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Qadimgi misrliklardan oldin xitoyliklar mushuklarni yaxshi ko'rishlari mumkin edi

Qadimgi misrliklardan oldin xitoyliklar mushuklarni yaxshi ko'rishlari mumkin edi

Misrliklar mushuklarni yaxshi ko'rishlari bilan mashhur. Ularni nafaqat hasharotlar va ilonlarni nazorat qilgani uchun maqtashdi, balki mushuk inoyat va muvozanatning ramzi edi. Mafdet ma'budasi, adolat va qatl xudosi, sher boshli ma'buda edi. Mushuk ma'budasi Bast (Bastet nomi bilan ham tanilgan) oxir -oqibat Mafdet kultini almashtirdi. Mushuklar muqaddas bo'lgani uchun, mumiyalash amaliyoti ularga ham tatbiq etilgan va o'limdan keyin mushuklarga bo'lgan hurmat, ular kundalik hayotda ularga bo'lgan hurmatni aks ettiradi. Yunon tarixchisi Gerodotning yozishicha, mushuk o'lsa, uydagilar xuddi odam qarindoshi kabi motamga kirishadi va ko'pincha yo'qolganlarini bildirish uchun qoshlarini oldirishadi. Mushuklarga bo'lgan tuyg'u shunchalik kuchli ediki, bittasini o'ldirish, hatto tasodifan, o'lim jazosiga tortildi.

Tadqiqotchilar va arxeologlar o'rtasida uy mushukining qaerdan va qachon paydo bo'lganligi to'g'risida umumiy kelishuv yo'q. Biroq, yangi tadqiqot shuni ko'rsatdiki, Xitoyda odamlar kamida 5300 yil mushuklar bilan bog'langan.

Arxeologlar Shanxi provinsiyasidagi neolit ​​davridagi qadimgi qishloq xo'jaligi qishlog'i Quanxukun qishlog'i bundan 5300 yil oldin mushuklar uchun oziq -ovqat manbai bo'lganini aniqladilar, ehtimol kemiruvchilar qadimgi xitoylik dehqonlar o'stirgan, saqlagan va yeb qo'ygan donalar bilan taomlangan.

Sent-Luisdagi Vashington universiteti arxeologiya professori, tadqiqot muallifi Fiona Marshall: "Odamlar va mushuklar o'rtasidagi munosabatlar odatdagidek yoki mushuklar uchun foydali bo'lgan", dedi. "Agar bu mushuklar hali uylanmagan bo'lsa ham, bizning dalillarimiz ular fermerlar bilan yaqin yashaganligini va munosabatlar o'zaro manfaatli bo'lganligini tasdiqlaydi."

Arxeologik qazish paytida topilgan mushuklardan biri qariganida, u yaxshi yashagan va qishloqda yashab gullab yashnagan. Tadqiqotchilar, shuningdek, ular o'rgangan qadimgi mushuklarning qoldiqlarida ular juda ko'p hayvon yemasliklari va kutilganidan ko'ra ko'proq tariq yeyishlarini ko'rsatganini aytishdi. Bu tadqiqotchilarga mushuklar yoki odamlarning ovqatlarini yig'ib olishganini yoki qo'shnilari tomonidan boqishlarini taklif qildi.

G'arbiy Osiyo va Afrikada tug'ilgan Yaqin Sharqdagi yovvoyi mushuk hozirda butun dunyoda yashovchi barcha uy mushuklarining asosiy ajdodi hisoblanadi. "Biz bu mushuklar Xitoyga Yaqin Sharqdan kelganmi yoki yo'qmi, ular yovvoyi mushuklarning xitoyliklari bilan aralashganmi yoki hatto Xitoydan kelgan mushuklar uy sharoitida ilgari shubha qilinmagan rolni o'ynaganmi, bilmaymiz", dedi Marshall.

Olimlar uzoq vaqtdan buyon mushuklar qadimgi Misrda taxminan 4000 yil oldin qo'llangan deb o'ylashgan. Biroq, mushuklar va odamlar o'rtasidagi yaqin munosabatlar ancha oldinroq ildiz otgan bo'lishi mumkin. 2004 yilda olimlar deyarli 9500 yil oldin Kiprda yovvoyi mushuk odam bilan dafn etilganini aniqladilar. Boshqa dalillar shuni ko'rsatadiki, mushuklar Mesopotamiyada miloddan avvalgi 12500 yilda, taxminan itlar, qo'ylar va echkilar bilan bir vaqtda uylangan.

Mushuklar sichqonchani ovlash qobiliyatlari, pokligi, munosabati va go'zalligi bilan ko'plab madaniyatlarni sevib qolgan. Shohlar vodiysida yozilganidek;

"Siz buyuk mushuksiz, xudolarning qasoschisi va so'z hakami, hukmdorlarning prezidenti va muqaddas doiraning gubernatorisiz; siz haqiqatan ham buyuk mushuksiz."


    Qadimgi Misr haqida bilishingiz mumkin bo'lmagan 11 narsa

    Qirol Tut bilan bir qatorda, ehtimol Kleopatra VIIdan ko'ra qadimgi Misr bilan hech qanday mashhur shaxs bog'lanmagan. Ammo u Iskandariyada tug'ilgan bo'lsa -da, Kleopatra aslida Aleksandr Makedonskiyning eng ishonchli leytenantlaridan biri bo'lgan Ptolomey I naslidan kelgan yunon makedoniyaliklarining uzun qatorining bir qismi edi. Ptolemeylar sulolasi miloddan avvalgi 323 yildan 30 yilgacha Misrni boshqargan va uning etakchilarining aksariyati madaniyat va sezgirliklarida asosan yunon bo'lib qolgan. Aslida, Kleopatra Ptolemeylar sulolasining birinchi a'zolaridan biri bo'lib, Misr tilida gapirgan.


    Misr

    Mushuklarning mashhurligi va odamlarga yoqishi ming yillar oldinga borib taqaladi. O'z maqomini piktogramma darajasiga ko'targan birinchi tsivilizatsiya qadimgi Misr bo'lib, u uy mushuklari va boshqa mushuk qarindoshlaridan iborat ko'plab xudolarga sajda qilgan.

    Umuman olganda, qadimgi Misr mushuklarga o'xshash jami o'n to'qqizta xudoga sajda qilgan. Bularga Mafdet ismli ayol-mushuk shaklida tasvirlangan asl mushuk-xudo, shuningdek, mushuklarning boshqa turlari, masalan, gepard, sochi, sher va uy mushuklari kiradi. U uyni zaharli ilonlar va chayonlarni o'ldirish orqali himoya qilgan ma'buda, shuningdek ilon Apofisni o'ldirish orqali shohlikni hurmat qilgan.

    Boshqa o'n sakkizta xudo va ma'buda, tug'ilish bilan bog'liq bo'lgan urush ma'budasi Bastet, "halokatchi" Hetmet, sher boshli ma'buda Nefertum, xudo, ba'zida sher boshli Tefenet, sher boshli yoki ba'zida sher tanasiz ma'buda. havodan.

    Bundan tashqari, bizning mushuklarni yo'ldan ozdiruvchilar butun Misr madaniyatida sirg'a, marjon, marjon, bilaguzuk, har xil tulkilar va haykalchalar ko'rinishida paydo bo'lgan. Mushuk ko'zlari ko'pincha odam figuralariga, ayniqsa sarkofagilarning yuzlariga bo'yalgan yoki o'yilgan. Ular, shuningdek, xurofotlarning mavzusi bo'lgan, ular har doim mushukni orzu qilib, ijobiy natijalarga olib keladi, bu yaxshi hosilni anglatadi.

    Ular odamlarning kundalik hayotining bir qismiga aylandilar, shuning uchun rasmlarning katta to'plami mushuklarning jamiyatning barcha jabhalarida odamlar bilan o'zaro munosabatini aks ettiradi. Hatto o'limdan keyin mumiyalanishigacha, qabrlariga sut va sichqonlar kabi oziq -ovqat qo'yilgan. Ular mushuk do'stlariga egalariga qilgan barcha yaxshiliklarini qaytarish uchun sovg'alar sifatida mo'ljallangan edi.

    Rimliklar ham mushuklarini yaxshi ko'rishardi. Ular o'zlarining hasharotlarni tutish qobiliyatiga qoyil qolishdi va ularning ekzotik ko'rinishiga qoyil qolishdi. Mushuklar Abadiy shaharda hukmronlik qilishdi va ularga nafaqat uy hayvonlari, balki muqaddas mavjudotlar sifatida qarashdi. Ma'badlari atrofida erkin yurishga ruxsat berilgan mushuklar erkinlik va ilohiylikni ifodalagan. Hatto ozodlik ma'budasi Libertas ham oyog'ida mushuk bilan tasvirlangan

    Rim ma'budasi Diana, Ov malikasi ko'pincha Misr ma'budasi Bast bilan bog'liq edi, u ko'pincha uy va oilaning qo'riqchisi sifatida ko'rilgan. Aslida, rimliklar mushuklari uyning harorati va xavfsizligini anglatadi deb hisoblashgan. Bir hikoyada Diana o'zini mushukga aylantirib, Typhon ismli yovuz maxluqdan qanday qutulgani haqida hikoya qilinadi.

    Zamonaviy Rim shahri mushuklarning boshpanasi bo'lib qolmoqda. Taxminlarga ko'ra, 300 mingga yaqin yovvoyi mushuklar bir paytlar Spartak, Yuliy Tsezar va Mark Antonini butparast qilgan shaharning yodgorliklari va qadimiy binolarini o'z uylariga aylantirgan. Xuddi shu to'rt oyoqli purring mashinalari hatto 2001 yildagi qonun bilan himoyalangan bo'lib, ularga Rimning "merosi" ning bir qismi bo'lish huquqini beradi. Aslida
    "Men felini intoccabili" - tegib bo'lmaydigan mushuklar.

    Har kuni "gattara" (mushuk ayollar) nomi bilan tanilgan ayollar ovqatlansa, ular kunduzi mushukchalar va kechasi shahar chiroqlari soyasida uchib yurishadi. Balki Rim gattaralari ham Toxoplasma gondii paraziti bilan kasallangan bo'lishi mumkinmi?

    Hatto qadimgi Rim askarlari ham o'z lagerlarida mushuklarni nafaqat sayohatchilar va maskotlar, balki zararkunandalarni don do'konlaridan saqlaydigan sichqon sifatida ham ushlab turishgan. Kalamushlar yog'och va terini chaynashni yaxshi ko'rar ekan, Rim askarlari qurol -aslahalari va jihozlari shikastlanishidan qo'rqishgan, shuning uchun mushuklar ham urushga katta hissa qo'shgan.


    Birinchi uy mushuki qachon paydo bo'lgan?

    Taxminan 9500 yil oldin Kiprdagi birinchi uy mushuklaridan biri. Bu rasm (qo'shilgan so'zlar) hammaga ochiq.

    Birinchi uy mushuklari qadimgi misrliklar mushuklarni uy qurishdan ming yillar oldin sayyoramiz bo'ylab yurishgan. Buni aytish kerak, chunki ko'pgina veb -saytlarda qadimgi misrliklar birinchi bo'lib mushukni uy hayvonlari bo'lganligi haqida yozilgan (Shimoliy Afrikadagi yovvoyi mushuk o'ziga xos). Aslida Google birinchi navbatda National Geographic maqolasini joylashtiradi, bu esa chalg'itadi.

    Qadimgi Misr deb nomlangan tsivilizatsiya taxminan 5000 yil oldin miloddan avvalgi 3100 yilda boshlangan (‘) O'sha paytda, yovvoyi mushuk Qadimgi Misrdan ancha oldin, taxminan 5000 yil, boshqa joylarda, boshqa joylarda uy sharoitida uylangan.

    “Kipr mushuklari tasdiqlaganidek, Misrliklar ularni uy hayvonlariga aylantira boshlaguncha, ming yillar davomida Yaqin Sharqning boshqa hududlarida mushuklar uylangan bo'lishi kerak. ”

    Doktor Bredshou Cat Sense -da

    “Shunday qilib, eng ssenariysi, Kiprning ilk ko'chmanchilari o'zlari bilan materikda tutib olib, o'rab olgan yirtqich mushuklarni olib kelishgan. ”

    Doktor Bredshou

    Kiprda, neolit ​​qabrida, arxeologlar odamning skeletini qazishdi va uning yonida mushuk skeleti bor edi. Bu odam uni mushukining yoniga dafn qilishni so'raganligi sababli, mushuk odamning hamrohi va uy sharoitida bo'lgan deb ishoniladi. Mushuk o'limidan keyin egasi bilan bo'lish uchun o'ldirilgan edi. Qabrning tarixi taxminan 9500 yil oldin bo'lgan.

    “Kiprda, mushuklarning eng birinchi qoldiqlari miloddan avvalgi 7500 yilga yaqin birinchi doimiy aholi punktlari bilan bir vaqtga to'g'ri keladi va topiladi, shuning uchun ularni u erga olib ketish ehtimoli katta. ”

    Doktor Bredshou

    Miloddan avvalgi 7500 yil miloddan 7500 yil oldin va 9500 yil oldin.

    Shuningdek, O'rta er dengizining boshqa orollariga, masalan, Korsika, Sardiniya va Mallorca, uylangan mushuklarning "tarixdan oldingi" importi to'g'risida dalillar mavjud.

    Ta'kidlanishicha, uylangan yoki yarim uy sharoitida bu orollarga ataylab qayiqlarda tashilgan bo'lar edi, chunki qayiqlar juda kichkina edi, shuning uchun ular yashaydigan yovvoyi mushuk yashirolmasdi va nega ular buni qilishadi?

    Demak, sizda bor. Bizning ma'lumotimizga ko'ra, birinchi uy mushuklari bundan taxminan 9500 yil oldin Kipr va O'rta er dengizining boshqa orollarida mavjud bo'lgan va ularga materikdan qayiqlarda Qadimgi Misr (biz ta'riflaganimizdek) mavjud bo'lishidan ancha oldin olib kelingan.


    Misr taqvimining vaqtlari

    Misr taqvimi quyidagicha taqsimlangan:

    • Bir hafta o'n kun edi.
    • Uch hafta bir oy edi.
    • To'rt oy bir mavsum edi.
    • Uch fasl va beshta muqaddas kun bir yil edi.

    Misr ieroglif taqvimining tasviri

    Birinchi mavsum - "Axet" deb nomlangan, bu suv toshqini yoki suv toshqini degan ma'noni anglatadi. Bu Tex, Menhet, Hwt-Hrw va Ka-Hr-Ka oylarini o'z ichiga olgan.

    Ikkinchi mavsum - Proyet deb nomlangan, bu paydo bo'lishni bildiradi. Uning oylari Sf-Bdt, Redh Wer, Redh Neds va Renwet edi.

    Uchinchi mavsum - Shomu deb nomlangan, bu suv kamligini bildiradi. Uning oylari nomlari Hnsw, Hnt-Htj, Ipt-Hmt va Wep-Renpet edi.

    Har oy o'nlab yoki dekan deb nomlangan uchta o'n kunlik davrdan iborat edi. Oylar alohida -alohida nomlangan bo'lsa -da, ular odatda o'zlari ko'rsatgan bayramlar nomi bilan atalgan. Har o'n kunlikning oxirgi ikki kuni dam olish kuni deb hisoblangan va misrliklar ishlamagan.

    Misr quyosh taqvimida bir oy 30 kun davom etgan. Yilning barcha kunlari hisobga olinmaganligi sababli, misrliklar oddiy kalendar yilidan tashqari bo'lgan oylararo oyni qo'shib qo'yishdi.

    Oylik oylar besh kun davom etdi, bu esa Misr quyosh taqvimi har yili haqiqiy quyosh yiliga nisbatan kunning to'rtdan bir qismini yo'qotishini anglatardi. Besh kalkulyatsion kun xudolarning tug'ilgan kunini nishonlash uchun ishlatilgan va bu vaqt ichida misrliklar ishlamagan.

    © Robert Young - Kalendar Kom Ombo

    Dekanlar qadimgi Misr astronomiyasida yulduzlar guruhi bo'lib, ular tungi vaqtni aniqlash uchun ishlatilgan. Har bir guruhning ko'tarilishi yangi yulduzli kunni ko'rsatdi. Yulduzlarning 36 guruhi yoki dekanlari bor edi. Har bir dekan o'n kundan iborat bo'lib, u 360 kunlik yilni beradi.

    Dekanlarning nomlari ma'lum, lekin ularning joylashuvi va zamonaviy burjlar bilan aloqasi noma'lum. Yulduzli kun - bu Yerning yulduzlarga nisbatan bir marta aylanishi uchun ajratilgan vaqt. Bu quyosh kunidan taxminan to'rt daqiqa qisqaroq.

    Ptolomey III tomonidan chiqarilgan Kanopus farmonida, bu kelishmovchilikni tuzatish uchun har to'rtinchi yilda epagomenal kunning oltinchi kuni ko'zda tutilgan. Biroq, ruhoniylar va umuman aholi bu o'zgarishga qarshilik ko'rsatishdi va oxir -oqibat Avgust miloddan avvalgi 25 yilda koptlar taqvimini o'rnatmaguncha tashlab ketishdi.

    © globetrotter_rodrigo - Misr taqvimi

    Sanalar chunki oddiy odamlar birinchi mavsumdagi oyning raqamlari bilan yozilgan edi. Keyingi mavsumning nomi, keyin oyga nisbatan kunning soni, keyin yil va hukmdor bo'ladi. Yangi hukmdorning ko'tarilishi yil hisobini qayta boshladi.

    Vaqti -vaqti bilan, yil hisobi yangi hukmdorning birinchi to'liq yilidan boshlangan, lekin undan oldingi vaqtni o'z ichiga olgan bo'lib, bu ikki davrni ajratib ko'rsatish uchun yozilgan.

    Siriusning vertolyot ko'tarilishi to'g'ri sodir bo'lishi uchun quyosh kalendar yili bilan haqiqiy quyosh yili o'rtasida aniqlikni saqlash muhim edi. Heliacal ko'tarilish, quyosh chiqishidan oldin ufqda Sirius qisqa ko'rinishda bo'lganida sodir bo'ladi.

    Astrologiya paydo bo'lishidan oldin, qadimgi misrliklar faqat quyosh taqvimidan foydalanib, o'z kunlari va yillarini yulduzli hodisalar bilan belgilashgan. Masalan, Siriusning heliacal ko'tarilishi har yili Qohirada sodir bo'lgan Nil toshqinining boshlanishi edi. Astrologiya paydo bo'lganidan so'ng, dekanlarning ko'tarilishi va yulduzlarning paydo bo'lishi kasalliklarning boshlanishini va ularni davolash vaqtini ko'rsatdi.

    Sirius (pastda) Xabbl teleskopidan ko'rinib turibdiki


    Misr yozuvi

    Eng qadimgi yozuvlar taxminan 5200 yilga to'g'ri keladi va ular ieroglif yozuvida yozilgan.

    "Qadimgi Misr tili og'zaki til edi va ko'pchilik ierogliflar undosh tovushlarni va ba'zi aniq tovushlarni ifodalaydi", deb yozgan Kembrij universiteti professori Barri Kemp "100 ieroglif: Misrlik kabi o'ylang" kitobida. , 2005). Kempning ta'kidlashicha, qadimgi misrliklar "biz" ieratik "deb nomlangan" qisqartirilgan "uzun qo'lli" yozish shaklini ham ishlab chiqishgan. "Eramizning birinchi ming yilligida bu qisqartirilgan ieratik yozuv" Demotik "deb nomlangan qisqa shakldagi yozuvning yangi shakli bilan almashtirildi. "

    Ming yillar davomida Misr tili o'zgardi, olimlar saqlanib qolgan yozuvlarni "Eski Misr", "O'rta Misr" va "Kechki Misr" kabi toifalarga ajratdilar.


    2 javob 2

    Ko'plab tarixchilar "tsivilizatsiya" atamasini yozish bilan tenglashtiradilar. Xo'sh, buni ko'rib chiqaylik.

    Misr va Shumer (hozirgi Iroqda Dajla va Furot daryosi oralig'ida) ikkalasi ham miloddan avvalgi 3000-yillarda savodli tsivilizatsiyalarga asos solgan. Ko'rinib turibdiki, birinchisi bo'lgan munozara davom etmoqda. Buni bilish qiyin, chunki qadimgi tsivilizatsiyalar hukmdorlari asosidagi xronologiyalarni zamonaviy taqvimlar bilan solishtirish (yoki undan ham yomoni, bir-birining xronologiyasi) ko'p martabali mashg'ulotdir.

    Men kelayotganimda, tarixchilarning ko'pchiligi Shumer birinchi, lekin men tug'ilishimdan oldin ko'pchilik tarixchilar bu Misr deb taxmin qilishgan. Shunday qilib, u yoki bu boshqacha bo'lgan eski tarixlarni topish qiyin emas. O'qish chog'ida siz chalkash rasmni qaerdan olishingiz mumkinligini ko'raman.

    Hind vodiysi tsivilizatsiyasi, eramizdan avvalgi 2600 yillardan boshlanib, 3 -chi edi. Xitoy taxminan miloddan avvalgi 1500 yilda yozishni boshlagan va Markaziy Amerikadagi Olmec tsivilizatsiyasi ham taxminan o'sha davrga to'g'ri keladi. And sivilizatsiyasining o'ziga xos yozuv shaklidan foydalanganligi haqidagi birinchi dalillar miloddan avvalgi 1000 yillarga to'g'ri keladi.


    Ma'lumotlar koinot har qanday daqiqada qulashi mumkinligini ko'rsatadi

    Bizning koinot, Daniya fiziklariga ko'ra, ilgari o'ylagandan ham katta qulash xavfi ostida.

    Olimlar nafaqat dunyoning oxiri, balki koinotning tugashini ham bashorat qilmoqdalar!

    Koinot qulab tushadi va kichkina qattiq to'pga aylanadi, degan bashorat yangi narsa emas. Fiziklar uzoq vaqtdan buyon falokatni bashorat qilishgan.

    Bu shuni anglatadiki, biz uzoq muddatli rejalarni darhol bekor qilishimiz kerakmi? Daniyalik olimlar koinot qachon qulashini bilishmaydi. Ularning aytishicha, bu ertaga sodir bo'lishi mumkin va milliard yildan keyin.

    Janubiy Daniya universiteti fiziklari "Yuqori energiya fizikasi" jurnalida yozishicha, yangi hisob -kitoblar, bir kun kelib, koinot kuchlari ichida keskin va keskin o'zgarish bo'ladi, bu koinotdagi har bir atomni o'ta og'ir holga keltiradi, degan taxminni keltirib chiqardi.

    Hamma narsa, eng kichik tuproq donasidan tortib, bizning Quyosh sistemamizdagi barcha sayyoralarga, koinotdagi har galaktikaga qadar, birdaniga hozirgi holatdan milliardlab va milliardlab marta og'irroq bo'ladi.

    Katta portlash nazariyasiga ko'ra, koinot nihoyatda zich va issiq holatdan kengaygan (pastda) va bugun ham kengayishda davom etmoqda (tepada). (Wikimedia Commons)

    Nazariyaning ta'kidlashicha, vaznning keskin oshishi koinotdagi barcha materiallarni "juda kichik", juda issiq, og'ir to'pga siqib chiqarishga majbur qiladi, bu esa biz bilganimizdek koinotning oxiriga olib keladi.

    Fiziklar bu kuchli va vayron qiluvchi jarayonni "ldquofazali o'tish" deb atashadi va uni suv qaynab, bug'ga aylanganda yoki magnit qizib ketgandan keyin magnitlanishini yo'qotganda nima bo'lishini solishtirishadi.

    Agar koinot ichidagi bu fazali o'tish, agar Higgs-Boson bilan bog'liq bo'lgan Xiggs-maydon koinotning qolgan qismidan boshqa qiymatga aylanadigan pufakchani hosil qilsa sodir bo'ladi.

    Agar bu yangi paydo bo'lgan pufakcha etarlicha katta bo'lsa va yangi o'zgartirilgan qiymat past energiya ishlab chiqarsa, pufakcha yorug'lik tezligida hamma tomonga o'sadi va kengayadi.

    Pufakchaning tez kengayishi pufakchadagi barcha asosiy zarrachalarning massaga yetishiga olib keladi, ular pufakchaning tashqarisida joylashganidan ko'ra og'irroq bo'ladi.

    Bu pufakchadagi massaning ko'payishi birlashib, fiziklar & ldquosupermassiv markazlar & rdquo deb ta'riflagan narsani hosil qiladi.

    Simulyatsiya qilingan ma'lumotlar modelida Xiggs bosoni ishlab chiqariladi, u ikkita hadron va ikkita elektronga bo'linadi. (Surat: CERN)

    & ldquoKo'pgina nazariyalar va hisob-kitoblar bunday fazali o'tishni bashorat qiladi, lekin oldingi hisob-kitoblarda ba'zi noaniqliklar mavjud edi,-dedi janubiy Daniya universiteti xodimi Jens Frederik Colding Krog. & ldquoHozir biz aniqroq hisob -kitoblarni amalga oshirdik va biz ikkita narsani ko'ryapmiz: Ha, koinot qulashi mumkin va: Yiqilish, ehtimol, eski hisob -kitoblarga qaraganda, ehtimol ko'proq. & ldquo

    Uning aytishicha, bu fazali o'tish olamning istalgan nuqtasidan boshlanib, keyin butun koinotga tarqalishi mumkin.

    & LdquoMa ehtimol, qulash koinotning biron bir joyida allaqachon boshlangan va hozirda u koinotning qolgan qismiga kirib bormoqda, - dedi Krog. & ldquo Yoki bu milliard yildan keyin uzoqdan boshlanishi mumkin. Biz bilmaymiz. & Rdquo

    & Ldquofaza o'tish bilan bir qatorda, & rdquo boshqa nazariya, & ldquo Katta tanazzul nazariyasi, & rdquo ham bizning koinotimizning oxirini ko'rsatishi mumkin. & ldquo Big Crunch & rdquo koinotni yaratishda & ldquoBig Bang & rdquo nazariyasiga asoslangan va unga qarama -qarshi.

    13,7 milliard yil oldin sodir bo'lgan Katta portlashdan so'ng, galaktikalar, yulduzlar va sayyoralarni tashkil etuvchi materiallar bitta kichik mintaqadan doimiy ravishda kengayib borayotgan koinotga chiqarib yuborildi.

    Animatsion rasmda & ldquoBig Crunch Theory & rdquo (Wikimedia Commons) ko'rsatilgan.

    & LdquoBig Crunch & rdquo ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, bu kengayish to'xtaydigan vaqt va vaqt bo'ladi va bu materiallarning hammasi bir -birini o'ziga tortadi va oxir -oqibat kichik maydonda birlashadi.

    Oxirgi tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, koinot va rsquos kengayishi tezlashmoqda, shuning uchun kosmologik kuzatuvlardan qulashni kutish uchun hech qanday asos yo'q, - dedi Krog. & ldquoShunday qilib, koinotning qulashiga sabab bo'ladigan, ehtimol, katta inqiroz bo'lmaydi. Daniyalik fiziklarning aytishicha, ularning yangi hisob -kitoblari koinotning qulashi har qachongidan ham ehtimoldan yiroq bo'lsa -da, ular "bu g'alaba qozonadi va umuman ro'y beradi", deyishdi.

    Tadqiqotchilarning fikriga ko'ra, faza o'zgarishi talabi shundaki, koinotda Xiggs bozoni bilan birga ma'lum bo'lgan barcha asosiy zarralar mavjud. Ammo, agar koinot kashf qilinmagan zarrachalarni o'z ichiga olsa, o'zgarishlar o'zgarishini bashorat qilish haqidagi g'oya yo'q bo'lib ketadi.


    10. Mayya sivilizatsiyasi

    Davr: Miloddan avvalgi 2600 yil - milodiy 900
    Asl joylashuvi: Hozirgi Yucatan atrofida
    Hozirgi joylashuvi: Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Tabasco va Chiapas Meksikaning janubida Gvatemala, Beliz, El Salvador va Gonduras orqali.
    Asosiy diqqatga sazovor joylar: Astronomiya haqida murakkab tushuncha

    Mayyalarning Markaziy Amerikada yashashi bir necha ming yillik tarixga ega, ammo arxeologlar madaniyatning haqiqiy boshlanishini Preklassik davrga bog'lashni yaxshi ko'radilar. Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 1800 yil ovchilar va yig'uvchilar doimiy uylar qurishga qaror qilgan paytni belgilab berdi.

    Birinchi qishloqlar dehqonchilikda nihoyatda muvaffaqiyatli bo'lishdi va mayya urug'ini katta hududlarida ekishdi.

    Qadimgi Mayya imperiyasi mo''jizalar bilan to'ldirilgan edi - osmonga deyarli tekkan baland ibodatxonalar, g'ayrioddiy taqvim, millionlab yillarni hisobga olganda, astronomik tushunchalar keng qamrovli yozuvlarni saqlagan.

    Bir nechta shaharlarda piramidalar, ulug'vor qabrlar va hamma narsaning ustiga tarqalgan ierogliflar kabi noyob savdo belgilari bo'lgan. Mayya Yangi Dunyoda ilgari ko'rilmagan badiiy va intellektual yuksaklikka erishdi, lekin bu tsivilizatsiyali yutuqlarga qaramay, madaniyatning hammasi birdaniga kamalak va kamalak emas edi-ular odamlarni qurbon qilish va o'z xalqlariga qarshi kurash olib borish vaqtini yaxshi ko'rishardi.

    Ichki to'qnashuv, qurg'oqchilik va XVI asrda ispanlarning bosib olishi, bu ajoyib tsivilizatsiyani to'g'ridan -to'g'ri metaforik jarlikdan boshlash uchun fitna uyushtirgan.

    Madaniyat nasroniylikni qabul qilish bosimi va evropalik kasalliklarning keng tarqalishi natijasida yo'q bo'lib ketdi, lekin mayya o'zlarini hech qachon butunlay yo'q bo'lib ketmagan, chunki ularning millionlab avlodlari bugungi kunda butun dunyoda mavjud va bir necha mayya tillarida gaplashishda davom etishmoqda.


    Misr: Gnosis - misrliklarning qadimgi bilimlari/Xememu

    Mendan har safar nimaga ishonishimni so'rashgan va shuning uchun men mutlaq yaratuvchi qanday bo'lishi kerakligi haqida asosiy tushuncha berish to'g'ri bo'lardi deb o'ylaganman. Ha, men yaratuvchiga ishonaman, lekin ism yoki hatto 99 dan 1000 gacha bo'lgan cheklovlarga ega emas. Yaratuvchi biz tasavvur qila oladigan narsalarga o'xshamaydi, shuning uchun oy yoki ko'p oy tasvirni oqlay olmasligi shubhasizdir.

    Gnosis - yoki gnostitsizm mening e'tiqodimning asosi bo'lib, u bizning xalqimizdan nafaqat Kmtda, balki butun Afrikada paydo bo'lganligini biladi. Tabiiyki, ba'zi ismlar o'zgartirilgan va yunoncha ko'rinishga ega, lekin matnni yaxshi tushungan va Metu Netjer haqida aniq ma'lumotga ega bo'lgan-bu o'z-o'zini anglashning boshlanishi.

    Yuhanno apokrifi
    (Yuhannoning maxfiy kitobi - Yuhannoning maxfiy vahiysi)

    U ko'rinmas Ruhdir, uni xudo yoki shunga o'xshash narsa deb o'ylash to'g'ri emas. Chunki u xudodan ko'ra ko'proqdir, chunki uning ustida hech narsa yo'q, chunki unga hech kim hukmronlik qilmaydi. Chunki u undan kam bo'lmagan narsada mavjud emas, chunki unda hamma narsa bor. Chunki u o'zini mustahkamlaydi. U abadiydir, chunki unga hech narsa kerak emas. Chunki u to'liq mukammallikdir. U hech narsaga muhtoj emas edi, shuning uchun u shu ishni tugatishi mumkin edi, aksincha u har doim nurda mukammaldir. U cheksizdir, chunki undan oldin unga chegara qo'yadigan hech kim yo'q. Uni tergov qilib bo'lmaydi, chunki undan oldin uni tekshiradigan hech kim yo'q. U o'lchovsiz, chunki undan oldin uni o'lchaydigan hech kim yo'q edi. U ko'rinmas, chunki uni hech kim ko'rmagan. U abadiydir, chunki u abadiy mavjud. U tushunarsizdir, chunki hech kim u haqida gapirishni tushuna olmadi. U nomsiz, chunki undan oldin unga ism qo'yadigan hech kim yo'q.

    & quot; U - beg'ubor, muqaddas (va) beg'ubor bo'lgan beqiyos nur. U ta'riflanmaydi, buzilmaslikda mukammaldir. (U) kamolotda ham, muboraklikda ham, ilohiylikda ham emas, lekin u ancha ustun. U jismonan emas va jismoniy emas. U katta ham, kichik ham emas. “Uning miqdori qancha?” Deb aytishning iloji yo'q. yoki: "Uning sifati qanday?", chunki uni hech kim bilmaydi. U (boshqa) mavjudotlar orasida emas, balki ancha ustun. U shunchaki ustun emas, lekin uning mohiyati na zamonda, na vaqt ichida qatnashmaydi. Aeonda ishtirok etadigan kishi oldindan tayyorlangan. Vaqt unga taqsimlanmagan, chunki u boshqasidan hech narsa olmaydi, chunki u qarzga olingan. Kimki undan oldinroq bo'lsa, undan olish uchun kamlik qilmaydi. To'g'rirog'i, uning nurida unga umid bilan qaraydigan oxirgi odam.

    Mantiqan, birinchi bo'lib, undan oldin biror narsa bo'lishi mumkin emas. Shunday qilib, birinchi bo'lib nom berish, unga nom berishdan oldin biror narsa borligini anglatadi. Cheksiz bo'lgan narsaning ism chegarasi bo'lishi mumkin emas. Mutlaq yaratuvchining ismi yoki raqami yo'q, lekin uni kichik "g" yoki katta "G" bilan xudo deb atash noto'g'ri. Biroz uzoqqa boraylik, chunki mavjudlik davri bo'lishimiz uchun ayollik jihati bo'lishi kerak. 3 ta asosiy dinlardan farqli o'laroq, ayol energiyasi bo'lishi kerak, bunda hamma narsa bachadondan vujudga keladi.

    Hamma narsa bachadondan paydo bo'lgan va u mutlaq yaratuvchilarning fikridan kelib chiqqan. Ona printsipi - biz afrikaliklar tushunadigan va doimo tushunadigan printsip. Absolyut bizning kichik ishlarimizga aralashmaydi va buyuk onaning ham barcha o'lchovlar, olamlarning, olamlarning, aeonlarning yaratuvchisi, ular o'z navbatida o'z ijodini, o'z ijodini yaratgan va boshqalarni yaratadi.

    Xo'sh, bu koinot haqida nima deyish mumkin? Bizning olamni hikmatning o'zi yaratgan - evropaliklar Sofiya deb atashgani uchun afrikaliklar unga bir nechta ismlarni berishgan: Muva, Iusaas (tanish ovoz) va boshqalar.

    Shunga qaramay, davom etish - bu koinotning yaratilishining sababi, uning otasi va onasining roziligisiz o'g'li bor edi, chunki u sherigi bilan yolg'iz qoldi.

    Va Epiniya Sofiyasi, aeon bo'lganida, o'z -o'zidan fikr va ko'rinmas Ruh va oldindan bilish tushunchasini o'ylab topdi. U ruhning roziligisiz, uning roziligisiz, uning turmush o'rtog'isiz va unga e'tibor bermasdan, o'zidan o'xshashlik chiqarmoqchi edi. Garchi uning erkakligi ma'qul kelmagan bo'lsa ham, u o'z roziligini topmagan bo'lsa ham, u ruhning roziligisiz va uning roziligini bilmasdan o'ylagan bo'lsa -da, u tug'di. Va undagi yengilmas kuch tufayli, uning fikri bekor qolmadi va uning ichidan nomukammal va tashqi ko'rinishidan farq qiladigan narsa chiqib ketdi, chunki u uni turmush o'rtog'isiz yaratgan edi. Va bu uning onasiga o'xshamasdi, chunki u boshqa shaklga ega edi.

    & quot; U o'z xohishining oqibatlarini ko'rganida, u sher yuzli ilonga aylandi. Va uning ko'zlari chaqnab turgan chaqmoqday edi. U buni o'lmaslardan hech kim ko'rmasligi uchun uni o'sha joydan tashqariga tashladi, chunki u buni johillik bilan yaratgan edi. Va u uni nurli bulut bilan o'rab oldi va u bulutning o'rtasida, hech kim ko'rmaydigan, taxtni tiriklarning onasi deb atalgan Muqaddas Ruhdan boshqa qo'ydi. Va uning ismini Yaltabaot qo'ydi.

    Bu gnostik ta'limotlar qadimgi Kush va Kemetik ta'limotidir - bu erda yahudiylik, islom va xristianlik hikoyalarining ko'p qismi o'z bilimlarini olgan.

    Yaldabaot takabbur bo'lib, o'zini yagona yuksak xudo yoki mutlaq yaratuvchi deb o'yladi, men buni Xudo, Yahova va boshqa xudolarda topaman. Ular takabbur va ibodat va qullik yo'li bilan bo'ysunishni xohlaydilar. Shunga qaramay, bu hech qachon nazarda tutilmagan.

    Bu onasidan buyuk kuchni olgan birinchi arxon. Va u o'zini undan ajratdi va o'zi tug'ilgan joylardan uzoqlashdi. U kuchli bo'lib, o'zi uchun hali ham mavjud bo'lgan olovli olovli boshqa asrlarni yaratdi. Va u o'zining takabburligiga qo'shildi va o'zi uchun hokimiyat tug'di. Birinchisining ismi - Atot, uni avlodlar o'roqchi deb atashadi. Ikkinchisi - Harmas, u hasad ko'zidir. Uchinchisi-Kalila-Oumbri. To'rtinchisi - Yabel. Beshinchisi - Sabaot laqabli Adonaiou. Oltinchisi - Qobil, uni odamlar avlodlari quyosh deb atashadi. Yettinchisi - Hobil. Sakkizinchisi - Abrisen. To'qqizinchisi - Yobel. O'ninchi - Armoupieel. O'n birinchi-Melseir-Adonein. O'n ikkinchisi - Belias, bu - do'zax tubida. U etti podshohni o'rnatdi, ularning har biri osmon shamchiroqlariga to'g'ri keladi - etti osmonga va beshta tubsizlik tubiga ular hukmronlik qilishlari uchun. Va u o'z olovini ular bilan baham ko'rdi, lekin u onasidan olgan nurning kuchidan yubormadi, chunki u johil zulmatdir.

    & quot; Yorug'lik qorong'ilik bilan qorishib ketgach, qorong'ilikning porlashiga sabab bo'ldi. Zulmat yorug'lik bilan qorishib ketgach, u yorug'likni qorong'ilashtirdi va na yorug'lik, na qorong'i bo'lib qoldi, lekin xira bo'lib qoldi.

    & quotEng zaif arxonning uchta ismi bor. Birinchi ism - Yaltabaot, ikkinchisi - Saklas, uchinchisi - Samael. Va u o'z ichidagi takabburligidan nafratlanadi. U aytganidek:Men Xudoman va mendan boshqa Xudo yo'q, chunki u o'z kuchini, qaerdan kelganini bilmaydi.

    Ru2 diniy

    Taniqli a'zo

    Bunday takabburlik, bu dunyoni deyarli egallab olgan zamonaviy xudolarning ko'pchiligida o'zgartirildi. Bu xudolar insoniyatni qul qilib olmoqchi va buni muvaffaqiyat bilan qildilar. Shunga qaramay, bu mutlaq va uning birinchi yaratilishining maqsadi emas. Mutlaq ona qizi Sofiya aka Donishmandning bunday yaratilishini - bu koinotni yoki uning (Sofiya) takabbur o'g'lini yaratganini ma'qullamadi.

    Yaltabaotning yuzlari ko'p edi, hammasidan ham ko'proq, shuning uchun u seraflar orasida bo'lganida, xohishiga ko'ra, ularning hammasini yuzini qo'yishi mumkin edi.. U o'z olovini ular bilan bo'lishdi, shuning uchun ular ustidan hukmron bo'ldi. Onasining nuriga ega bo'lgan ulug'vorlik kuchi tufayli u o'zini Xudo deb atadi. Va u kelgan joyga itoat qilmadi. Va u o'z fikridagi etti kuchni o'zi bilan bo'lgan hokimiyat bilan birlashtirdi. Va u gapirganda shunday bo'ldi. Va u har bir kuchni eng yuqori bilan boshlagan: birinchisi - yaxshilik (hokimiyat), ikkinchisi - Atot, ikkinchisi - Eloaio, uchinchisi - ilohiylik, uchinchisi - Astrafaio), to'rtinchisi - xo'jayin. to'rtinchisi - Yao, beshinchisi - beshinchi podshohlik, oltinchisi - Sabot, oltinchisi - hasad, ettinchisi - Adonein, ettinchisi - Sabbaton. Va bularning har bir osmonga mos keladigan farishtasi bor. Ularga kuchlarning yo'q qilinishi uchun osmonga tegishli bo'lgan ulug'vorlikka ko'ra nomlar berildi. Va ularga Yaratuvchisi tomonidan berilgan ismlarda kuch bor edi. Ammo ularga osmonning ulug'vorligiga ko'ra berilgan ismlar, ular uchun halokat va kuchsizlikni anglatadi. Shunday qilib, ularning ikkita ismi bor.

    & Quot [yaratgan. ] hamma narsani, u vujudga kelgan birinchi asrlar modeliga binoan, ularni buzilmaydiganlar kabi yaratishi uchun uyushtirdi. U buzilmas narsalarni ko'rgani uchun emas, balki onasidan olgan kuch, unda koinotga o'xshatdi. U o'zini o'rab turgan maxluqotni va undan chiqqan farishtalarning ko'pligini ko'rib, ularga dedi: "Men rashkchi Xudoyman va mendan boshqa Xudo yo'q". Ammo buni e'lon qilib, u boshqa farishtalarga boshqa Xudo borligini ko'rsatdi. For if there were no other one, of whom would he be jealous?

    Yaldabaoth had several faces which is to say he had several names according to his desire - this kind of make one think about those deities with several names like 99 names or so.

    Yaldabaoth said, "I am a jealous God and there is no other God beside me", this statement can be found through the whole of the old testament aka Tanakh.

    Wisdom herself had to repent for her mistake in making her son without the consent of her husband. To this day in African theology we teach that all come from the mother - a divine wisdom that is well understood amongst us. Yet there are levels much higher then this divine mother Sophia which our universe comes from. She has a husband - and equal to her just as the great mother Barbelo has the absolute creator. Nothing is without balance except within our universe because we've become gender crazy - patriarchal & matriarchal and so forth. Women are fighting for equality and men are fighting to be the head by making women submit. We are not leveled because we are surrounded by wicked principles.

    Gnosticism is one of the last Kemetic orders that Europeans tried to take for themselves and so many of our people reject Gnosticism for the 3 primary religious orders of today.

    Gnosis 'To Know' is an order after the mother which is Wisdom the great mother of Yaldabaoth aka Apedemak. Above we read that she moves about to and fro weeping and so forth.

    Wisdom is the tree of life - and as the story goes - the lord by wisdom founded the earth which is the story of Yaldabaoth by the power of his mother founded the earth.

    The next part will be the creation of man and then from there Man-KIND.

    Ru2religious

    Well-Known Member

    Continued . Apocryphon of John

    And a voice came forth from the exalted aeon-heaven: 'The Man exists and the son of Man.' And the chief archon, Yaltabaoth, heard (it) and thought that the voice had come from his mother. And he did not know from where it came. And he taught them, the holy and perfect Mother-Father, the complete foreknowledge, the image of the invisible one who is the Father of the all (and) through whom everything came into being, the first Man. For he revealed his likeness in a human form.

    "And the whole aeon of the chief archon trembled, and the foundations of the abyss shook. And of the waters which are above matter, the underside was illuminated by the appearance of his image which had been revealed. And when all the authorities and the chief archon looked, they saw the whole region of the underside which was illuminated. And through the light they saw the form of the image in the water.

    When the Archon, heard and saw the image of what appeared to be a man they wanted to create a man. It was at this point that they realized that Yaldabaoth wasn't the only as he described himself to be.

    And he said to the authorities which attend him, 'Come, let us create a man according to the image of God and according to our likeness, that his image may become a light for us.' And they created by means of their respective powers in correspondence with the characteristics which were given. And each authority supplied a characteristic in the form of the image which he had seen in its natural (form). He created a being according to the likeness of the first, perfect Man. And they said, 'Let us call him Adam, that his name may become a power of light for us.'

    "And the powers began: the first one, goodness, created a bone-soul and the second, foreknowledge, created a sinew-soul the third, divinity, created a flesh-soul and the fourth, the lordship, created a marrow-soul the fifth, kingdom created a blood-soul the sixth, envy, created a skin-soul the seventh, understanding, created a hair-soul. And the multitude of the angels attended him and they received from the powers the seven substances of the natural (form) in order to create the proportions of the limbs and the proportion of the rump and the proper working together of each of the parts.

    "The first one began to create the head. Eteraphaope-Abron created his head Meniggesstroeth created the brain Asterechme (created) the right eye Thaspomocha, the left eye Yeronumos, the right ear Bissoum, the left ear Akioreim, the nose Banen-Ephroum, the lips Amen, the teeth Ibikan, the molars Basiliademe, the tonsils Achcha, the uvula Adaban, the neck Chaaman, the vertebrae Dearcho, the throat Tebar, the right shoulder [. ], the left shoulder Mniarcon, the right elbow [. ], the left elbow Abitrion, the right underarm Evanthen, the left underarm Krys, the right hand Beluai, the left hand Treneu, the fingers of the right hand Balbel, the fingers of the left hand Kriman, the nails of the hands Astrops, the right breast Barroph, the left breast Baoum, the right shoulder joint Ararim, the left shoulder joint Areche, the belly Phthave, the navel Senaphim, the abdomen Arachethopi, the right ribs Zabedo, the left ribs Barias, the right hip Phnouth the left hip Abenlenarchei, the marrow Chnoumeninorin, the bones Gesole, the stomach Agromauna, the heart Bano, the lungs Sostrapal, the liver Anesimalar, the spleen Thopithro, the intestines Biblo, the kidneys Roeror, the sinews Taphreo, the spine of the body Ipouspoboba, the veins Bineborin, the arteries Atoimenpsephei, theirs are the breaths which are in all the limbs Entholleia, all the flesh Bedouk, the right buttock (?) Arabeei, the left penis Eilo, the testicles Sorma, the genitals Gorma-Kaiochlabar, the right thigh Nebrith, the left thigh Pserem, the kidneys of the right leg Asaklas, the left kidney Ormaoth, the right leg Emenun, the left leg Knyx, the right shin-bone Tupelon, the left shin-bone Achiel, the right knee Phnene, the left knee Phiouthrom, the right foot Boabel, its toes Trachoun, the left foot Phikna, its toes Miamai, the nails of the feet Labernioum - .

    "And those who were appointed over all of these are: Zathoth, Armas, Kalila, Jabel, (Sabaoth, Cain, Abel). And those who are particularly active in the limbs (are) the head Diolimodraza, the neck Yammeax, the right shoulder Yakouib, the left shoulder Verton, the right hand Oudidi, the left one Arbao, the fingers of the right hand Lampno, the fingers of the left hand Leekaphar, the right breast Barbar, the left breast Imae, the chest Pisandriaptes, the right shoulder joint Koade, the left shoulder joint Odeor, the right ribs Asphixix, the left ribs Synogchouta, the belly Arouph, the womb Sabalo, the right thigh Charcharb, the left thigh Chthaon, all the genitals Bathinoth, the right leg Choux, the left leg Charcha, the right shin-bone Aroer, the left shin-bone Toechtha, the right knee Aol, the left knee Charaner, the right foot Bastan, its toes Archentechtha, the left foot Marephnounth, its toes Abrana.

    Now the story of how man got his senses -

    Seven have power over all of these: Michael, Ouriel, Asmenedas, Saphasatoel, Aarmouriam, Richram, Amiorps. And the ones who are in charge over the senses (are) Archendekta and he who is in charge over the receptions (is) Deitharbathas and he who is in charge over the imagination (is) Oummaa and he who is over the composition Aachiaram, and he who is over the whole impulse Riaramnacho.

    "And the origin of the demons which are in the whole body is determined to be four: heat, cold, wetness, and dryness. And the mother of all of them is matter. And he who reigns over the heat (is) Phloxopha and he who reigns over the cold is Oroorrothos and he who reigns over what is dry (is) Erimacho and he who reigns over the wetness (is) Athuro. And the mother of all of these, Onorthochrasaei, stands in their midst, since she is illimitable, and she mixes with all of them. And she is truly matter, for they are nourished by her.

    "The four chief demons are: Ephememphi, who belongs to pleasure, Yoko, who belongs to desire, Nenentophni, who belongs to grief, Blaomen, who belongs to fear. And the mother of them all is Aesthesis-Ouch-Epi-Ptoe. And from the four demons passions came forth. And from grief (came) envy, jealousy, distress, trouble, pain, callousness, anxiety, mourning, etc. And from pleasure much wickedness arises, and empty pride, and similar things. And from desire (comes) anger, wrath, and bitterness, and bitter passion, and unsatedness, and similar things. And from fear (comes) dread, fawning, agony, and shame. All of these are like useful things as well as evil things. But the insight into their true (character) is Anaro, who is the head of the material soul, for it belongs with the seven senses, Ouch-Epi-Ptoe.

    This is where the story gets interesting - in concerns to man and his creative force.

    This is the number of the angels: together they are 365. They all worked on it until, limb for limb, the natural and the material body was completed by them. Now there are other ones in charge over the remaining passions whom I did not mention to you. But if you wish to know them, it is written in the book of Zoroaster. And all the angels and demons worked until they had constructed the natural body. And their product was completely inactive and motionless for a long time.

    "And when the mother wanted to retrieve the power which she had given to the chief archon, she petitioned the Mother-Father of the All, who is most merciful. He sent, by means of the holy decree, the five lights down upon the place of the angels of the chief archon. They advised him that they should bring forth the power of the mother. And they said to Yaltabaoth, 'Blow into his face something of your spirit and his body will arise.' And he blew into his face the spirit which is the power of his mother he did not know (this), for he exists in ignorance. And the power of the mother went out of Yaltabaoth into the natural body, which they had fashioned after the image of the one who exists from the beginning. The body moved and gained strength, and it was luminous.

    "And in that moment the rest of the powers became jealous, because he had come into being through all of them and they had given their power to the man, and his intelligence was greater than that of those who had made him, and greater than that of the chief archon. And when they recognized that he was luminous, and that he could think better than they, and that he was free from wickedness, they took him and threw him into the lowest region of all matter.

    Aka earth also known as Amenta - is the lowest regions they speak of -

    Now Adam - aka male and female has the illuminated power

    But the blessed One, the Mother-Father, the beneficent and merciful One, had mercy on the power of the mother which had been brought forth out of the chief archon, for they (the archons) might gain power over the natural and perceptible body. And he sent, through his beneficent Spirit and his great mercy, a helper to Adam, luminous Epinoia which comes out of him, who is called Life. And she assists the whole creature, by toiling with him and by restoring him to his fullness and by teaching him about the descent of his seed (and) by teaching him about the way of ascent, (which is) the way he came down. And the luminous Epinoia was hidden in Adam, in order that the archons might not know her, but that the Epinoia might be a correction of the deficiency of the mother.

    "And the man came forth because of the shadow of the light which is in him. And his thinking was superior to all those who had made him. When they looked up, they saw that his thinking was superior. And they took counsel with the whole array of archons and angels. They took fire and earth and water and mixed them together with the four fiery winds. And they wrought them together and caused a great disturbance. And they brought him (Adam) into the shadow of death, in order that they might form (him) again from earth and water and fire and the spirit which originates in matter, which is the ignorance of darkness and desire, and their counterfeit spirit. This is the tomb of the newly-formed body with which the robbers had clothed the man, the bond of forgetfulness and he became a mortal man. This is the first one who came down, and the first separation. But the Epinoia of the light which was in him, she is the one who was to awaken his thinking.

    "And the archons took him and placed him in paradise. And they said to him, 'Eat, that is at leisure,' for their luxury is bitter and their beauty is depraved. And their luxury is deception and their trees are godlessness and their fruit is deadly poison and their promise is death. And the tree of their life they had placed in the midst of paradise.

    Ru2religious

    Well-Known Member

    And I shall teach you (pl.) what is the mystery of their life, which is the plan which they made together, which is the likeness of their spirit. The root of this (tree) is bitter and its branches are death, its shadow is hate and deception is in its leaves, and its blossom is the ointment of evil, and its fruit is death and desire is its seed, and it sprouts in darkness. The dwelling place of those who taste from it is Hades, and the darkness is their place of rest.

    "But what they call the tree of knowledge of good and evil, which is the Epinoia of the light, they stayed in front of it in order that he (Adam) might not look up to his fullness and recognize the nakedness of his shamefulness. But it was I who brought about that they ate."

    And to I said to the savior, "Lord, was it not the serpent that taught Adam to eat?" The savior smiled and said, "The serpent taught them to eat from wickedness of begetting, lust, (and) destruction, that he (Adam) might be useful to him. And he (Adam) knew that he was disobedient to him (the chief archon) due to light of the Epinoia which is in him, which made him more correct in his thinking than the chief archon. And (the latter) wanted to bring about the power which he himself had given him. And he brought a forgetfulness over Adam."

    This story is grounded in esoteric wisdom - to which some calls metaphysics. Here is the fall of Adam -

    And I said to the savior, "What is the forgetfulness?" And he said "It is not the way Moses wrote (and) you heard. For he said in his first book, 'He put him to sleep' (Gn 2:21), but (it was) in his perception. For also he said through the prophet, 'I will make their hearts heavy, that they may not pay attention and may not see' (Is 6:10).

    "Then the Epinoia of the light hid herself in him (Adam). And the chief archon wanted to bring her out of his rib. But the Epinoia of the light cannot be grasped. Although darkness pursued her, it did not catch her. And he brought a part of his power out of him. And he made another creature, in the form of a woman, according to the likeness of the Epinoia which had appeared to him. And he brought the part which he had taken from the power of the man into the female creature, and not as Moses said, 'his rib-bone.'

    "And he (Adam) saw the woman beside him. And in that moment the luminous Epinoia appeared, and she lifted the veil which lay over his mind. And he became sober from the drunkenness of darkness. And he recognized his counter-image, and he said, 'This is indeed bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh.' Therefore the man will leave his father and his mother, and he will cleave to his wife, and they will both be one flesh. For they will send him his consort, and he will leave his father and his mother . (3 lines unreadable)

    "And our sister Sophia (is) she who came down in innocence in order to rectify her deficiency. Therefore she was called Life, which is the mother of the living, by the foreknowledge of the sovereignty of heaven. And through her they have tasted the perfect Knowledge. I appeared in the form of an eagle on the tree of knowledge, which is the Epinoia from the foreknowledge of the pure light, that I might teach them and awaken them out of the depth of sleep. For they were both in a fallen state, and they recognized their nakedness. The Epinoia appeared to them as a light she awakened their thinking.

    "And when Yaltabaoth noticed that they withdrew from him, he cursed his earth. He found the woman as she was preparing herself for her husband. He was lord over her, though he did not know the mystery which had come to pass through the holy decree. And they were afraid to blame him. And he showed his angels his ignorance which is in him. And he cast them out of paradise and he clothed them in gloomy darkness. And the chief archon saw the virgin who stood by Adam, and that the luminous Epinoia of life had appeared in her. And Yaltabaoth was full of ignorance. And when the foreknowledge of the All noticed (it), she sent some and they snatched life out of Eve.

    Satan and his fallen angels - as the story goes in the bible -

    The Children of Eve and Yaldabaoth -

    And the chief archon seduced her and he begot in her two sons the first and the second (are) Eloim and Yave. Eloim has a bear-face and Yave has a cat-face. The one is righteous but the other is unrighteous. (Yave is righteous but Eloim is unrighteous.) Yave he set over the fire and the wind, and Eloim he set over the water and the earth. And these he called with the names Cain and Abel with a view to deceive.

    "Now up to the present day, sexual intercourse continued due to the chief archon. And he planted sexual desire in her who belongs to Adam. And he produced through intercourse the copies of the bodies, and he inspired them with his counterfeit spirit.

    "And the two archons he set over principalities, so that they might rule over the tomb. And when Adam recognized the likeness of his own foreknowledge, he begot the likeness of the son of man. He called him Seth, according to the way of the race in the aeons. Likewise, the mother also sent down her spirit, which is in her likeness and a copy of those who are in the pleroma, for she will prepare a dwelling place for the aeons which will come down. And he made them drink water of forgetfulness, from the chief archon, in order that they might not know from where they came. Thus, the seed remained for a while assisting (him), in order that, when the Spirit comes forth from the holy aeons, he may raise up and heal him from the deficiency, that the whole pleroma may (again) become holy and faultless."

    And I said to the savior, "Lord, will all the souls then be brought safely into the pure light?" He answered and said to me, "Great things have arisen in your mind, for it is difficult to explain them to others except to those who are from the immovable race. Those on whom the Spirit of life will descend and (with whom) he will be with the power, they will be saved and become perfect and be worthy of the greatness and be purified in that place from all wickedness and the involvements in evil. Then they have no other care than the incorruption alone, to which they direct their attention from here on, without anger or envy or jealousy or desire and greed of anything. They are not affected by anything except the state of being in the flesh alone, which they bear while looking expectantly for the time when they will be met by the receivers (of the body). Such then are worthy of the imperishable, eternal life and the calling. For they endure everything and bear up under everything, that they may finish the good fight and inherit eternal life."

    I said to him, "Lord, the souls of those who did not do these works (but) on whom the power and Spirit descended, (will they be rejected?" He answered and said to me, "If) the Spirit (descended upon them), they will in any case be saved, and they will change (for the better). For the power will descend on every man, for without it no one can stand. And after they are born, then, when the Spirit of life increases and the power comes and strengthens that soul, no one can lead it astray with works of evil. But those on whom the counterfeit spirit descends are drawn by him and they go astray."

    And I said, "Lord, where will the souls of these go when they have come out of their flesh?" And he smiled and said to me, "The soul in which the power will become stronger than the counterfeit spirit, is strong and it flees from evil and, through the intervention of the incorruptible one, it is saved, and it is taken up to the rest of the aeons."

    And I said, "Lord, those, however, who have not known to whom they belong, where will their souls be?" And he said to me, "In those, the despicable spirit has gained strength when they went astray. And he burdens the soul and draws it to the works of evil, and he casts it down into forgetfulness. And after it comes out of (the body), it is handed over to the authorities, who came into being through the archon, and they bind it with chains and cast it into prison, and consort with it until it is liberated from the forgetfulness and acquires knowledge. And if thus it becomes perfect, it is saved."

    And I said, "Lord, how can the soul become smaller and return into the nature of its mother or into man?" Then he rejoiced when I asked him this, and he said to me, "Truly, you are blessed, for you have understood! That soul is made to follow another one (fem.), since the Spirit of life is in it. It is saved through him. It is not again cast into another flesh."

    And I said, "Lord, these also who did not know, but have turned away, where will their souls go?" Then he said to me, "To that place where the angels of poverty go they will be taken, the place where there is no repentance. And they will be kept for the day on which those who have blasphemed the spirit will be tortured, and they will be punished with eternal punishment."

    And I said, "Lord, from where did the counterfeit spirit come?" Then he said to me, "The Mother-Father, who is rich in mercy, the holy Spirit in every way, the One who is merciful and who sympathizes with you (pl.), i.e., the Epinoia of the foreknowledge of light, he raised up the offspring of the perfect race and its thinking and the eternal light of man. When the chief archon realized that they were exalted above him in the height - and they surpass him in thinking - then he wanted to seize their thought, not knowing that they surpassed him in thinking, and that he will not be able to seize them.

    "He made a plan with his authorities, which are his powers, and they committed together adultery with Sophia, and bitter fate was begotten through them, which is the last of the changeable bonds. And it is of a sort that is interchangeable. And it is harder and stronger than she with whom the gods united, and the angels and the demons and all the generations until this day. For from that fate came forth every sin and injustice and blasphemy, and the chain of forgetfulness and ignorance and every severe command, and serious sins and great fears. And thus the whole creation was made blind, in order that they may not know God, who is above all of them. And because of the chain of forgetfulness, their sins were hidden. For they are bound with measures and times and moments, since it (fate) is lord over everything.


    Videoni tomosha qiling: Ichvogan mushuk (Yanvar 2022).