tell-ga tikanli tel sifatida joylashtirgan, 19-asrning oxiri "biz g'arb tomon kengayayotgan payt edi. Hamma tikanli simlar bilan shug'ullanmoqchi edi, chunki bu o'sha paytda katta pul, millionlab va millionlab dollar edi. Kim simni patentlashi mumkin bo'lsa, u simni patentladi. "

«Tikanli simlar birinchi marta chiqqanda, ko'p norozilik bo'lgan. Keksa chorvadorlarga bu umuman yoqmasdi ».

Chorvachilik fermerlari fermerlar bilan uchrashganda, sud tizimi tikanli simlar patentlari bo'yicha sud jarayonlari bilan chigallashdi. Almost from the moment Jacob Haish and Joseph Glidden filed their first patents for barbed wire in 1874, the two men were squaring off in court. That same year, a hardware-store owner named Isaac Ellwood bought a 50-percent share in Glidden’s patent for $265. By the time the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Glidden’s favor in 1892 (his “Winner” design is used on most fences today), hundreds of patents for as many designs of barbed wire had been filed, and many more unpatented variations were on the market.

This legacy is of keen interest to people like Parker, who collect mostly 18-inch-long sections of wire, which are often mounted on boards so the twisted strands and barbs don’t get all tangled up. There were some 800 unique barbed-wire patents, and many more unpatented variations for a total of perhaps 2,000 types of barbed wire. Some feature wire barbs attached to single or double strands. Others sport stationary barbs or rotating rowels made of sheet metal in decorative shapes, from leaves to diamonds to stars. Some barbed wire isn’t wire at all, made instead out of ribbons of sheet metal that have been punctured or sliced to create nasty points.

Bronson Single Strand Double Loop Barb, patented in 1877 by Adelbert E. Bronson, Chicago, Ill. Photo by railman.

Like many collectors, Parker was familiar with barbed wire long before it ever occurred to him to collect it. “I grew up with cows and fixed a lot of fence in my day,” he says. “I didn’t like barbed wire then, and I still don’t like to fix fence today. But when I was a little boy, my father took me to one of his friends’ houses. He was a collector and had a bunch of wire. I was always fascinated with it, but it never really stuck until I was out of high school. I’d be helping someone fix a fence and I’d see a new wire. I’d take small pieces home and it sort of escalated from there.”

These days, Parker concentrates his collecting efforts on rare wire. “I like the figure barbs and some of the more complex bends,” he says. “It’s fascinating to me that they did this with the machinery they had back then. Now it’s easy, but in the late 1800s, the ingenuity of the machines they built to bend the wire and insert a barb was amazing.”

TheGateKeeper is another Show & Teller who credits his rural roots for his interest in barbed wire. “I grew up on a farm outside of Dallas,” he says. “Our farm was fenced with a strange-looking barbed wire with these metal plates in it. I cut myself and ripped my pants on that stuff for a long time. After I got married in 1961, we moved to the little town of Carrollton, also outside of Dallas. On our back fence were four different kinds of old wire that I had never seen before. That got me interested.”

A collection of ornamental fence stays and inline tighteners, mounted for display by TheGateKeeper.

Though his collection is not as large as Parker’s, TheGateKeeper has hundreds of pieces. “Right now I have 280,” he says. “I’m trying to keep my collection below 300 because I can only display that much in my office. Anything more than that I have to put in a box and hide somewhere. If I can’t display it, I don’t want it.”

“In a lot of cases, the patent attorney ended up owning the patent because the guy who came up with it couldn’t pay the fees.”

For collectors like TheGateKeeper, maintaining a collection at a manageable size had not been too difficult because the number of rare pieces available to collectors had been limited. But in the last few years, he says, a couple of large collections have come onto the market. “People have passed on, gotten tired of it, or whatever. There’s some really neat stuff coming out of these collections, which makes it really tough to decide what to keep and what to get rid of.”

Most collectors specialize to give their collections focus. “I’ve concentrated my efforts on rare wire that has sheet metal incorporated into it somehow,” he says “either as a metal strip, ribbon, or a sheet-metal barb. I also like the wires that had wooden blocks in them as warning devices. Most wooden blocks burned up in grass fires, so those are pretty rare pieces of wire.”

Robinson Shock Absorber two point. Photo by gotwire.

TheGateKeeper is particularly enamored with ornamental wire, which, he says, was used to surround yards, cemeteries, and other areas where barbed wire was not necessary. “Ornamental wire was also used as stay wires between fence posts,” he says. “The shapes are really beautiful, and they’re an inch to two inches wide, which makes them very visible. Barbs could be added, but barbed ornamental wire evidently did not achieve wide acceptance.”

Star wire looks ornamental to contemporary eyes, but it was definitely used for containment and boundary fencing. “Utilizing sheet metal rather than wire as the barb medium made the barb more visible,” says TheGateKeeper. “In some designs it was also more humane because the barbs rotated. I’m also fascinated by all the symbolism in the designs. Each star shape has a different religious meaning.”

Railroad wire is another popular subset. “There were special ‘marker’ wires made for each railroad,” he says. “They’d change up the number of strands, twist a square strand with a round one for example, so that if the wire was stolen from a remote area, it would be easy to identify. Some people collect nothing but that.”

The Devil’s Rope Museum is just off historic Route 66. Photo by Rick Vanderpool.

One of the most interesting subsets for barbed-wire collectors doesn’t even involve barbed wire at all. “The barbed wire was cutting up the animals,” says TheGateKeeper, “so they started making barbed-wire liniment. A whole new industry grew out of that. There are a ton of different liniment bottles from the 1800s that people collect. In fact, a collection of bottles was just donated to the Devil’s Rope Museum in Texas.”

There are numerous museums in the United States known for their association with barbed wire history, as well as institutions that collect the material itself. Naturally the three founders, if you will, of the U.S. Barbed wire industry are well represented. The Ellwood House Museum in DeKalb, Illinois, is devoted to the legacy of Isaac Ellwood, whose early investment in Joseph Glidden’s patent made him a rich man. Glidden’s more modest Homestead & Historical Center is located nearby. Jacob Haish’s legacy is maintained online by one of the great 19th-century inventor’s relatives.

To see good examples of wire, collectors routinely travel to the Kansas Barbed Wire Museum in La Crosse or the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City. And then there’s Devil’s Rope.

The Devil’s Rope Museum includes barbed wire art, such as this cowboy hat. Photo by Bernie0405.

Delbert Trew and his wife, Ruth, have been the public faces of the Devil’s Rope Museum in McLean, Texas (which is east of Amarillo near the Oklahoma border) since it opened in 1991. “The museum was put together by barbed wire collectors associations,” he says. “At the time, there were about seven or eight associations scattered throughout the Midwest mostly, and about 300 to 400 major collectors across the county. Most of them were getting old and wondering what to do with their collections. That’s where the museum’s collection really came from, those collectors.”

Back then Trew was not a barbed wire collector. “My deal was mostly tools,” he says. “But it did so happen that I lived near McLean where they decided to establish the museum. So my wife and I have been the local people that tend to everything. She’s been a treasurer and secretary all these years and I’ve been the museum’s supervisor.”

While the town of McLean did not have any particular historical association with barbed wire, it had other things going for it. “One of the priorities of the founding members was a building large enough that it could hold everything. And they wanted it to be on a major highway. It just so happened we had an empty brassiere factory right on old Route 66. They made brassieres for Sears Roebuck and Co., and had a hundred women working there for 20 years. After the factory moved out, to Mexico, I think, the owners of the building donated it to the city of McLean.”

This Hunt’s Link variation was patented in 1877 by George G. Hunt of Bristol, Ill. Each link is 6.5 inches long. Photo by railman.

If you’re into barbed wire, Devil’s Rope is a must stop on your rusty pilgrimage. Trew estimates they have some 7,000 artifacts, including cowboy hats made out of barbed wire, exhibits on the history of entanglement wire (what Trew calls “war wire”), and probably 100 or so post-hole diggers. The centerpieces of the collection, though, are the sections of barbed wire. “The Smithsonian tells us we’ve got a better collection than they’ve got,” he says proudly.

“Some of these guys have been collecting wire for 40 years they’ve seen just about everything.”

Tom Knapik, who teaches high school mathematics and posts his wire on Show & Tell as railman, could probably open his own small barbed-wire museum, but it wouldn’t be filled with just anything. “The Glidden ‘Winner’ was patented in 1874,” he says, “but to me, it’s one of the most dull, boring wires that has ever been created, even though it was the most successful. Probably the most outrageous and fantastic patent was the Thomas J. Barnes of 1907. It had flared barbs at the end of a tube that rolled and moved as an animal rubbed up against it. It’s an extremely rare wire. As far as I know, there’s only one 18-inch section that has survived the years.”

Knapik, who has maybe 120 pieces of wire in his collection, is always on the lookout for rare wire new to the collecting pool. For example, the collection of Robert Campbell, who wrote “Barriers: An Encyclopedia of Barbed Wire Fence Patents,” was sold a while back. “His collection contained the rarest of the rare,” says Knapik. “From what I’ve been told, he had riders who would go out and find new wires for his collection. He amassed one of the biggest collections ever.”

The Hart’s Eight Point Spreader was patented in 1885 by Hubert Hart of Unionville, CT. From point to point, the barb length is 2.25 inches. Photo by railman.

Most of the Campbell collection got split up into two pieces, says Knapik. “The rare stuff went to Jim Goedert, the other half went to Dan Sowle. And then, within the last year, Jim decided to sell his collection, too. That means 1,600 of the rarest of the rare just got back into the hobby. It has spurred a lot of interest because people like me are now able to buy wires that were completely unobtainable before.”

“I fixed a lot of fence in my day. I didn’t like barbed wire then, and I still don’t like to fix fence today.”

What’s an example of a rare wire? Well, that Barnes from 1907 to begin with. “Another is called the Utter,” says Knapik. “It was actually posted on Collectors Weekly. It was patented by a man from Cuba, New York, in 1887. It’s kind of like a rolling barb, but it rolls horizontally, not vertically like the Barnes. It’s a fantastic patent. From what I understand, maybe a dozen 18-inch-long specimens have been collected.”

The Barnes and Utter patents are just two examples of wire that were developed to keep the hides of livestock like cattle from getting torn up by static, inflexible barbs. “They started incorporating these unusual spinning designs that would poke rather than cut the animal as it was rubbing up against the wire,” says Knapik. “There was another one called the Greg’s patent that looked like a spring. It would retract if an animal pressed up hard against it. The idea was to herd them, not hurt them, to get them to change the direction. There was an understanding of what was happening to the animals, so inventors modified their patents to accommodate that.”

The cover and a sample page from Harold Hagemeier’s authoritative book.

With so many patents and so many different types of wire, collectors like Knapik turn to various books to identify what they have and are about to buy. Most of them have their favorites, but all collectors use Hagemeier’s “Barbed Wire Identification Encyclopedia.” Featuring hand-drawn illustrations by Hagemeier’s wife, LaNell, the “Encyclopedia” was first published by Hagemeier in 1998. The book’s fifth and final edition came out in 2010, although a supplement was recently published, adding 108 newly identified specimens to the main book’s inventory of more than 1,700 different wires.

“You get to the point,” says Hagemeier, “where you think, ‘well, this is all of them’, and sure enough, somebody comes up with some more. A lot of the new wires are what we call variations. And I hate to tell you this, but there are also wires that I wouldn’t doubt are being made by some individual. I’m not accusing anybody, but I think that’s a good possibility.”

Naturally Hagemeier does what he can to keep fakes out of his encyclopedia. “There are about five or six collectors I contact when a new wire shows up,” he says, “to get their opinion, find out if they’ve ever seen one like it before, things like that. But that’s about as far as you can go. Some of these collectors have been collecting wire for 40 years, so they’ve seen just about everything that you could imagine. But you just got to make a judgment.”

The Matoushek Two Strand Star Barbis an exact execution of the patent description. Photo by railman.

Unlike Delbert Trew, who did not begin as a barbed-wire collector, Hagemeier has been at it for a while. “I started collecting wire in the late 1960s, early 1970s, by accident. I had a friend who had a ranch here in Texas, and he gave me about five or six wires that he had found. After that, I collected about 25 wires. I thought, ‘well, that’s probably all there is’. Then I happened to go to a wire show here in Texas. What I had was just a drop in the bucket.

In the process of collecting wires, Hagemeier noticed that a lot of his specimens were not identified correctly. So he started investigating the history of each wire as best he could, eventually organizing a group of four barbed-wire collectors to compare notes and figure out just exactly what they had. The result was the first book in 1998.

The Mouck Three to One Barb on Parallel Strands was patented in 1893 by Solomon Mouck of Denver, CO. Photo by railman.

One of the things Hagemeier learned is that there are about 800 barbed wire patents, but some of those are military-wire patents, leaving the number of actual barbed-wire patents at about 750. “When barbed wire first came out, everybody tried to get rich. A man by the name of ‘Bet-a-Million’ Gates had 10 or 11 factories in and around St. Louis, Missouri, just to manufacture wire. He changed his wire just enough to get around the patents. That happened a lot, and as a consequence, the variations outnumbered the actual patent wires. Gates ended up owning the American Steel and Wire Company.”

Like all collectors, Hagemeier has his favorites. “I guess the wire I appreciate most is the Hodge Spur Rowel. It’s a two-strand wire with a barb that looks like a spur rowel on a little shaft that connects the two strands together. There are probably 20 unpatented variations on it.”

Although barbed wire was seen as a way to get rich quick, Hagemeier says it usually didn’t work out that way. “In a lot of cases, the patent attorney ended up owning the patent for the wire because the guy who came up with it couldn’t pay the patent fees, and whatnot. Often a wire would never get successful because it was too expensive to manufacture.”

The McAlister Plate and Sheet Metal Spinner is example of a “mechanical” wire. Photo by railman.

In fact, many of the specimens prized by collectors are the samples submitted to the patent office. That’s all that was ever made, which means that’s all there is on the market today. Well, almost. “There are also, I’m sure, a lot of ‘replicas’. Let’s put it that way,” sighs Hagemeier.

“They started incorporating spinning designs that would poke rather than cut the animal.”

The other big customers for barbed wire were the railroads. “The railroads had special wires, what we call railroad wires, which were a lot different. For instance, the wire strands might be oval rather than round or something special like that. People don’t realize that the development of a lot of this country would have been a lot slower if it hadn’t been for barbed wire.”

Today, the pace of barbed wire collecting is accelerating, although in the world of barbed wire, speed is a relative thing. Two of the most anticipated events are just around the corner. The first is the Antique Barbed Wire Society’s annual “Super Show,” which is hosted this year by the Colorado Wire Collector’s Association in Pueblo, Colorado, on September 23 and 24 and should be attended by as many as 500 people.

American Steel and Wire in DeKalb, Illinois, at Tenth Street looking northeast, DeKalb, circa 1901. Photo from Sycamore Public Library.

“It’s the biggest show of the year in barbed wire,” says Knapik. “Last year it was in New Mexico. There will be hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of wires all mounted on boards and listed with their patent information. It’s a real history lesson in the West. It should be a grand time.”

Still, even the dates chosen for the Super Show reflect the taut ways of the barbed-wire collecting community. “There’s been a little bit of controversy about when it’s best to hold the show,” allows Knapik. “Currently the shows are held on Friday and Saturday, but having it on Friday and Saturday seems to limit the number of families that can attend, and anybody who works can’t go on a Friday. They have to take time off, as I’ll have to. So that’s a little bit of an issue.”

The effectiveness of barbed wire on animals, dramatized and set in a circus ring. Photo from the Ellwood House Museum.

The last event of the season, the ABWS’s annual Symposium, is held in LaCrosse, Kansas, from October 6 to 8. Of all the aspects of barbed-wire collecting, this is probably the one that’s most curious to people who pursue things like Art Deco radios and Fenton glass. “The Symposium sets all the value on wires,” says Hagemeier. “There is a special committee of about 10 to 12 men who review the value of not only wire but tools and other things. They set the prices for a year.”

Creating this level of market predictability and price transparency is intended to keep the hobby accessible to as many potential collectors as possible. But some collectors will tell you privately that the clubby nature of events like the Symposium is not the sort of thing that’s likely to attract young people to the hobby. “Many of the older collectors are selling off their collections,” says one. “I don’t see a lot of new people coming up. I would hate to see the hobby just fade away.”


Hermit bilan qahva

In case you didn't know, barbed wire was a very cheap and useful tool on the prairie.

Although there were many versions of the stuff, one of the most popular and strongest was patented by Joseph Glidden. This article from History.com can tell you a little more about it, if you are interested!


On this day in 1873, a De Kalb, Illinois, farmer named Joseph Glidden submits an application to the U.S. Patent Office for his clever new design for a fencing wire with sharp barbs, an invention that will forever change the face of the American West.

Glidden's was by no means the first barbed wire he only came up with his design after seeing an exhibit of Henry Rose's single-stranded barbed wire at the De Kalb county fair. But Glidden's design significantly improved on Rose's by using two strands of wire twisted together to hold the barbed spur wires firmly in place. Glidden's wire also soon proved to be well suited to mass production techniques, and by 1880 more than 80 million pounds of inexpensive Glidden-style barbed wire was sold, making it the most popular wire in the nation. Prairie and plains farmers quickly discovered that Glidden's wire was the cheapest, strongest, and most durable way to fence their property. As one fan wrote, "it takes no room, exhausts no soil, shades no vegetation, is proof against high winds, makes no snowdrifts, and is both durable and cheap."

The effect of this simple invention on the life in the Great Plains was huge. Since the plains were largely treeless, a farmer who wanted to construct a fence had little choice but to buy expensive and bulky wooden rails shipped by train and wagon from distant forests. Without the alternative offered by cheap and portable barbed wire, few farmers would have attempted to homestead on the Great Plains, since they could not have afforded to protect their farms from grazing herds of cattle and sheep. Barbed wire also brought a speedy end to the era of the open-range cattle industry. Within the course of just a few years, many ranchers discovered that thousands of small homesteaders were fencing over the open range where their cattle had once freely roamed, and that the old technique of driving cattle over miles of unfenced land to railheads in Dodge City or Abilene was no longer possible.

Riding the fence line was a full time job on the bigger spreads, checking to make sure that the wire and post were still in good order. No telling how many miles of the wire were strung back in the olden days, but I reckon it was a lot!

Well, looks like we can have our coffee out on the patio this morning. How about some fresh fruit today?

9 comments:

Yeah, I've heard there were quite a few folks shot over wire in the beginning.

Hey Gorges.
That's my understanding as well!

Thanks for coming over today!

When we moved here and started repairing a rock wall, we found plenty of barbed wire. Most of it had flat, thin razor sharp little blades on it. Nasty stuff. Chilly here at 28 - the patio and fresh fruit sounds great!

It's been said that it's really barbed wire that conquered the west.

I've been caught a few times on barbed wire - nasty stuff but very useful. Very chilly here 28, but sunny and windy. Coffee and fruit on your patio sounds good.

Another lesson learned here at Hermits place. Lots of stories about cutting wires and stealing cattle. O'sha kunlar edi.

It warmed up here again it only was 61 last night, had to turn on a/c yesterday and today will be 90! To Hot! Pass the fruit please sounds like a good idea.

28, sounds like winter is coming! Where was that?
It was 62 in the rv this morning but supposed to get into the 80s today. I'm down by the gulf, Rockport Texas today.

Howdy HJ,
Well, it ain't cheap ANYMORE. I NEED new fencing around my ranch.. The fence around it was put-up in the 1930s and has just about 'rotted/rusted' away the cedar posts are still SOLID/HARD. I priced, JUST THE MATERIAL, the other day and ONLY 3/4 mile was $24k .
YIKES . That's almost what I paid for the 'ranch' in 2000.

In Coleman county, TEXAS, Mabel Lea was trying to sell some of her land to farmers, in the 1880s and fenced-off several hundred acres..
'Fence-cutters' RUINED MILES of her fence, time after time, until the TEXAS Legislators finally passed a law against EVEN having a pair of pliers on you WAS AGAINST THE LAW.. There are still some large ranches left from the LEADAY Ranch.

Hope all is well in Cut 'n Shoot, this mawnin' and y'all have a HAPPY DAY .

Are there any of Roy Harris', the heavy-weight boxer's, folks still around down there.


The History of Barbed Wire

The swift emergence of this highly effective tool as the favored fencing method changed life in the wild west as dramatically as the rifle, six-shooter, telegraph, windmill, and locomotive.

Without fencing, livestock grazed freely, competing for fodder and water. Where working farms did exist, most property was unfenced and open to foraging by roaming cattle and sheep.

Before barbed wire, the lack of effective fencing limited farming and ranching practices, and the number of people who could settle in an area. The new fencing changed the West from vast and undefined prairies/plains to a land of farming, and widespread settlement.

Wooden fences were costly and difficult to acquire on the prairie and plains, where few trees grew. Lumber was in such short supply in the region that farmers were forced to build houses of sod.

Likewise, rocks for stone walls were scarce on the plains. Barbed wire proved to be cheaper, easier, and quicker to use than any of these other alternatives.

Michael Kelly - First BW Fencing

The first wire fences (before the invention of the barb) consisted of only one strand of wire, which was constantly broken by the weight of cattle pressing against it.

Michael Kelly made a significant improvement to wire fencing, he twisted two wires together to form a cable for barbs - the first of its kind.

Known as the thorny fence, Michael Kelly's double-strand design made fences stronger, and the painful barbs made cattle keep their distance.

Joseph Glidden - King of the Barb

Predictably, other inventors sought to improve upon Michael Kelly's design among them was Joseph Glidden, a farmer from De Kalb, IL.

In 1873 and 1874, patents were issued for various designs to compete against Micheal Kelly's invention. But the recognized winner was Joseph Glidden's design for a simple wire barb locked onto a double-strand wire.

Joseph Glidden's design made barbed wire more effective, he invented a method for locking the barbs in place, and invented the machinery to mass-produce the wire.

Joseph Glidden's U.S. patent was issued November 24, 1874. His patent survived court challenges from other inventors. Joseph Glidden prevailed in litigation and in sales. Today, it remains the most familiar style of barbed wire.

Living patterns of the nomadic Native Americans were radically altered. Further squeezed from lands they had always used, they began calling barbed wire the Devil's rope.

More fenced-off land meant that cattle herders were dependent on the dwindling public lands, which rapidly became overgrazed. Cattle herding was destined to become extinct.

BW and Warfare and Security

After its invention, barbed wire was widely used during wars, to protect people and property from unwanted intrusion. Military usage of barbed wire formally dates to 1888, when British military manuals first encouraged its use.

During the Spanish American War, Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders chose to defend their camps with the help of barbed fencing. In turn-of-the-century South Africa, five-strand fences were linked to blockhouses sheltering British troops from the encroachment of Boer commandos. During World War I, barbed wire was used as a military weapon.

Even now, barbed wire is widely used to protect and safeguard military installation, to establish territorial boundaries, and for prisoner confinement.

Used on construction and storage sites and around warehouses, barbed wire protects supplies and persons and keeps out unwanted intruders.


Onlayn

"Wire," Compton's Encyclopedia Online v.3.0,http://www.comptons.com/encyclopedia (December 17, 2000).

"Glidden, Joseph Farwell," Encyclopedia Britannica,http://www.britannica.com (December 17, 2000).

"Glidden's Patent for Barbed Wire," National Archives and Records Administration, Teaching With Documents, Vol. 2.,http:nara.gov/education/teaching/glidden/wire.html (December 17, 2000). □

Ushbu maqolaga iqtibos keltiring
Quyidagi uslubni tanlang va bibliografiya matnini nusxa ko'chiring.


Videoni tomosha qiling: 30 СЕНТЯБРГАЧА РЕГИСТРАЦИЯСИЗ ЮРСА БЎЛАДИМИ? (Yanvar 2022).