Til haqida hech qanday ma'lumotga ega bo'lmagan holda, men loyiha ustida ishlayapman, bu menga qadimgi misr tiliga o'xshash narsalarni ishlatib nom berishni talab qiladi. Hozirgacha men ushbu veb -saytdan foydalanganman:
O'ylaymanki, men hamma narsani birlashtira olmayman va ularni o'qiy olaman, lekin men ishlayotganim - bu fantastika, shuning uchun 100% aniq bo'lishi shart emas. Men o'zimni haqiqiy his qilishni xohlayman va buning uchun men ularni tarjima qilish uchun narsalarni nomlashim kerak.
Bonus savol sifatida ingliz tiliga tarjima qilinishi mumkin bo'lgan boshqa qaysi tillar qadimgi Misr talaffuzi bilan bir xil xususiyatlarga ega?
Afsuski, bu muammo qadimgi Misrga xos emas va avtomatik tarjima umuman tushunarli bo'lmaydi. Qadimgi misrlik, men bilganimdek, avtomatik tarjima dasturlari mavjud bo'lmagan til bo'lish muammosi bor (narsalarni qadimgi misr tiliga tarjima qilish, odatda, keng tarqalgan muammo emas).
Agar siz ingliz tilini qadimgi misr tiliga yarim yarim tarjima qilishni xohlasangiz, bir nechta narsani sinab ko'rishingiz mumkin:
- Misr darsligini olib, asosiy grammatikani tushunishga harakat qiling va undan jumla tuzishga harakat qiling. Menimcha, Jeyms Allenning "O'rta Misr" asari eng keng tarqalgan. Yaxshi Misr lug'ati ham foydali bo'lishi mumkin.
- Agar shunga o'xshash jumlalar mavjud bo'lsa, Misr matnlarini tekshiring. Bu Misr matnlarining juda yaxshi manbasi, garchi transliteratsiya har doim ham ta'minlanmasa -da, lekin siz uni har doim berilgan havolalar orqali topishga harakat qilishingiz mumkin.
- Misrshunoslikni biladigan odamdan sizga yordam berishini so'rang.
Shuni ta'kidlash kerakki, Britaniya muzeyi Piter quyonining qadimgi misrlik tarjimasini yaratdi
Bu haqda eslatmalar zamonaviy matnlarni misr tiliga tarjima qilishda uchraydigan ba'zi umumiy qiyinchiliklarni, masalan, Misrda bo'lmagan turli xil narsalar (soyabon, aravachalar), o'simliklar va hayvonlar uchun so'zlarning etishmasligini ko'rish uchun juda foydali. vaqt, shuningdek, faqat noma'lum so'zlar.
Shuningdek, siz Qadimgi Misrning qaysi davridan foydalanayotganingizni hal qilishingiz kerak. Yozma misrlik uzoq umr davomida asosan barqaror bo'lgan, lekin u har xil grammatikaga ega bo'lgan bir necha davrlarni bosib o'tgan. Asosiy bosqichlar - qadimgi Misr, O'rta Misr, kech Misr, Demotik va Kopt.
Agar Misr tilida gapirish kerak bo'lsa, shuni ham yodda tutingki, aksariyat hollarda biz misrliklarning ovozini bilmaymiz. Misrlik ko'p ovozli tovushlarni yozmagan va o'z tarixi davomida va mintaqalarda o'zgargan. Ba'zi so'zlar aslida yozilmagan va ularni kontekstdan tushunish kerak edi (masalan, "pa" va "ta" maqolalari og'zaki tilda ishlatilgan deb gumon qilinmoqda, ammo demotik holatga qadar yozilmagan).
Misr tiliga o'xshagan tilga kelsak, uning eng yaqin qarindoshi - afsuski, deyarli o'lgan koptlar. Hozirgi kunda kopt tili faqat kopt cherkovi uchun liturgik til sifatida ishlatiladi va ingliz tiliga tarjima qilish uchun juda keng adabiyotlar bo'lmasligi mumkin, lekin siz har doim unga qarashingiz mumkin. Misrliklarning eng yaqin qarindoshlari-afro-Osiyo tillari (masalan, ibroniy va arab tillari), lekin ularni deyarli 5000 yil ajratib turadi.
Qadimgi Misr tiliga ingliz tilini tarjima qilishning ishonchli usulini qayerdan topsam bo'ladi? - Tarix
Qadimgi Misr tibbiyoti
Qadimgi misrliklarning dori -darmonlari eng qadimgi hujjatlashtirilgan. Tsivilizatsiyaning boshlanishidan v. Miloddan avvalgi 33-asr, miloddan avvalgi 525-yilgi Fors bosqinigacha, Misr tibbiyot amaliyoti deyarli o'zgarmadi va o'z davri uchun juda rivojlangan edi, shu jumladan oddiy invaziv bo'lmagan jarrohlik, suyaklarni o'rnatish va farmakopeyaning keng to'plami. Misr tibbiy fikri keyingi urf -odatlarga, jumladan, yunonlarga ta'sir ko'rsatdi.
XIX asrga qadar qadimgi Misr tibbiyoti haqidagi asosiy ma'lumot manbalari qadimgi davrlardan keyingi yozuvlar bo'lgan. Homer c. Miloddan avvalgi 800 yil Odisseyda shunday yozilgan edi: "Misrda erkaklar tibbiyotga har qanday odamnikidan ko'ra mahoratliroqdir" va "misrliklar tibbiyotga boshqa san'atdan ko'ra ko'proq mohir bo'lishgan".
Yunon tarixchisi Gerodot miloddan avvalgi 440 -yillar atrofida Misrga tashrif buyurgan va ularning shifobaxsh amaliyotlari haqidagi kuzatuvlari haqida ko'p yozgan. Pliniy Keksa ham tarixiy sharhda ular haqida yaxshi yozgan. Gippokrat ("tibbiyot otasi"), Gerofil, Erasistrat va keyinchalik Galen Amenxotep ibodatxonasida o'qigan va qadimgi Misr tibbiyotining yunon tibbiyotiga qo'shgan hissasini tan olgan.
1822 yilda Rosetta toshining tarjimasi nihoyat qadimgi Misr ieroglif yozuvlari va papiruslarini, shu jumladan tibbiyot bilan bog'liq ko'p narsalarni (Misr tibbiyot papirusi) tarjima qilishga imkon berdi. 19 -asrda Misrshunoslikka bo'lgan qiziqish, miloddan avvalgi 3000 yillarga borib taqaladigan Ebers papirusi, Edvin Smit papirusi, Hearst papirusi, London tibbiy papirusi va boshqalarni o'z ichiga olgan bir qancha qadimiy tibbiy hujjatlar to'plamini kashf etishga olib keldi.
Edvin Smit papirusi (pastga qarang) jarrohlik bo'yicha darslik va anatomik kuzatuvlar va ko'plab kasalliklarning "tekshiruvi, diagnostikasi, davolashi va prognozi" haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi. . Tibbiy ma'lumotlar miloddan avvalgi 3000 yillarga to'g'ri keladi. 3 -suloladagi Imxotep papirus matnining asl muallifi va qadimgi Misr tibbiyotining asoschisi hisoblanadi. Ma'lumki, birinchi operatsiya miloddan avvalgi 2750 yilda Misrda qilingan.
Ebers papirusi (pastga qarang) c. Miloddan avvalgi 1550 yil kasalliklarni keltirib chiqaruvchi jinlardan voz kechishga qaratilgan sehr-jodu va yomon dasturlarga to'la, shuningdek 877 ta retseptni o'z ichiga oladi. Agar u yaxshi tushunilmagan qadimgi tibbiy atamalar to'g'ri talqin qilingan bo'lsa, u o'smalar haqida dastlabki hujjatlashtirilgan xabardorlikni ham o'z ichiga olishi mumkin. Boshqa ma'lumotlar Misr qabrlari devorlarini tez -tez bezab turgan tasvirlar va ularga tegishli yozuvlarning tarjimasidan kelib chiqadi.
Zamonaviy tibbiyot texnologiyalari yutuqlari qadimgi Misr tibbiyotini tushunishga ham yordam berdi. Paleopatologlar mumiyalarning suyaklari va a'zolarini ko'rish uchun rentgen nurlari va keyinchalik CAT skanerlaridan foydalanishgan. Elektron mikroskoplar, mass -spektrometriya va sud -tibbiyotning turli usullari olimlarga 4000 yil oldin Misr sog'lig'i to'g'risida noyob tasavvurlar yaratishga imkon berdi.
Edvin Smit papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1550 yil), Xerst papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1450 yil) va Berlin papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1200 yil) kabi boshqa hujjatlar ham qadimgi Misr tibbiyoti haqida qimmatli ma'lumot beradi. Masalan, Edvin Smit papirusi tadqiqot usullari, bemorga tashxis qo'yish va davolanishni belgilab bergan. Shuning uchun u o'quv qo'llanma sifatida qaraladi. Davolash kasalliklardan iborat edi: hayvonot, sabzavot yoki mevali moddalar yoki minerallardan.
Edvin Smit papirusi
Edvin Smit papirusi - bu qadimgi Misr tibbiy jarrohlik jarohati haqidagi tibbiy matn. Bu Qadimgi Misrda ikkinchi O'rta davrning 16-17 sulolalariga tegishli, taxminan. Miloddan avvalgi 1600 yil. Edvin Smit papirusi bugungi kunda saqlanib qolgan tibbiy papiruslar orasida noyobdir. Boshqa papiruslar, masalan, Ebers papirusi va London tibbiy papirusi, sehrga asoslangan tibbiy matnlar bo'lsa, Edvin Smit papirusi Qadimgi Misr tibbiyotiga oqilona va ilmiy yondashuvni taqdim etadi.
Edvin Smit papirusining uzunligi 4,68 m bo'lib, 17 sahifaga bo'lingan. Rekto, old tomoni 377 qatordan iborat, orqa tomoni esa 92 qatordan iborat. Papirusning parchalangan birinchi varag'idan tashqari, papirusning qolgan qismi ancha buzilmagan.
Bu qora va qizil siyohda ierogliflar, ierogliflarning Misr kursiv shaklida yozilgan. Papiruslarning katta qismi travma va jarrohlik bilan bog'liq. To'g'ri yo'lda 48 ta shikastlanish holati bor. Har bir holatda jarohat turi, bemorni tekshiruvi, tashxisi va prognozi, davolanishi, ters tomoni sakkizta sehrli sehr va beshta retseptdan iborat. 8 -chi va 9 -chi holatdagi verso tomonning sehrlari va ikkita voqea, bu tibbiy matnning amaliy tabiatidan mustasno.
Edvin Smit papirusining muallifligi muhokama qilinadi. Papirusning ko'p qismini bitta yozuvchi yozgan, faqat kichik bo'limlarni ikkinchi yozuvchi yozgan. Papirus hech qanday muallifni kiritmasdan, chiziq o'rtasida keskin tugaydi.
Papirus Eski Shohlikdan oldingi matnga asoslangan deb ishoniladi. Papirusga kiritilgan shakl va sharhlar avvalgi hujjat mavjudligidan dalolat beradi. Matnni ba'zilar miloddan avvalgi 3000-2500 yillardagi eski podshohlik me'mori, oliy ruhoniy va tabib Imxotepga havola qilishadi.
Papirusning oqilona va amaliy tabiati 48 ta holatda tasvirlangan. Papirus bosh jarohatlari bilan boshlanadi va bo'yin, qo'l va torson jarohatlarini davolash bilan davom etadi.  Har bir ishning sarlavhasi shikastlanishning mohiyatini, masalan, "boshida suyakka singib ketgan va bosh suyagini yorib yuborgan jarohatni qo'llash amaliyoti" haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi.
Keyinchalik, tekshiruv shikastlanish haqida batafsil ma'lumot beradi. Tashxis va prognoz tekshiruvdan so'ng. Oxir -oqibat, davolanish variantlari taklif etiladi. Ko'pgina hollarda, aniqroq tushuntirish uchun shikastlanishning tushuntirishlari kiritilgan.
Davolash usullari orasida yaralarni tikuv bilan yopish (lab, tomoq va yelka yaralari uchun), asal bilan infektsiyani oldini olish va davolash, xom go'sht bilan qon ketishni to'xtatish bor. Bosh va o'murtqa shikastlanishlari, shuningdek, tananing pastki qismidagi boshqa sinishlar uchun immobilizatsiya tavsiya etiladi. Papirus anatomik kuzatuvlarni ham tasvirlaydi. U kranial choklar, meninginkslar, miyaning tashqi yuzasi, orqa miya suyuqligi va intrakranial pulsatsiyaning birinchi ma'lum tavsiflarini o'z ichiga oladi.
Ushbu papirus protseduralari Misrning dori -darmonlarni bilishini 1000 yildan keyin yashagan Gippokratnikidan yuqori ekanligini ko'rsatadi. Amaliy xarakteri va o'rganilgan travma turlaridan kelib chiqqan holda, papirus harbiy janglar natijasida kelib chiqqan shikastlanishlar uchun darslik bo'lib xizmat qilgan deb ishoniladi.
Edvin Smit papirusi Ikkinchi O'rta davrning 16-17 sulolalariga tegishli. Bu davrda Misr Fivadan boshqarilgan va, ehtimol, papirus o'sha erda paydo bo'lgan. Edvin Smit 1862 yilda Misrning Luksor shahrida Mustafo Og'a ismli misrlik dilerdan sotib olgan.
Papirus vafotigacha Smitning qo'lida bo'lgan, qizi esa papirusni Nyu -York tarixiy jamiyatiga hadya qilgan. 1938 yildan 1948 yilgacha papirus Bruklin muzeyida bo'lgan. 1948 yilda Nyu -York Tarix Jamiyati va Bruklin muzeyi papirusni Nyu -York Tibbiyot Akademiyasiga taqdim etishdi, hozir ham shu erda.
Papirusning birinchi tarjimasi Djeyms Genri Breasted tomonidan, doktor Arno B Lucxardtning tibbiy tavsiyasi bilan, 1930 yilda Breasted tarjimasi tibbiyot tarixi haqidagi tushunchani o'zgartirdi. Bu shuni ko'rsatadiki, Misr tibbiy yordami boshqa tibbiy manbalarda ko'rsatilgan sehrli shifo usullari bilan chegaralanmagan. Ratsional, ilmiy tajribalar ishlatilgan, ular kuzatish va tekshirish orqali tuzilgan.
2005 yildan 2006 yilgacha Edvin Smit papirusi Nyu -Yorkdagi Metropolitan san'at muzeyida ko'rgazmada bo'lgan. Muzeyda Misr san'ati kuratori Jeyms P. Allen ko'rgazmaga to'g'ri kelgan asarning yangi tarjimasini nashr etdi. Bu 1930 yilda Breasted -dan beri ingliz tilidagi birinchi to'liq tarjima edi. Bu tarjima ieratik va tibbiyot haqida zamonaviyroq tushuncha beradi.
Ebers papirusi, shuningdek Papirus Ebers nomi bilan ham tanilgan, miloddan avvalgi 1550 yillarga to'g'ri keladigan Misr tibbiy papirusidir. Qadimgi Misrning eng qadimgi va eng muhim tibbiy papiruslaridan biri uni 1873-1974 yil qishda Jorj Ebers tomonidan Luxor (Thebes) da sotib olingan. Hozirda Germaniyaning Leypsig universiteti kutubxonasida saqlanmoqda.
Papirus taxminan miloddan avvalgi 1500 -yillarda yozilgan, ammo u avvalgi matnlardan ko'chirilgan deb ishoniladi, ehtimol miloddan avvalgi 3400 yillarga to'g'ri keladi. Ebers Papirus-bu 110 varaqdan iborat, uzunligi 20 metrga yaqin.
Kahun ginekologik papirusi bilan bir qatorda (miloddan avvalgi taxminan 1800 yillar), Edvin Smit papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1600 yillar), Xerst papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1600 yillar), Brugsch papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1300 yillarga yaqin), London tibbiy papirusi (miloddan avvalgi 1300 yil), Ebers papirusi saqlanib qolgan eng qadimiy tibbiy hujjatlardan biridir. Brugsch papirusi Ebers papirusiga parallel parchalarni taqdim etadi, bu esa ularning keyingi qismlarini aniqlashtirishga yordam beradi.
Ebers papirusi ieratik Misr yozuvida yozilgan va biz uchun qadimgi Misr tibbiyotining eng katta ma'lumotlarini saqlaydi. O'ram 700 ga yaqin sehrli formulalar va vositalarni o'z ichiga oladi. Unda kasallik keltirib chiqaruvchi jinlardan voz kechish uchun mo'ljallangan ko'plab sehrlar bor, shuningdek, empirik amaliyot va kuzatishning qadimiy an'analari mavjud.
Papirusda "yurak haqidagi risola" mavjud. Unda qayd etilishicha, yurak - qon ta'minoti markazi, badanning har bir a'zosi uchun tomirlar biriktirilgan.
Ko'rinib turibdiki, misrliklar buyraklar haqida juda kam ma'lumotga ega bo'lib, yurakni tananing barcha suyuqliklari - qon, ko'z yoshlari, siydik va sperma tashadigan ko'plab tomirlarning yig'ilish nuqtasiga aylantirgan.
Ruhiy kasalliklar papirusning "Yuraklar kitobi" deb nomlangan bobida batafsil bayon etilgan. Depressiya va demensiya kabi kasalliklar ko'rib chiqiladi.
Bu kasalliklarning ta'riflari shuni ko'rsatadiki, misrliklar ruhiy va jismoniy kasalliklarni xuddi shunday tasavvur qilishgan. Papirusda kontratseptsiya, homiladorlik diagnostikasi va boshqa ginekologik muammolar, ichak kasalliklari va parazitlar, ko'z va teri muammolari, stomatologiya va xo'ppoz va o'smalarni jarrohlik yo'li bilan davolash, suyak tuzilishi va kuyish boblari mavjud.
Ebers papirusidagi vositalarga misollar:
- Nafas: G'isht ustida isitiladigan o'tlar aralashmasi, shuning uchun kasal bug'ini yutib yuboradi.
Qorin: "Qorinni evakuatsiya qilish uchun: Sigir suti 1 dona 1 asal 1 mash, elak, oshpaz to'rt qismga bo'linadi."
Ichak: "Ichakni tuzatish uchun: Melilot, 1 xurmo, 1 osh yog'i bilan yog'langan.
Saraton: "Xenus xudosiga qarshi shish" ni aytib, "u erda hech narsa qilma" deb tavsiya qiladi.
Kiyim: mushuk yog'ini surtish orqali sichqon va kalamushlardan himoya qilish mumkin.
O'lim: Yarim piyoz va pivoning ko'pigi "o'limga qarshi ajoyib vosita" deb hisoblangan.
Oxra gilidan tibbiy maqsadlarda foydalanish: Papirusda tasvirlangan keng tarqalgan vositalardan biri - oxra yoki dorivor loy. Misol uchun, u turli ichak shikoyatlari uchun buyuriladi. Bundan tashqari, u turli xil ko'z kasalliklari uchun buyuriladi. Sariq oxra urologik shikoyatlarni davolash vositasi sifatida ham tasvirlangan.
Papirusning zamonaviy tarixi
Edvin Smit papirusi singari, Ebers papirusi ham 1862 yilda Edvin Smit tasarrufiga o'tdi. Papirusning manbasi noma'lum, lekin u Theban nekropolining Assassif tumanidagi mumiyaning oyoqlari orasidan topilgani aytilgan.
Papirus, Edvin Smit kollektsiyasida, 1869 yilgacha saqlanib qolgan, qadimiy buyumlar sotuvchisi katalogida "amerikalik Luksor fermeri Edvin Smitga tegishli bo'lgan katta tibbiy papirus" reklamasi paydo bo'lgan. (1930 yil tug'ilgan)
Papirus 1872 yilda nemis misrshunosi va yozuvchisi Georg Ebers tomonidan sotib olingan (1837 yil Berlindagi tug'ilgan), unga shunday nom berilgan. 1875 yilda Ebers ingliz-lotin so'z birikmasi va kirish qismi bo'lgan faksimilni nashr etdi, lekin uni 1890 yilgacha X. Yoaxim tarjima qilmagan.
Ebers Leypsigdagi Misrshunoslik kafedrasidan nafaqaga chiqdi va papirus Leypsig universiteti kutubxonasida qoldi. Papirusning inglizcha tarjimasi Pol Ghalioungui tomonidan nashr etilgan. Papirus turli tadqiqotchilar tomonidan nashr etilgan va tarjima qilingan (eng qimmatbaho nashr - bu Grundriss der Medizin der alten gigpter nemis nashri va Pol Ghalioungui nashri asosida).
Kahun ginekologik papirusi
Kaxun ginekologik papirusi (shuningdek, Kahun papirusi, Kahun tibbiy papirusi yoki UC 32057) - bu tibbiyotning eng qadimiy matni. Taxminan miloddan avvalgi 1800 yillarga tegishli bo'lib, u ayollarning sog'lig'ining ginekologik kasalliklari, tug'ilish, homiladorlik, kontratseptsiya va boshqalar bilan shug'ullanadi.
U 1889 yilda El-Lahunda Flinders Petri tomonidan topilgan va birinchi bo'lib F. Ll tomonidan tarjima qilingan. Griffit 1893 yilda nashr etilgan va "Petrie Papirida" nashr etilgan: Kahun va Gurobdan kelgan Ieratik Papiri. Keyinchalik Berlin papirusi va Ramesseum Papirus IV bir xil joylarni qamrab oladi, ko'pincha bir xil retseptlar beradi.
Matn o'ttiz to'rt qismdan iborat bo'lib, ularning har biri alohida muammoni hal qiladi va tashxis va davolanishni o'z ichiga oladi, bashorat qilinmaydi. Davolash jarrohlik yo'li bilan amalga oshirilmaydi, bu dorilarni shikastlangan tana qismiga qo'llashni yoki yutishni o'z ichiga oladi. Ba'zida bachadon tananing boshqa qismlarida o'zini namoyon qiladigan shikoyatlar manbai sifatida qaraladi.
Birinchi o'n yetti qism sarlavhadan boshlanadigan umumiy formatga ega va undan keyin simptomlarning qisqacha tavsifi beriladi, odatda, har doim ham bo'lmasa ham, reproduktiv organlar bilan bog'liq. P> Ikkinchi bo'lim uchinchi sahifadan boshlanadi va sakkiz paragrafni o'z ichiga oladi, chunki ularning nusxasi ham, tili ham deyarli tushunarsizdir. Shunga qaramay, tushunarli darajada ravshan til darajasiga ega bo'lgan bir nechta paragraflar mavjud.
19-paragraf 20-paragraf kim tug'ishini aniqlash bilan bog'liq, bu kontseptsiyani keltirib chiqaradigan fumigatsiya protsedurasi va 20-22-bandlar kontratseptsiya bilan bog'liq. Kontratseptsiya uchun buyurilgan materiallar orasida timsoh go'ngi, 45 ml asal va nordon sut bor.
Uchinchi bo'lim (26-32-bandlar) homiladorlik testlari bilan bog'liq. Boshqa usullar orasida piyoz lampochkasini bemor tanasiga chuqur joylashtirish kiradi, bunda uning ijobiy natijasi bemorning burnidan chiqqan hid bilan belgilanadi.
To'rtinchi va oxirgi bo'limda avvalgi toifalarga kirmaydigan ikkita paragraf mavjud. Birinchisi homiladorlik paytida tish og'rig'ini davolashni buyuradi. Ikkinchisida siydik chiqa olmaydigan siydik pufagi va qin o'rtasida "noqulay joyda" oqma paydo bo'lishi tasvirlangan.
Zira, Fenugreek va Corriander kabi ziravorlar Qadimgi Misrda dori sifatida ishlatilgan.
O'simliklardan tayyorlangan dorilar
Har qanday madaniyatning sog'lig'ini hisobga olganda, ovqatlanish haqida gapirish kerak. Qadimgi misrliklar muvozanatda ham, me'yorida ham dietaning ahamiyatini hech bo'lmaganda qisman bilishgan. Misrning unumdorligi tufayli unumdor erlarda oziq -ovqat mahsulotlari ishlab chiqarish hech qachon katta muammo emas edi, lekin, garchi, er qashshoqligi va ochlik hali ham mavjud bo'lsa ham.
Qadimgi Misr tarixining ko'p qismi uchun asosiy ekinlar bug'doy va arpa edi (Qarang Diet). Xamirturush mahsulotning ozuqaviy qiymatini sezilarli darajada boyitgan holda, pishirish va fermentatsiyalash orqali har xil turdagi nonlar shaklida iste'mol qilingan, bir dehqonning ekinlari yigirma kishini boqishi mumkin edi. Arpa pivoda ham ishlatilgan. Ko'p turdagi sabzavotlar va mevalar keng etishtirildi.
Zig'ir urug'idan yog 'ishlab chiqarildi va ziravorlar va o'tlarning cheklangan tanlovi mavjud edi. Go'sht (qo'ylar, echkilar, cho'chqalar, yovvoyi o'yin) muntazam ravishda hech bo'lmaganda yuqori sinflar uchun mavjud bo'lgan va baliqlar ko'p iste'mol qilingan, garchi ma'lum davrlarda hayvonot mahsulotlarining ayrim turlariga taqiq qo'yilganligi to'g'risida dalillar mavjud bo'lsa, Gerodot cho'chqani "nopok" deb yozgan. '.
Shifokorlar va boshqa tabiblar
Qadimgi Misr tibbiyot kasbining o'ziga xos ierarxiyasi bor edi. Yuqorida Misr bosh vrachi bor edi. Uning ostida vrachlarning nazoratchilari va inspektorlari, uning ostida esa shifokorlar bor edi. Misrlik shifokorlar o'tlar va jarrohlik usullarini yaxshi bilganlar. Misr tibbiyotining bir qismi sehr, joziba va sehr edi, ular bemorga faqat psixologik ta'sir ko'rsatdi.
Qadimgi Misr shifokorining "vabau" so'zi. Bu nom uzoq tarixga ega. Dunyodagi eng qadimgi shifokor, Hesy-Ra qadimgi Misrda ishlagan. U miloddan avvalgi 27 -asrda hukmronlik qilgan qirol Djoserning tish shifokorlari va shifokorlari boshlig'i edi. Peseshet xonim (miloddan avvalgi 2400 y.) Birinchi ayol shifokor bo'lishi mumkin: u, ehtimol, Axetotepning onasi edi va uning qabridagi stelada "imy-r swnwt" deb nomlangan, u "Lady" deb tarjima qilingan. Shifokor ayollarning nazoratchisi ".
Tibbiyot sohasida ko'plab darajalar va mutaxassisliklar mavjud edi. Royalti o'z ishini, hatto o'z mutaxassislarini ham ishlatgan. Shifokorlar, nazoratchilar va bosh shifokorlar bor edi. Ma'lumki, qadimgi misrlik mutaxassislar - oftalmolog, gastroenterolog, proktolog, stomatolog, "qassoblarni nazorat qiluvchi shifokor" va aniqlanmagan "suyuqliklar inspektori". Qadimgi misrlik proktolog, neru fuyt so'zi tom ma'noda "anus cho'poni" deb tarjima qilingan.
Ma'lumki, "Hayot uylari" deb nomlangan institutlar qadimgi Misrda 1 -suloladan beri tashkil etilgan va ma'lum vaqtlarda birinchi ming yillikning o'rtalarida yashagan Peftauawyneit va Wedjahorresnet kabi shifokorlar yozishmalarida yozilgan tibbiy funktsiyalarni bajargan bo'lishi mumkin. Miloddan avvalgi 19 -sulola davrida ularning xodimlari tibbiy sug'urta, pensiya va kasallik ta'tillari kabi imtiyozlarga ega edilar.
Qadimgi Misrda tibbiy bilim juda yaxshi obro'ga ega edi va boshqa imperiyalar hukmdorlari Misr fir'avnidan o'z yaqinlarini davolash uchun eng yaxshi tabibni yuborishni so'rashardi. Misrliklar inson anatomiyasi haqida ma'lum bilimga ega edilar. Masalan, mumiyalashning mumtoz jarayonida mumiyachilar burun teshigidan uzun ilgakli asbobni qanday kiritish kerakligini bilishgan, bosh suyagining ingichka suyagini sindirishadi va miyani olib tashlashadi.
Shuningdek, ular ichki organlarning tana bo'shlig'ida joylashgan joyi haqida umumiy tasavvurga ega bo'lishlari kerak edi, ular chap qorin bo'shlig'idagi kichik kesma orqali olib tashlandi. Ammo bu bilim tibbiyot amaliyotchilariga beriladimi yoki yo'qmi noma'lum va ularning tibbiy nazariyalariga hech qanday ta'siri bo'lmagan.
Misr shifokorlari yurak urishi va yurak urishi o'rtasidagi bog'liqlikni bilishgan. Smit papirusining muallifi hatto yurak tizimi haqida noaniq tasavvurga ega edi, garchi u qon aylanishi bo'lmasa ham, u qon tomirlari, tendonlar va nervlarni ajrata olmagan yoki ahamiyatsiz deb hisoblagan. Ular Nil daryosi bilan taqqoslaganda, havo, suv va qonni tanaga olib boradigan "kanallar" nazariyasini ishlab chiqdilar, agar ular to'sib qo'yilsa, ekinlar nosog'lom bo'lib qoladi va ular bu tamoyilni tanaga qo'llaydilar: agar odamning ahvoli yomon bo'lsa, undan foydalanar edi. "kanallarni" ochish uchun laksatiflar.
Bir nechta tibbiy amaliyotlar, masalan, Edvin Smit papirusida o'tkazilgan ko'plab jarrohlik muolajalari samarali bo'ldi. Asosan, shifokorlarning sog'lig'ini saqlash bo'yicha tavsiyasi tanani, shu jumladan qo'ltiq ostini yuvish va tarash edi, va bu infektsiyalarni oldini olgan bo'lishi mumkin. Shuningdek, ular bemorlarga o'z dietalariga e'tibor berishni, xom baliq yoki harom deb hisoblangan boshqa hayvonlardan voz kechishni maslahat berishdi.
1) pichoqlar (2) burg'ulash (3) arra (4) forseps yoki qisqichlar (5) idishlar (6) ilgaklar (7) arqon bilan bog'langan sumkalar (8, 10) tumshug'i idish (11) tutatqi yonib turgan vaza (12) Horus ko'zlar (13) tarozilar (14) yuqori va quyi Misr gullari bo'lgan idish (15) poydevor ustidagi qozon (16) yon tugunsiz (yoki qamish skalpel ushlab turgan sumka) (17) qaychi (18) qoshiq tugagan tirsakli yoki papirusli o'ram.
Shifokorlar orasida jarohatni davolash sifatida jarrohlik amaliyoti keng tarqalgan edi. Misrlik shifokorlar jarohatlarning davolanadigan, bahsli va davolanmaydigan kasalliklarning uchta toifasini tan oldilar. Davolanadigan xirurglar tezda tuzalib ketishadi. Jabrlanuvchi, ehtimol, davolanmasdan omon qolishi mumkin bo'lgan kasalliklar edi, shuning uchun bu toifadagi bemorlar kuzatilgan va agar ular tirik qolsalar, ularni tuzatishga urinish mumkin. Arxeologik joylardan topilgan jarrohlik asboblari orasida pichoqlar, ilgaklar, burg'ulashlar, qisqichlar, qisqichlar, tarozilar, qoshiqlar, arra va tutatqi tutatilgan vaza bor.
Erkaklarning sunnat qilinishi odatiy hol edi, lekin dalillar kam. Garchi uning protsedura sifatida bajarilishi kamdan -kam hollarda tilga olinsa -da, boshqa madaniyatlarning sunnat qilinmagan tabiati tez -tez qayd etilardi, liberiyaliklarning sunnat qilinmagan tabiati tez -tez tilga olinadi va harbiy kampaniyalar sunnat qilinmagan falani kubok sifatida qaytaradi, bu esa yangilikni ko'rsatadi.
Garchi boshqa yozuvlarda diniy buyruqlar kiritilishi sunnatni o'z ichiga oladi deb ta'riflangan bo'lsa -da, bu amaliyot maxsus va keng tarqalgan emasligini bildiradi. Saqquarra shahridagi Anx-Mahor dafn qilingan "Shifokor qabrida" protseduraning yagona ma'lum tasviri chaqaloqlarni emas, o'smirlarni yoki kattalarni ko'rsatadi. Ayollarni sunnat qilish amaliyoti bo'lgan bo'lishi mumkin, garchi qadimgi matnlarda bu haqda faqat bitta noto'g'ri tarjima bo'lishi mumkin.
Sun'iy oyoq barmoqlari va ko'z olmalari kabi protezlar ham odatda ishlatilgan, ular dekorativ maqsadlardan ko'ra ko'proq xizmat qilgan. Dafn marosimiga tayyorgarlik ko'rayotganda, yo'qolgan tana qismlari o'limdan oldin almashtirilardi (lekin ular foydali yoki hatto biriktirilgandek ko'rinmaydi).
Diniy mashg'ulot sifatida jarrohlik, mumiyalash amaliyoti va otopsiyadan keng foydalanish misrliklarga tananing morfologiyasi haqida keng ma'lumot berdi va hatto organlar funktsiyalari haqida ancha tushuncha berdi. Ko'pgina asosiy organlarning funktsiyalari to'g'ri taxmin qilingan - masalan, qon hayotiylik va chiqindilar uchun transpiratsiya vositasi, deb taxmin qilingan, bu kislorodni tashish va karbonat angidridni olib tashlashdagi haqiqiy rolidan uzoq emas - yurak va yurakdan tashqari. miya, uning vazifalari o'zgartirilgan.
Stomatologiya muhim soha edi, mustaqil kasb sifatida u miloddan avvalgi III ming yillik boshlariga to'g'ri keladi, garchi u hech qachon mashhur bo'lmagan. Misr parhezida donni maydalashdan qolgan qum kabi abraziv moddalar ko'p bo'lgan) va shuning uchun ularning tishlari juda yomon edi, garchi arxeologlar eramizdan avvalgi 4000 yildan milodiy 1000 yilgacha zo'ravonlik va kasallanishning doimiy pasayishini qayd etishgan, ehtimol, donni silliqlashning yaxshilanishi tufayli. texnika.
Misrning barcha qoldiqlari juda kambag'al davlatlarda tishlarga ega. Tish kasalligi hatto o'limga olib kelishi mumkin, masalan, o'ttiz besh yoshida, keng ko'lamli tish kasalliklari va katta infektsion kistadan vafot etgan Teb musiqachisi Djedmaatesank uchun. Agar individual tishlar yiqilib tushmasa, shirinliklar kamdan -kam uchragani uchun bo'shliqlar kamdan -kam uchraydi.
Tishlarni davolash yuqumli edi va eng ko'p azob chekayotganlar zararlangan tishning tez yo'qolishi edi. Ankhsheshonq yo'riqnomasida "hali chirigan tish yo'q", degan so'z bor. Bu jarayonning tezlashishi haqida hech qanday hujjat yo'q va tish olish uchun mos asboblar topilmagan, ammo ba'zi qoldiqlar tishlarni majburiy olib tashlash belgisidir. O'zgartirish tishlari borligi aniqlandi, ammo bu o'limdan keyingi kosmetika yoki yo'qligi aniq emas. Kuchli og'riq opiy bilan davolangan bo'lishi mumkin.
Virusli va bakterial infektsiyalar
Sil (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)
Ruffer (1910) 21 -sulola Amun ruhoniysi Nesparaxanda umurtqa pog'onasi sil kasalligi borligi haqida xabar bergan. Bu burchakli kifoz (dumg'aza) ishlab chiqaruvchi ko'krak umurtqasining qulashi bilan Pott kasalligining o'ziga xos xususiyatlarini ko'rsatadi. Pott kasalligining yaxshi ma'lum bo'lgan asoratlari - psoas katta mushaklari ostida, o'ng yonbosh fossasiga qarab, juda katta psoas xo'ppozini hosil qiluvchi tuberkulyoz yiringlash. (Nunn 1996: 64).
Rufferning hisoboti qadimgi Misrda o'murtqa sil kasalligining eng yaxshi tasdiqlangan holati bo'lib qolmoqda. Predynastikdan 21 -sulolagacha bo'lgan barcha mumkin bo'lgan holatlar Morse, Brockwell va Ucko (1964), shuningdek Buikstra, Beyker va Kuk tomonidan ko'rib chiqilgan. (1993) Bunga Naqada Petrie va Quibell tomonidan to'plangan Predynastik namunalar kiradi. 1895, shuningdek, Angliya qirollik jarrohlar kollejidan to'qqizta Nubian namunasi. Ikkala sharhlovchi ham ko'p hollarda sil kasalligi patologiyaning sababi ekanligiga shubha yo'qligi to'g'risida kelishib oldilar. Ba'zi hollarda o'lim sabablari sifatida siqilish, osteomiyelit yoki suyak kistalarini istisno qilish mumkin emas edi.
Dumaloq odamlarning ko'p sonli badiiy namoyishlari provokatsion, ammo yakuniy emas. Birinchi uchta misol, shubhasiz, Predynastik kelib chiqishi. Birinchisi, Asuon tumanida Bedu tomonidan topilgan keramika haykalchasi. Ko'krak umurtqasining burchakli kifozli, loydan yasalgan idishda cho'kkan odamni ifodalaydi. (Schrumph-Pierron, 1933) Sil kasalligini ko'rsatuvchi o'murtqa deformatsiyali, mumkin bo'lgan ikkinchi predynastic tasviri, qo'llari yon tomonida, odamning suyagi suyagiga o'xshaydi. tananing tirsaklarda egilgan.
Bosh modellashtirilgan, uning yuz xususiyatlari diqqat bilan ko'rsatilgan. Rasm orqa va ko'kragiga cho'zilgan holda ko'rsatilgan. (Morse 1967: 261) Oxirgi Predynastik misol - Bryussel muzeyida joylashgan yog'och haykal. Yuzining murakkab xususiyatlariga ega soqolli erkak sifatida tasvirlangan bu shakl katta dumaloq dumg'aza va sternumning burchakli proektsiyasiga ega (Jonckheere 1948: 25).
Bundan tashqari, sil kasalligi deformatsiyasi ehtimolini ko'rsatuvchi bir qancha tarixiy Misr vakillari mavjud. Eski Qirollik 4 -sulolasi qabrida joylashgan eng diqqatga sazovor joylardan biri bu mahalliy burchakli kifozni ko'rsatadigan qizga xizmat qiladigan basseyn. Ikkinchi provokatsion misol O'rta Qirollikdan kelib chiqqan. Beni Xasandagi qabr rasmida bachadon bo'yni bo'yin bachadon bo'yni deformatsiyalangan bog'bon tasvirlangan. (Morse 1967: 263)
Orqa miya old shox hujayralarining virusli infektsiyasi, poliomielit borligini faqat uning o'tkir bosqichidan omon qolganlarda aniqlash mumkin. Mitchell (Sandison 1980: 32) Deshashedan kelgan erta Misr mumiyasida poliomielit deb talqin qilgan chap oyog'ining qisqarishini qayd etdi. Fir'avn Siptaning tayog'i va Xnumu-Next 12-sulolasi mumiyasidagi deformatsiyalar, ehtimol poliomielit bilan bog'liq.
18 -chi yoki 19 -chi sulolalar dafn marosimining stadioni eshik qo'riqchisining oyoqlarini egilish deformatsiyasi bilan birga isrof qilingan va qisqartirilgan oyog'i bilan ko'rsatadi. Bu deformatsiyaning aniq tabiati tibbiyot hamjamiyatida muhokama qilinmoqda.
Ba'zilar, bu skelet o'sishi tugagunga qadar bolalik davrida poliomielit bilan kasallangan degan fikrni ma'qul ko'rishadi. Ekinus deformatsiyasi, bu qisqargan oyog'ida yurishga ruxsat beradigan kompensatsiya bo'ladi. Alternatively, the deformity could be the result of a specific variety of club foot with a secondary wasting and shortening of the leg.(Nunn 1996: 77)
Dasen (1993) lists 207 known representations of dwarfism. Of the types described, the majority are achondroplastic, a form resulting in a head and trunk of normal size with shortened limbs. The statue of Seneb is perhaps the most classic example. A tomb statue of the dwarf Seneb and his family, all of normal size, goes a long way to indicate that dwarfs were accepted members in Egyptian society. Other examples called attention to by Ruffer (1911) include the 5th Dynasty statuette of Chnoum-hotep from Saqqara, a Predynastic drawing of the "dwarf Zer" from Abydos, and a 5th Dynasty drawing of a dwarf from the tomb of Deshasheh.
Skeletal evidence, while not supporting the social status of dwarfs in Egyptian society, does corroborate the presence of the deformity. Jones described a fragmentary Predynastic skeleton from the cemetery at Badari with a normal shaped cranium both in size in shape. In contrast to this, however, the radii and ulna are short and robust, a characteristic of achondroplasia. A second case outlined by Jones consisted of a Predynastic femur and tibia, both with typical short shafts and relatively large articular ends.
Breasted, J.H. The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus
Magic and Religion
Magic and religion were an integral part of everyday life in ancient Egypt. Evil gods and demons were thought to be responsible for many ailments, so often the treatments involved a supernatural element, such as beginning treatment with an appeal to a deity. There does not appear to have existed a clear distinction between what nowadays one would consider the very distinct callings of priest and physician. The healers, many of them priests of Sekhmet, often used incantations and magic as part of treatment.
The widespread belief in magic and religion may have resulted in a powerful placebo effect that is, the perceived validity of the cure may have contributed to its effectiveness. The impact of the emphasis on magic is seen in the selection of remedies or ingredients for them. Ingredients were sometimes selected seemingly because they were derived from a substance, plant or animal that had characteristics which in some way corresponded to the symptoms of the patient. This is known as the principle of simila similibus ("similar with similar") and is found throughout the history of medicine up to the modern practice of homeopathy. Thus an ostrich egg is included in the treatment of a broken skull, and an amulet portraying a hedgehog might be used against baldness.
Amulets in general were very popular, being worn for many magical purposes. Health related amulets are classified as homeopoetic, phylactic and theophoric. Homeopoetic amulets portray an animal or part of an animal, from which the wearer hopes to gain positive attributes like strength or speed. Phylactic amulets protected against harmful gods and demons. The famous Eye of Horus was often used on a phylactic amulet. Theophoric amulets represented Egyptian gods one represented the girdle of Isis and was intended to stem the flow of blood at miscarriage. They were often made of bone, hanging from a leather strap.
In the News .
Egyptian Papyrus Reveals Rare Details of Ancient Medical Practices Live Science - August 17, 2018
Ancient manuscripts that were previously untranslated have revealed a rare and fascinating glimpse of scientific and medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago. Experts working with the texts recently discovered that the papyrus scrolls included the oldest known medical discussion of the kidneys, as well as notes on treatments for eye diseases and a description of a pregnancy test, the science news site ScienceNordic reported. The manuscripts are part of the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection, housed at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, where an international team of researchers is collaborating to interpret the unpublished documents
Remains of 'End of the World' Epidemic Found in Ancient Egypt Live Science - June 16, 2014
Archaeologists have uncovered the remains of an epidemic in Egypt so terrible that one ancient writer believed the world was coming to an end. Working at the Funerary Complex of Harwa and Akhimenru in the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes (modern-day Luxor) in Egypt, the team of the Italian Archaeological Mission to Luxor (MAIL) found bodies covered with a thick layer of lime (historically used as a disinfectant). The researchers also found three kilns where the lime was produced, as well as a giant bonfire containing human remains, where many of the plague victims were incinerated. Pottery remains found in the kilns allowed researchers to date the grisly operation to the third century A.D., a time when a series of epidemics now dubbed the "Plague of Cyprian" ravaged the Roman Empire, which included Egypt. Saint Cyprian was a bishop of Carthage (a city in Tunisia) who described the plague as signaling the end of the world.
13 Photos: Ancient Egyptian Skeleton Reveals Earliest Metastatic Cancer Live Science - March 22, 2014
A 3,000-year-old skeleton from a conquered territory of ancient Egypt is now the earliest known complete example of a person with malignant cancer spreading from an organ, findings that could help reveal insights on the evolution of the disease, researchers say. Here, the skeleton (called Skeleton Sk244-8) in its original burial position in a tomb in northern Sudan in northeastern Africa, with a blue-glazed amulet (inset) found buried alongside him the amulet shows the Egyptian god Bes depicted on the reverse side.
Magic, Medicine Eased Ancient Egyptian Headaches -- Reuters - January 6, 2002
Can't beat that headache? Why not try an incantation to falcon-headed Horus, or a soothing poultice of "Ass's grease"? According to researchers, 3,500-year-old papyri show ancient Egyptians turning to both their gods and medicine to banish headache pain. "The border between magic and medicine is a modern invention such distinctions did not exist for ancient healers," explain Dr. Axel Karenberg, a medical historian, and Dr. C. Leitz, an Egyptologist, both of the University of Cologne, Germany.
In a recent issue of the journal Cephalalgia, the researchers report on their study of papyrus scrolls dating from the early New Kingdom period of Egyptian history, about 1550 BC. Ancient Egyptian healers had only the barest understanding of anatomy or medicine. Indeed, while the head was considered the "leader" of the body, the brain itself was considered relatively unimportant--as evidenced by the fact that it was usually discarded during the mummification process.
Headache, that timeless bane of humanity, was usually ascribed to the activity of "demons," the German researchers write, although over time Egyptian physicians began to speculate that problems originating within the body, such as the incomplete digestion of food, might also be to blame.
Once beset with a headache, those living under the pharaohs turned to their gods for help. One incantation sought to evoke the gods' empathy, imagining that even immortals suffered headache pain. "'My head! My head!' said Horus," reads one papyrus. "'The side of my head!' said Thoth. 'Ache of my forehead,' said Horus. 'Upper part of my forehead!' said Thoth." In this way, Karenberg and Leitz write, "the patient is identified with (the gods) Horus and Thoth," the latter being the god of magicians and wise men. The incantation continues with the sun god Ra ordering the patient to recover "up to your temples," while the patient threatens his "headache demons" with terrible punishments ("the trunk of your body will be cut off").
Still, the gods may have ignored the pleas of many patients, who also turned to medicine for relief. According to one ancient text, these included a poultice made of "skull of catfish," with the patient's head being "rubbed therewith for four days." Other prescriptions included stag's horn, lotus, frankincense and a concoction made from donkey called "Ass's grease." Even these remedies could be divinely inspired, however. On one 4,000-year-old scroll, a boastful druggist claims that his headache cure is prepared by the goddess Isis herself.
Egyptian mythology is definitely not the easiest topic to learn and understand. Many questions have been asked about the topic that can not be answered anywhere else other than in this medium. At the end, there will also be answers to questions about this web site.
Q: Why are there so many different spellings of the gods' and goddesses' names?
A: The Egyptian language has no written vowels, much as written Hebrew does not. Therefore, when an Egyptologist attempts to translate an Egyptian word he comes across various difficulties. For example, if English had no vowels and you came across the word: BT. How would you translate it? BAT, BUT, ABOUT, BIT, BOAT? Fortunately for those who do translate hieroglyphics, the Egyptians would include what is known as a "determinative". This is a hieroglyphic that is strictly visual and helps the reader to decide among various choices as to what a series of symbols means. Therefore the translator can generally pick out the meaning of the word. This is good for those words that have an English counterpart. For words, such as names, that have no such equivalent the spelling (and pronunciation) is limited by the translator's own creativity. One example is Sir E. A. Wallis Budge who translated the earth god Geb's name as "Seb", "Keb" and "Qeb". It is generally agreed that none of these is correct.
| ||= h+n+w||= Liquid measure? |
| ||= h+n+w+ |
beer pot det.
|= Liquid measure|
| ||= h+n+w+ |
| ||= h+n+w+ |
Because so many hieroglyphic words could be read as homonyms or near-homonyms (i.e., like sounding words, such as the English wait, weight and wade) Egyptian scribes made liberal use of determinative symbols to be sure their readers grasped the correct meaning. The letters hnw, at top right, could be pronounced as anything from hinew ga ohanow and could have a number of different meanings. Therefore the word is never seen without one of several determinatives: a beer jug to indicate the word for a liquid measure a man giving the ritual sign of jubilation to show the word for rejoicing and the figures of a man and woman over a plural symbol (three parallel strokes) to illustrate the word for neighbors or associates, By this system, the Egyptians could use the same grouping of letters to indicate as many as 10 completely different words.
Another reason that there are so many different spellings of the names of Egyptian gods and goddesses is that many of the names of the most familiar deities are really Greek corruptions of the Egyptian originals. Below is a list of the common Greek name and the Egyptian (as best translated) original. Please note that the names of the gods used in this web site are those that are believed to be the most familiar to visitors. Most people probably would not recognize the name, Yinepu, while they would know a little bit about Anubis.
Q: You have the god "Ra" listed as "Re"! What's up with that??
A: First, read the explanation on why the names of the gods and goddesses are spelled so many different ways, then come back.
Done? Xop. do you remember the part about how ancient Egyptian was not written with vowels? That means that Egyptologists don't really bilish how the name was pronounced and therefore do not know really how to spell it. The best educated guess for this particular god is that the name was pronounced "Ray". Therefore, this site uses the spelling "Re". However, you will notice that on the page about Re, a given alternate spelling is "Ra".
Q: Why are there so many different myths or versions of myths to explain the same phenomenon?
A: Unlike the famous Greek myths that would consist of a single story to explain a certain event (for example, the kidnapping of Persephone resulting in the season of winter) the Egyptians' stories of how things came to be rarely were so homogenous. There are various myths of creation. Within the individual myths, there are conflicting details.
A reason for this is that each community of Egypt had their own principal gods and goddesses which they revered above all others (for examples of various community cosmogonies, please visit "the Land" section). Yet each group of people would have myths to explain the same common phenomenon: The creation of the earth, the sun's daily travels, life after death. Thus multiple myths developed in Egypt explaining the same thing. As noted above, the Egyptians were very tolerant of other explanations and not too picky about plot details. To them, multiple explanations were not conflicting in their eyes, but rather enhanced the story of the phenomenon by adding another aspect or additional details to it.
Q: What race or ethnic background were the ancient Egyptians?
A: This is a very popular question, and unfortunately, there is no simple answer. However, it is an important one to address due to the racial divide the exists in many countries today, especially the United States. An ancient history professor once related the anecdote of how in one of his classes, a student wanted to know why Africa didn't have any civilizations in ancient times. When asked where he was when the class covered ancient Egypt, the student became visibly exasperated and said, "Yah. but ular don't count!" His explanation for this statement was that the Egyptians were not negroes, and thus not really "African".
In a way, the student was right. The ancient Egyptians were not "black". However, they were not "white" or any other so-called "race." This does not mean that they were not African though. A simple matter of geography forces them into that classification. Ancient Egypt was the most successful and longest lasting civilization on Earth, and it was African.
So how does one determine what "race" a people are? Sociologists and historians use various yardsticks to determine this, such as physical characteristics of the people, what language they spoke, or what religion they believed in, etc.
Seated at the juncture of three continents, the Egyptians showed the physical characteristics of Caucasians, Negroes, and Asians. With the migration of various peoples into the Nile Valley throughout the thousands of years in which the Egyptian culture flourished, it is nearly impossible to avoid a racial mixture of the population. Therefore, the most heated debate centers around what race the Predynastic or earliest Egyptians were, the "original" Egyptians, if you will. Yet again, skeletal remains indicate that they shared the characteristics of Caucasians, Asians and Negroes.
Linguistically, Egyptians spoke and wrote a language that held Semetic and sub-Saharan African properties. Their language fell into the language group that linguists call, "Afro-Asiatic". Language is not necessarily the best yardstick to use concerning racial background though. One must remember that languages can be spoken by vastly different ethnicities, just as Spanish is spoken today by both Spaniards and South American Indians.
In terms of religion, the Egyptians appeared to have a mostly indigenous belief system. That is, they thought it up for themselves. It is most original among the ancient peoples of the world. It many ways it was a "monolatry". A monolatry is a religion where one god's many personalities are seen as somewhat separate deities. For instance, the sun god Re, his other aspects or personalities were known as Atum, Khepera and Horus. When the Egyptians wished to empha that the god they were referring to was expressing more than one personality, they would hyphenate the name, "Re-Atum", etc.
At one point, each of these personalities were probably separate deities (which is how they are treated in this website). As Egypt grew to encompass the entire Nile Valley from the Delta to the Cataracts, the individual communities learned more about the belief systems and deities of their neighbors and incorporated these new gods which were similar to their into their religion.
However, it must be noted that several "Egyptian" gods probably originated in other countries. for instance, Bes probably came from Sub-Saharan Africa. Qetesh was a Semetic (Middle Eastern) goddess, and Serapis was Greek.
Perhaps the most important question to answer is: What race did the Egyptians believe they belonged to? The ancient Egyptians saw themselves as being ethnically distinctive from both the Asiatics to the north and the Negros to the south. The tiles from a palace shown here depict a negro and an Asiatic captive. They look distinctly different from the Egyptian priest shown above. Both in art and in literature, it was clear that they saw themselves as being different from their neighbors. The Egyptians believed that they were of the "Egyptian" race.
Q. Hey! I want to know about the phoenix!
A: For some reason no one seems to be able to find the phoenix though it has been on the site for quite a long while now. The phoenix is located under the Symbols section, as the bird was really a symbol of the sun and Osiris. Or you could just go there now.
Q. Many descriptions I read of the gods and goddesses say that the information was originally found in the "Pyramid Texts" or the "Coffin Texts". What are these texts?
A: You can find your answer in Funerary Texts which is part of the Land section.
Q: I would like to use this web site as a reference in my school report. How do I do that?
A: Any of the three below is correct. If you are submitting college-level work, you should find out if the APA method or the MLA is the one your professor expects.
In all cases, you would replace the date with whatever date you visited the site. For APA and MLA methods, Ancient Egypt: the Mythology does not have an edition date, so 'No date' or 'N.D.', respectively, should be used. In all the examples below the citation is for the document the Udjat, visited on December 6, 1997
McDevitt, April. "Name of Document" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(filename). date of visit.
McDevitt, April. "the Udjat" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm. December 6, 1997
McDevitt, A. (No date). Name of Document. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(file name). (date of visit).
McDevitt, A. (N.D.) the Udjat. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm (6 Dec. 1997).
McDevitt, April. "Name of Document" Ancient Egypt: the Mythology. N.D.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/(file name) (date of visit).
McDevitt, April. "the Udjat" Anciet Egypt: the Mythology N.D.
http://www.egyptianmyths.net/udjat.htm (6 Dec. 1997)
Q: Could you please send me more information about ?
A: In general, all the available information on each deity is posted online, although it may be summarized. Therefore, there is nothing additional to send or provide for you. Please visit your local library for anything else you need, or review the books in the Bookstore. Biroq, agar siz qilmoq have a specific question regarding a deity that is not on the web site yet, please feel free to ask.
Q: What references were used in the creation of this web site?
A: All of the books found in AE:tM's bookstore were used as references for the information on this site. Usually at least three or more books found in the bookstore have been consulted for each article on this site.
Q: Where can I find more information about this web site?
All content and images © Egyptian Myths, 1997-2014, All Rights Reserved
You can purchase online
Internet Sacred Text Archive CD-ROM
by John B. Hare
The Internet Sacred Text Archive has the full text of over 500 ebooks on Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Traditions and the Esoteric. It includes all major religions’ scriptures in English and the original languages, and hundreds of other books. Includes many texts scanned from rare books no longer in print. Ideal for schools, libraries and students. Books include: the Bible in English, Hebrew, Greek and Latin, the Qur’an in English and Arabic, the Vedas and Upanishads, Homer, Virgil, Dante, the Eddas, the Kalavala and even the complete works of Shakespeare. Topics include the Bible, Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Mormonism, Hinduism, Buddhism, Zoroastrianism, Shinto, I Ching, Taoism, Confucianism, Jainism, Sikhism, Shamanism, Traditions of Australia, Polynesia, Africa and Native America Ancient Near East, Egypt, Classics of Rome and Greece, Sagas and Legends, Wicca, Grimoires, Alchemy, Atlantis, Tarot, Atheism, Philosophy and much more.
Plato (c. 427-347 b.c.) founded the Academy in Athens, the prototype of all Western universities, and wrote more than twenty philosophical dialogues.
The central work of one of the West’s greatest philosophers, The Republic of Plato is a masterpiece of insight and feeling, the finest of the Socratic dialogues, and one of the great books of Western culture. Now Robin Waterfield offers a new translation of The Republic, one that captures the dramatic realism, poetic beauty, intellectual vitality, and emotional power of Plato at his height. Deftly weaving three main strands of argument into an artistic whole–the ethical and political, the aesthetic and mystical, and the metaphysical–Plato explores in The Republic the elements of the ideal community, where morality can be achieved in a balance of wisdom, courage, and restraint. But of course the dialogue is as much about our internal life as about social morality, for these vital elements must likewise work together to create harmonious human beings. Equally important, Plato achieves more than a philosophical dialogue of lasting fame and importance: The Republic is a literary masterpiece as well, presenting the philosophy with poetic power, with strikingly memorable images (the simile of the cave being the best known of Plato’s unforgettable images of the human condition), carrying the reader along by the wit and intensity of the language. BOX “Waterfield’s is certainly the best translation of the Republic available. It is accurate and informed by deep philosophical understanding of the text unlike other translations it combines these virtues with an impressive ability to render Plato into English that is an varied and expressive as is Plato’s Greek.”NOTE: “The Republic” by Plato contains much more than most critics are able to see…
Roger Bacon’s Philosophy of Nature- A Critical Edition, With English Translation, Introduction, and Notes, of De Multiplicatione Specierum and De Speculis Comburentibus
“The name David Lindberg is certainly not new to the study of medieval science in general or of medieval optics in particular. . . . But without any doubt we have in hand now the man’s masterwork, a truly first-rate book, done with consummate skill, complete in every detail. . . .
“The translations . . . are the best ever for the two Latin works . . . . And to continue with what may seem to be an advertising blurb, the notes, which are appended at the end of the explanations to the translations, are everything that one could expect from good historical study. . . .
“This is truly a beautiful book, carefully wrought to the last detail. Even the printing is exquisite. The ultimate test, to my way of thinking, for this kind of book is how parallel the Latin and English facing pages are. The English translation, in fact, is never behind the Latin text as one turns the page by more than half a line. That is perfection itself.”
George March, O.F.M., Speculum
A new translation of the great esoteric masterpiece that includes the first English translation of the recently rediscovered Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius.
* The Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius provides new insights into the actual workings of the gnostic spiritual path.
* Will be of great interest to scholars and religious seekers alike.
The Corpus Hermeticum, a powerful fusion of Greek and Egyptian thought, is one of the cornerstones of the Western esoteric tradition. A collection of short philosophical treatises, it was written in Greek between the first and third centuries a.d. and translated into Latin during the Renaissance by the great scholar and philosopher Marsilio Ficino. These writings, believed to be the writings of Hermes Trismegistus, were central to the spiritual work of Hermetic societies in late antique Alexandria, aiming to awaken gnosis, the direct realization of the unity of the individual and the Supreme. They are still read as important, inspirational spiritual writings today.
In addition to this new translation of The Corpus Hermeticum, which seeks to reflect the inspirational intent of the original, The Way of Hermes includes the first English translation of the recently rediscovered manuscript of The Definitions of Hermes Trismegistus to Asclepius, a collection of aphorisms, closely related to parts of The Corpus Hermeticum, used by the hermetic student to strengthen his mind in meditation. With the proper mental orientation, one could achieve a state of pure perception in which the true face of God appears. This document is of enormous value to the contemporary student of gnostic studies for its insights into the actual workings of this spiritual path.
The Hermetica: The Lost Wisdom of the Pharohs
by Timothy Freke
Religious and philosophic teachings ascribed to the Egyptian sage (god) Hermes Trismegistus.
This is a book to own and meditate on the deeper meanings of its contents.
The Hermetica is an ancient Egyptian wisdom, and not Greek.
Hermes is a Greek god equated to Tehuti: Tehuti (Egyptian) is the author of the “Hermetica”, who is also called Thoth, or Hermes.
The works of Hermes were collated in the city of Alexandria in Egypt during the second and third centuries CE. The main idea in Hermes’ teaching is God as Cosmic Consciousness. Similar ideas seems to me to be in other mystic outlooks of other religions.
This is a great little book for a person who has an interest in all religions and spiritual writings and traditions You can take this book and read just a few pages a day and ponder its meaning on different chapters. Over time, your understanding will increase and deepen.
More Hermetica related books:
- by Baird T. Spalding (Paperback) US orders by Walter, Sir Scott (Paperback) by Frances Amelia Yates (Paperback) by Antoine Faivre, Joscelyn Godwin (Translator) (Paperback) by Clement Salaman (Translator), et al (Hardcover)
- Hermetica – The Ancient Greek and Latin WritingsWhich Contain Religious or Philosophic Teachings Ascribed to Hermes Trismegistus by Walter, Sir Scott (Editor) today!
The History of Letters and Writing
As we start our formal schooling (and sometimes earlier for some children), we’re taught how to write. For translators, it’s fascinating learning about letters and where they and other forms of writing originated. Of course to be a successful translator it’s not required that you understand the history of writing, but most translators love words and language itself, so perhaps you may find some of the following information interesting.
If you do some research on the subject of the history of letters and writing you’ll discover that the alphabet we use today is actually a Latin alphabet. It’s used in both Spanish and English languages: it was based on the Greek alphabet and comes from Phoenician. This in turn has its origins in the Coptic Egyptian language, which is a cursive form of hieroglyphs.
Who Invented Writing?
Thousands of years ago the ancient Egyptians used papyrus to write hieroglyphics on scrolls, but even before this the Sumerians were already writing on a form of paper which was entirely their own invention. It’s impossible to determine precisely who invented writing because it’s an art that’s evolved since the beginning of time. Markings used as counters have been found in prehistoric caves, and this is indeed a form of writing.
A fundamental part of the history of civilization itself is the history of writing utensils used by humans to record and convey their feelings and thoughts over the centuries. Because of these methods of communication, like drawings, words, and signs recorded by our predecessors, we’re now able to research more about our history.
One of the caveman’s first inventions was a stone, sharpened by hand, which became a hunting tool. Besides being a lethal weapon, this stone was also used as the first writing utensil. Using this tool the cavemen found ways to create drawings and images on the walls of their caves. These drawings in the caves depict everyday events, like successful hunts and the planting of crops.
The First Modern Writing Utensils
It was the Greeks who developed the first writing utensils that resemble the pen and paper we know today. They made a pen from bone, metal, or ivory and used it to place marks on a type of waxed table so it was in Greece where we see the first examples of handwriting. Then writing started moving beyond markings on wet clay or drawings and images on stone. In India, the Chinese philosopher, Tien-Lcheu, invented India Ink: this was a mixture of soot from oil lamps and smoked pine, and by 1200 BCE the ink had become a very common writing tool.
Other Eastern cultures later developed inks using natural colors and dyes derived from plants, berries and minerals. It’s interesting to note that different colored inks had different meanings associated with them in early writings.
The letters of the alphabet in use today originated from ancient Egypt, at least a thousand years after the start of writing’s history. We see the first formal alphabet being introduced in 2000 BCE: the purpose of this language was to represent the language of Semitic-speaking people and today’s languages of the modern world, including Latin and Greek alphabets, are rooted there.
It’s thought that by 2700 BCE the ancient Egyptians had already created a minimum of 22 hieroglyphs as representatives of consonants in their language plus a different symbol representing what we now call vowels.
Sept. 27, 1822: Deciphering the Rosetta Stone Unlocks Egyptian History
Ushbu maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish uchun "Mening profilim" ga o'ting, so'ngra saqlangan hikoyalarni ko'ring.
Ushbu maqolani qayta ko'rib chiqish uchun "Mening profilim" ga o'ting, so'ngra saqlangan hikoyalarni ko'ring.
__1822: __Jean-François Champollion shows a draft translation of the mysterious Rosetta stone and demonstrates to the world how to read the voluminous hieroglyphics left behind by the scribes of ancient Egypt.
The story of the Rosetta stone is one of coruscating intellects and petty rivalries, of ancient mysteries and quite modern imperial politics. The stone dates to 196 B.C., and was recovered in 1799 by a French soldier in Rosetta, aka Rashid, a port on Egypt's Mediterranean coast. Discover is a noble word -- the stone was part of a wall in a fort!
Despite being an Egyptian artifact, and despite the fact that it was recovered and ultimately translated by the French, the Rosetta stone currently resides in the British Museum, as it has done since 1802.
The importance of the Rosetta stone can't be overstated: It enabled the translation of Egyptian hieroglyphics, a skill which had been lost for more than a thousand years. It is a stele, or commemorative slab, announcing a cult of Ptolemy V, who was to be seen as divine.
Such an announcement would have been politically necessary for the 13-year-old Ptolemy, who had already been ruler for 8 years following the death of his parents at the hand of his father's mistress. The child-king oversaw a land plagued with enemies without and within, and the decree was an attempt on the part of priests and the king to restore stability.
What was so helpful, from a translator's perspective, about the Rosetta stone was the fact that the decree was written on the stele three times: in hieroglyphics (the formal communication medium of the priests), Egyptian demotic script (the everyday notation used by most of those who could read and write), and Greek (used by the administrative apparatus of Egypt during the Ptolemaic dynasty).
There were, in effect, two key breakthroughs in the translation of the Rosetta stone. The first was by an English polymath, Thomas "Phenomenon" Young (1773-1829), famous for such other discoveries as the wave properties of light, Young's modulus, and numerous other researches in optics, engineering and medicine.
Young was able to discover inaccuracies in the late-18th-century understanding of demotic script, and, by 1814, to translate the demotic portion of the Rosetta stone. His most critical contribution, however, was to discover cartouches containing the phonetic representation of Greek names -- notably the name of Ptolemy himself.
Young set aside his study. He was distracted by other research, and by his assent to the prevailing belief that hieroglyphics were exclusively logograms, or units of meaning rather than units of sound.
That left the second breakthrough to Champollion (1790-1832), a French linguist who had been obsessed with hieroglyphics from a very young age. Champollion continued Young's research into cartouches, aided by his own extensive knowledge of Coptic, a form of Egyptian that uses the the Greek alphabet plus a few other signs to capture Egyptian sounds not otherwise represented in Greek.
Young had been waylaid by his belief that when cartouches were phonetic only when they represented foreign names, such as Ptolemy. In 1822, Champollion discovered conventional Misrlik names in cartouches from other documents, each with phonetic spellings, and he took up the Rosetta stone again.
Champollion focused on a cartouche containing just four hieroglyphs: The first two symbols were unknown, but the repeated pair at the end signified 's-s'. This meant that the cartouche represented ?-?-s-s.
Champollion wondered if the first hieroglyph in the cartouche, the disc, might represent the sun, and then he assumed its sound value to be that of the Coptic word for sun, ra. This gave him the sequence ra-?-s-s. Only one pharaonic name seemed to fit. Allowing for the omission of vowels and the unknown letter, surely this was Ramses.
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Upper and Lower Egypt
Ancient Egypt was divided into Ta Shemau (Upper Egypt) and Ta Mehu (Lower Egypt). Click on the hieroglyphs to view a map of Upper Egypt or Lower Egypt.
The division between upper and lower Egypt was retained after the unification of the kingdom in the Pre-dynastic Period and the pharaoh was often known as the King of Upper and Lower Egypt. This concept of duality is a constantly reoccurring feature of the Egyptian civilisation and was echoed in the pairing of different gods and goddesses to represent upper and lower Egypt.
Who are the translators of the New Living Translation?
All of the Bible scholars and stylists involved in this work are Christians who accept the Bible as the inspired Word of God. Most of the translators are professors in seminaries or universities, and all of the translators have written books and/or scholarly articles regarding the specific books of the Bible for which they did their translation work. They represent a rich variety of theological and denominational backgrounds, united by the common conviction that the Bible is God’s Word and that all people should have a translation of Scripture that they can really understand. Meet the New Living Translation scholars.
What is the Best Way to Learn Latin?
Everyone knows that Latin is difficult, cold, and inaccessible. Besides being a (sorta) dead language, it’s also associated with towering intellects and complicated poetry and prose. Normal people, we all know, aren’t smart enough to master Latin.
Lucky for you, everyone is wrong.
First of all, when people think about learning Latin, they often think of memorizing tedious charts and vocabulary lists and then spending hours trying to decipher small portions of text. If learning Latin this way sounds impossible, that’s because it is.
What if you could learn grammar and vocabulary in a more intuitive and permanent way, instead of putting your brain to sleep while chanting declension patterns or verb conjugations?
What if you could read and understand Latin from Day One?
That’s what the Ancient Language Institute exists to do – help students read and understand Latin from Day One. More on that below.
Here’s a second reason Latin is easier to learn than everybody tells you: Latin grammar is highly regular.
You probably remember learning all the grammatical “exceptions” in French or Spanish class. Latin has a lot fewer. This means that you’ll start recognizing and understanding grammatical patterns a lot faster than you did in high school Spanish.
Va a third reason: Latin is especially easy to learn for English speakers.
Nima uchun? Well, English derives much of its vocabulary from Latin (just take a look at these Latin words and see if you can guess their meaning: fama, fortuna, canis, nauta, aqua, femina).
So if your native language is English, when you read Latin, you get to do a lot of informed guesswork.
Nima uchun? Qil People Hate Learning Latin?
Still, we have to admit that Latin has a reputation for being difficult. It’s been claimed – in the pages of The New York Times no less – that “the chief virtue of Latin is in its instilling a virtue long dormant in our society: patience under drudgery.”
But it doesn’t have to be that way.
Latin has been taught and is still taught in ways that require a lot of work and result in very little success. But that’s not because of the language – it’s because of the common methods used to teach a new language.
What are those methods? They usually go something like this:
1) You memorize a long list of Latin terms and their English translation.
2) You read an article about Latin grammar.
3) You work on grammar exercises such as drilling declension or conjugation paradigms.
4) You (try to) translate Latin texts that include both vocabulary terms and grammar concepts you have never encountered before.
This method, the so-called “Grammar-Translation Method,” certainly teaches patience under drudgery. But it doesn’t actually teach Latin very well. Instead, this theoretical and memorization-focused way of teaching trains you to treat Latin as a clunky and codified version of English. This is no way to learn Latin – or any other language.