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8 afsonaviy duel

8 afsonaviy duel


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1. Aleksandr Hamilton va Aaron Burr (1804)

1804 yil 11 -iyulda, shaxsiy va siyosiy ziddiyatlarning yillar davom etishi Amerika tarixidagi eng mashhur duel bilan yakunlandi: etakchi federalist va sobiq xazina kotibi Aleksandr Hamilton va o'sha paytda vitse -prezident bo'lgan Aaron Burr o'rtasidagi ziddiyat. Tomas Jefferson ostida. Gamilton oprationalist deb bilgan Burdan nafratlanish uchun kelgan va 1804 yildagi Nyu -York gubernatori bo'lishga urinish paytida unga qarshi qattiq kurash olib borgan. Burr Xeliltonni "sharaf ishiga" da'vogarlik qilib, obro'sini tiklashga qaror qildi.

Dushmanlar Nyu -Jersi shtatining Weehawken yaqinidagi duel maydonida uchrashishdi - o'sha erda Hamiltonning o'g'li 1801 yil noyabr oyida otasining sharafini himoya qilish uchun vafot etgan edi. Ba'zi ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Hamilton hech qachon Burrni nishonga olmoqchi bo'lmagan, buning o'rniga havoga ramziy o'q uzib, masalani tinch yo'l bilan hal qilmoqchi bo'lgan. Niyatidan qat'i nazar, Xamilton raqibini sog'indi, lekin darhol oshqozonidan otib tashlandi; u ertasi kuni tushdan keyin vafot etdi. O'sha paytda kamdan -kam sharafli ishlar o'limga olib keldi va Aleksandr Hamilton kabi taniqli odamning o'ldirilishi xalqni g'azablantirdi. Jamoatchilik fikri qotillikda ayblangan va keyinchalik aloqasi bo'lmagan hodisada xiyonat qilgani uchun hibsga olingan Burrga qarshi chiqdi. Texnik nuqtai nazarga ko'ra, u Evropaga qochib, Nyu -Yorkdagi shaxsiy hayotiga qaytdi.

2. Ledi Almeriya Breddok va Elfinston xonim (1792)

Ma'lumki, Elfinston xonim 1792 yilda Ledi Almeriya Breddokning Londondagi uyiga qo'ng'iroq qilganida, bir piyola choy ichishni xohlamagan. Lekin bu tashrif befarq bo'lmagan hududga aylanib ketgan edi. u o'z yoshini aytib, mehmonini Gayd -Parkdagi duelga chaqirdi. Ma'lumotlarga ko'ra, Elfinston xonim birinchi bo'lib to'pponchasini o'qqa tutgan va Ledi Breddokning shlyapasini erga urgan. Keyin ayollar qilich olishdi va Ledi Breddok raqibining qo'lidan jarohat olib, qasos oldi. "Petticoat duel", ma'lum bo'lishicha, Elfinston xonim uzr xati yozishga rozi bo'lganida, boshqa voqealarsiz tugadi.

3. Miyamoto Musashi va Sasaki Kojiro (1612)

O'z davrining taniqli yapon qilichbozlari hisoblangan arxivlar Miyamoto Musashi va Sasaki Kojiro Ganryo orolining uzoq sohillarida uchrashib, kelishmovchiliklarni birdaniga hal qilishdi. Afsonaga ko'ra, Musashi bir necha soat kech qolganida, qayig'ining eshkakidan yasagan ulkan yog'och qilichini ko'tarib, raqibini aqldan ozdirgan. Kojiro "qaldirg'ochni kesish" imzosi bilan kech qolgan samuraylarga hujum qildi, lekin pichog'i tushirilmasdan oldin Musashi unga halokatli zarba berdi. G'azablangan Kojiro tarafdorlari uni kechikib kelishini adolatsiz deb bilgan Musashi yana qayiqqa o'tirdi va xavfsiz joyga yugurdi. Keyinchalik, Musashi taniqli rassomga aylanadi.

4. Edouard Manet va Edmond Duranti (1870)

1870 yil fevral oyida frantsuz rassomi Eduard Manet o'zining qadimiy do'sti, tanqidchi Edmond Duranti qalamiga mansub ikkita asari haqidagi birgina g'ayritabiiy jumlani o'qib, g'azablanib ketdi. Rassom Parijdagi "Gerbo" kafesiga bostirib kirib, Durantining yuziga urdi va uni qilich dueliga chaqirdi. Politsiya ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, ular 23-fevral kuni Sen-Jermen o'rmonida bir-birlari bilan to'qnash kelishgan, mashhur yozuvchi Emil Zola Manetda "ikkinchi" bo'lib qatnashgan. Go'yoki dushmanlarning qilichlari bir marta urilgan, lekin shu qadar kuch bilanki, ikkala pichoq ham qisilgan. Dyuranti yengil jarohat olganida, Manet o'z sharafini yetarli darajada himoya qilganini e'lon qildi va ko'p o'tmay, ikki parijlik munosabatlariga nuqta qo'ydi va yana Gerboyada ovqatlanishni boshladilar.

5. Aleksandr Pushkin va Jorj d'Antis (1837)

Balki, to'pponchani qo'liga olgan odamdan ko'ra, buyuk rus shoiri Aleksandr Pushkinni karerasining eng yuqori pog'onasida rashk qilgan. 1830 -yillarda Jorj d'Antis Sankt -Peterburgda Pushkinning go'zal rafiqasi Natalyani agressiv ravishda ta'qib qilib, mashhur yozuvchi va taniqli yozuvchidan og'zaki tahdidlar oldi. 1837 yil 10 -yanvarda frantsuz Natalyaning singlisi Yekaterinaga uylandi, ehtimol bu ish haqidagi mish -mishlarni yo'q qilish va Pushkinning g'azabini bosish uchun. Shunga qaramay, 27-yanvar kuni yangi qurilgan qayinlar duelda uchrashishdi. D'Anthes qo'lidan zarba bilan qutulib qoldi, lekin Pushkin o'qni oshqozonga olib bordi va ikki kundan keyin vafot etdi.

6. Izabella de Karatsi va Diambra de Pettinella (1552)

Fabio de Zeresola, ehtimol, 16-asr Neapolda eng ko'p talab qilinadigan bakalavr bo'lgan. Erkaklar o'rtasida munozarali xonimning foydasi uchun ko'plab duellar bo'lib o'tgan paytda, ikkita yosh ayol - Isabella de Karatsi va Diambra de Pettinella - Zeresolaning mehr -muhabbati uchun qilich kurashida kurashishdi. Natijasi noma'lum bo'lsa -da, shov -shuvli voqea o'nlab yillar davomida g'iybatchilarning tillarini qimirlatib turdi. 1636 yilda ispan rassomi Xose de Riberta o'zining mashhur "Duelo de Mujeres" ("Ayollar dueli") kartinasida hikoyani abadiylashtirdi.

7. Ben Jonson va Gabriel Spenser (1598)

Uilyam Shekspirning zamondoshi Ben Jonson qo'pol tarbiyani bosib o'tib, mohir dramaturg, shoir va aktyor bo'ldi. U, shuningdek, askarlikdagi shafqatsiz ishlari, ichkilikboz turmush tarzi va alamli yozuvlari orqali yomon bolaning obro'sini oshirdi. 1598 yil 22 -sentabrda u aktyor Gabriel Spenserni duelda o'ldirdi, bu ikki kishi Elizabethan Angliyaning eng zo'r teatr truppasi uchun janjallashganidan keyin paydo bo'lishi mumkin edi. Qotillik uchun osib o'ldirilgan Jonson o'lim jazosidan qutulish uchun Muqaddas Kitob oyatini o'qib, "ruhoniylarning foydasi" deb nomlanuvchi qonuniy bo'shliqni ishlatdi; oxir -oqibat uning mol -mulki musodara qilingan va bosh barmog'iga marka qo'yilgan. O'sha yili Jonsonning "Har bir inson o'z hazilida" nomli mashhur spektakli qo'yilgan, unda Shekspirning o'zi rol o'ynagan.

8. Endryu Jekson va Charlz Dikkinson (1806)

Endryu Jekson Qo'shma Shtatlarning ettinchi prezidenti bo'lishidan yigirma yildan ko'proq vaqt oldin Kentukki shtatining Logan shahrida eng yaxshi kadrlardan biri hisoblangan advokat Charlz Dikkinson bilan to'qnash keldi. Tennessi shtatining sobiq senatori va vakili, mag'rur va o'zgaruvchan Jekson Diklinson o'zining rafiqasi Reychelni katta turmush o'rtog'i deb ta'riflagandan so'ng, 1791 yilda birinchi eridan ajrashishdagi qonuniy xato haqida gapirib, duelga chaqirdi. 1806 yil 30 -mayda ikki kishi qo'lidagi to'pponcha bilan uchrashishdi, duel odati bo'yicha bir -biridan 24 fut narida. Signaldan keyin Dikkinson birinchi bo'lib o'q otdi, Jeksonning ko'krak suyagini o'tlatdi va uning qovurg'alarini sindirdi. Tennessi militsiyasining sobiq rahbari Jekson o'z pozitsiyasini saqlab qoldi va javob qaytarib, raqibini o'ldirdi. Bu Jeksonning hayoti davomida qatnashgan bir qancha duellardan biri edi, ularning aksariyati go'yoki Rohila sharafini himoya qilishgan.


Yakka kurashning 10 ta qiziq holati

Qadimgi yakkakurash amaliyoti urushning o'zi kabi qadimiy. Bu odatda ikkita qo'shin o'rtasidagi jangda sodir bo'ladigan ikkita yolg'iz jangchi o'rtasidagi duel deb ta'riflanadi. Bu duellar ba'zida ko'p odamlarning halok bo'lishining oldini olish vositasi bo'lib xizmat qilgan. Biroq, yakka kurash ikki kelishgan jangchi o'rtasida ham sodir bo'lishi mumkin. Bu janglar deyarli har doim o'limgacha bo'lgan.

Bu xavfli duellarning sabablari turlicha. Ba'zilar kuch yoki shon -sharafni qo'lga kiritishni, boshqalari esa askarlarining hayotini saqlab qolishni xohlashdi. Ba'zilar shunchaki zarurat tufayli jang qilishdi. Bu erda biz dramatik duellarning bir nechtasini ko'rib chiqamiz.


1. Krampus

Krampus figurasi, Germaniyaning Ximstetten shahrida. Getoo Images orqali FooTToo/iStock

Bolalarda yaxshi xulq -atvorni rag'batlantirish vositasi sifatida, Santa sabzi bo'lib xizmat qiladi, Krampus - tayoq. Krampus-Santa-Santaga qarshi yovuz jin, yoki ehtimol uning yovuz egizagi. Krampus, mintaqaga va Krampus kostyumini tayyorlash uchun qanday materiallar mavjudligiga qarab, shaytonga yoki yovvoyi alp hayvoniga o'xshab ko'rinishi mumkin. Krampus kechasi 5 dekabrda Avstriyada va Evropaning boshqa joylarida Aziz Nikolay kuni arafasida nishonlanadi. O'sha oqshom ommaviy tantanalarda ko'plab krampuslar ko'chalarda yurib, urmoqchi bo'lgan odamlarni qidirishadi. So'nggi yillarda bu an'ana Evropadan tashqariga tarqaldi va hozir Amerikaning ko'plab shaharlarida o'z Krampus kechalari bor.


Kichik blokli afsonaviy Chevy V-8: uning diqqatga sazovor joylariga bir nazar

Chevrolet kichik blokli V-8 avtomobil dvigatellari tarixining yuzini o'zgartirdi, deyish bejiz emas. 1955 yilda debyut qilganida innovatsion va texnologik jihatdan rivojlangan bo'lib, u General Motors ichida ham, tanlovda ham V-8 dvigatellarining kelajakdagi dizayniga katta ta'sir ko'rsatdi. Ishqibozlar uni quchoqlab olishdi va uning atrofida butun bozorda sotuvlar paydo bo'ldi. Ko'p yillar davomida V-8 kichik blokli modellar poyga avtomobillarida, off-road yuk mashinalarida, qayiqlarda va hatto maxsus mototsikllarda ishlatilgan. U, shuningdek, klassik Ford tayoqchalaridan tortib, Jeep radikal konvertatsiyasiga qadar hamma narsaning qopqog'i ostida joylashgan.

"Kichik blokli Chevy, shubhasiz, ko'p sonli va uzoq umr ko'radigan mahalliy dvigateldir", dedi Jeff Smit, katta texnik muharriri. Avtomobil hunarmandchiligi jurnali. U dvigatelning o'zgaruvchanligini uning mashhurligining eng katta sabablaridan biri deb ataydi. "1990 yildagi Vortec yuk mashinasi dvigatelidan 555 rusumli dvigatelning boshini almashtirish mumkin. Men shubhalanamanki, siz hech qachon ishlab chiqarilgan dvigatelni (ehtimol VW) 45 yil farqli dvigatellardan almashtirishingiz mumkin."

"Keyingi bozor SBC kabi dvigatellarni yaxshi ko'radi, chunki ular yaxshi silindr boshi yoki yaxshi ishlab chiqarilgan eksantrik mili kabi yaxshi dizaynga sarmoya kiritganlarida, dizayn o'n yil yoki undan ham ko'proq umr ko'rishini bilar edi", deb qo'shimcha qildi Smit.

Holley Performance Products marketing direktori Bill Tichenor, Smitning fikrlarini takrorlaydi. "Xolli kichik blokli Chevys uchun boshqa barcha dvigatellarga qaraganda ko'proq tezlik qismlarini sotdi, deb aytish bejiz emas. Ford, Chrysler va boshqalarning ajoyib dvigatellari bor, lekin yadrolarning ko'payishi va kichik quvvat bilan ishlab chiqarishning arzonligi. Chevy bloki uni tepaga ko'tarishga imkon berdi. Ular, albatta, ko'cha tayoqchalari, Chevy mushaklari va yuk mashinalari, aylanma trek poygalari va ko'plab tortma mashinalar uchun eng yaxshi vosita bo'lib kelgan.

Qizig'i shundaki, kichik blokli Chevy brend tarixidagi birinchi V-8 emas edi. 1917-19 yillar mobaynida 3 mingga yaqin mashinaga kam ma'lum bo'lgan Chevy Series D V-8 o'rnatilgan. 288 kubik dyuymli (4,7 litrli) V-8 4,75: 1 siqish nisbatiga ega edi va 2700 aylanish tezligida 55 ot kuchiga ega edi. D seriyasi birinchi V-8 yuqori valfli bo'lib, u ochiq valfli vana, nikel bilan qoplangan vana qopqoqlari va suv bilan sovutilgan alyuminiy suv olish manifoltiga ega edi.

Bu dastlabki urinishdan uch yarim yarim yil o'tgach, kichik blokli Chevy tug'ildi. Chevrolet olti silindrli "pechka-murvat" dvigatelining o'rnini bosuvchi vosita sifatida ishlab chiqarilgan 265 kubik dyuymli (4,3 litrli) "Turbo-olovli" dvigatel 1955 yilda Bel Air va Corvette uchun variant sifatida kelgan. Uning ixcham, yengil dizaynida 4,4 dyuymli teshik oralig'i va vazni kamaytirish uchun yupqa devorli quyma mavjud. Ichki moylash tizimi va uni zavod chegarasidan 400 kub dyuym (Gen I dvigatellari) dan ancha uzoqroqqa burish va urish potentsiali uning uzoq muddatli muvaffaqiyatiga hissa qo'shdi.

Biz brend tarixidagi eng ta'sirchan 10 ta kichik blokli Chevy V-8 ning quyidagi ro'yxatini tuzdik. V-8 elektr safaridan rohatlaning.

265 Turbo-olov V-8

265 3,75 dyuymli teshik va 3,00 dyuymli zarba (95,2-76,2 mm) bilan voqea joyiga etib keldi. U 162 ot kuchiga va 257 lb-futga teng, ikki barrelli karbüratorga ega edi. Ixtiyoriy quvvat to'plami 180 ot kuchiga ega bo'lgan to'rt barrelli karbüratorni (va boshqa modifikatsiyalarni) qo'shdi va hatto 260 lb-ft momentga ega. Corvette -ga o'rnatilganida, 265 ikkita egzoz tizimi orqali 195 ot kuchiga ega edi. Yil oxirida Chevrolet Bel Air -ga Super Power Pack opsiyasini qo'shib, uni Corvette quvvat darajasiga olib chiqdi.

1956 yilda Corvette-dagi 265 uchta uchta kuchli ta'mga ega edi: 210 ot kuchiga ega, bitta to'rt barrelli karbüratorli, 225 ot kuchiga ega "ikkita quadli" va 240 ot kuchiga ega ikkita to'rtburchaklar karbüratorli va yuqori ko'taruvchi eksantrik mili bilan. . Uning ixcham kattaligi aksessuarlarni birlashtirish natijasida yuzaga keldi. GM ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, u suv quyish moslamasini, chiqadigan issiqlik ko'targichni, distribyutorni o'rnatishni, yog'ni to'ldirish moslamasini va vodiy qopqog'ini bitta to'qimaga birlashtirgan bitta bo'lakli manifolddan foydalangan.

283 Turbo-olov V-8

Kichik blokli Chevy uchinchi yili ko'proq joy almashish bilan taqdirlandi (162 ot kuchi 265 hali ham asosiy dvigatel edi). 3.875 dyuymli katta teshik "Qudratli sichqonchani" 283 kub dyuymga (4,6 litr) etkazdi. 283 -yillarning boshlarida 265 ta blokli quyma ishlatilgan, lekin yupqa silindrli devorlar haddan tashqari qizib ketishiga olib kelgan. Muammo erta aniqlandi va undan keyingi 283 ta dvigatel bloklari muammoning oldini olish uchun maxsus quyildi.

Super Turbo-Fire deb nomlangan 283, karbüratör yoki mexanik yonilg'i quyish bilan birga keldi. U 8,5: 1 siqish nisbati bilan 185 ot kuchiga ega va ikki barrelli karbüratorli 220 ot kuchiga ega, 9,5: 1 siqilgan va to'rt barrelli karbüratorli, 245 yoki 270 ot kuchiga ega, ikkita to'rtburchakli karbüratorlar va yuqori siqish nisbati bilan jihozlangan.

Rochester Ram-Jet yonilg'i quyish tizimi bilan jihozlangan modellar 250 ot kuchiga ega edi. Lotning eng kuchli dvigateli 283 ot kuchiga ega Super Ram-Jet 10,5: 1 siqish nisbati bo'lib, unga kubik dyuym uchun bitta ot kuchiga erishishga yordam berdi. Yilda Motor tendentsiyasi 1957 yilda Super Ram-Jet bilan jihozlangan Corvette Milford (Michigan) tashqarisidagi General Motors Proving Groundsda soatiga 132 mil tezlikka erishdi.

327

1962 yilga kelib, 283 ning 170 ot kuchiga ega versiyasi Chevy-ning V-8 bazasiga aylandi, lekin ixtiyoriy kichik blokli V-8-lar 4,00 dyuymli teshikka va 3,25 dyuymli uzunroq zarbaga ega bo'lib, umumiy joyi 327 kub dyuymni tashkil etdi. Qo'shimcha 327 to'rt barrelli karbüratör va siqilish nisbatiga qarab 250, 300 yoki 340 ot kuchiga ega edi. Corvette hali ham mexanik yonilg'i quyish moslamasi bilan mavjud edi, u 360 ot kuchini 11,25: 1 siqish nisbati bilan chiqarib yubordi.

327 kubik dyuymli kichik blok 1965 yilda eng yuqori quvvat ko'rsatkichiga erishdi: to'rt barrelli Holley karbüratori bilan 365 ot kuchi yoki Rochester Ram-Jet yonilg'i quyish tizimi bilan 375 (1.15 ot kuchi/kub). 1965 yil o'rtalariga kelib, 327 Corvette-da debyut qilgan 396 kub-dyuymli katta blokdan ikkinchi skripkani o'ynadi. U 300 yoki 350 ot kuchiga ega asosiy dvigatel sifatida harakat qildi. Bu yengil avtomashinalardagi 283 -lardan (va keyinroq 307 -yillar) va Corvette -dagi asosiy dvigateldan (birinchi marta 1967 yilda Camaro -da 1967 yilda paydo bo'lgan) 1969 yilda Amerikaning sport avtomobiliga kiritilgunga qadar bir qadam bo'lib qoldi.

Camaro Chevyning Ford Mustangga bergan javobi edi. GM-ning boshlang'ich darajadagi brendini himoya qilishdan tashqari, Camaro ikkita kichik blokli joy almashish belgilarini taqdim etdi. Birinchi bo'lib SCCA Trans Am musobaqasi uchun mo'ljallangan 302 kubik dyuymli dvigatel paydo bo'ldi. 302 327 dvigatel blokini (4,00 dyuymli teshik) 283 krank mili (3,00 dyuymli zarba) bilan birlashtirish natijasida yaratilgan. Bu dvigatel raqobat uchun qurilgan va ko'p sonli poyga avtomobillari to'plamiga ega, shu jumladan 11: 1 siqish nisbati to'rtta boltli asosiy qopqoqli qattiq valfli eksantrik mili va yuqori valfli ko'targichlar 800 CFM Holley to'rt barrelli karbürator bilan jihozlangan. yuqori quvvatli yog 'pompasi va moyli pan. U 2,25 dyuymli ikkita egzoz tizimi orqali nafas oldi. Dvigatel xrom qoplamali havo tozalagich, rok qopqoqlari, plomba trubkasi va qopqoq bilan tugatilgan.

Z/28 to'plamini tanlagan Camaro egalari 302 ta 290 ot kuchini 5,800 aylanish tezligida va 4,200 aylanish tezligida 290 lb-fut moment bilan taqdirlanishdi. Ko'pchilik ot kuchi reytingi konservativ bo'lgan deb hisoblaydi. Z/28 egalari yukxonadan quvurli sarlavhali quti topdilar. Sarlavhalar o'rnatilganda, to'g'ri karbüratorli asosiy raketa va yonish vaqtini sozlash 376 ot kuchiga teng. Dvigatelli dvigatellar 465 ot kuchiga ega. Uch yillik ishlab chiqarish jarayonida, 19000 dan ortiq Camaro xaridorlari Z/28 ni tanladilar va bunga yaxshi sabab bor.

1967 yilgi Camaro, shuningdek, dunyoga birinchi 350 kubik dyuymli kichik blokli Chevy V-8 ni olib keldi. Oxir -oqibat, bu dvigatel yengil avtomobillar va yuk mashinalarida deyarli hamma tasavvur darajasida ishlatiladi. 302 singari, u 327 blokga asoslangan edi, lekin 350-da 3,48 dyuymli zarbali yangi krank mili bor edi. L-48 deb nomlangan birinchi versiya 295 ot kuchiga va 380 lb-fut momentga ega edi. 350 Nova -da 1968 yilda sotuvga qo'yildi va uchinchi yili Chevrolet yo'lovchi vagon liniyasi bo'ylab ixtiyoriy edi. U 1969 yilda Corvette -dagi asosiy dvigatel sifatida 327 -ni almashtirdi. 1970 -yillar yoqilg'i inqirozi paytida quvvat o'zgarib turdi va 350 -ning ko'plab versiyalari paydo bo'ldi. Eng past nuqtada 350 atigi 145 ot kuchiga teng edi.

Ammo ko'p o'tmay, kichik blokli Chevy o'z kuchini qayta tikladi. L-48 va ZQ3 ikkalasi ham 300 ot kuchiga ega. Boshqa ikkita versiya bu raqamlardan oshib ketdi: 350 ot kuchiga ega L-46, 1969 yildagi Corvette va 1970 yilda LT-1. LT-1 qattiq ko'taruvchilar bilan jangga tayyor edi, 11: 1 siqish, yuqori eksantrik mili va 780 CFM Holley to'rt barrelli karbüratör, yonilg'i va havoni alyuminiy qabul qilish manifoldu orqali yubordi. Egzoz gazlari yonish kamerasidan ramhorn kollektorlari va yuqori oqimli chiqindilar orqali chiqib ketgan. 1970 yilda LT-1 370 ot kuchiga ega (Corvette ZR-1 va Camaro Z28) edi. Faqat ikki yil o'tgach, quvvat darajasi 255 ot kuchiga tushdi.

Chevy 350 kuch -quvvat in'ektsiyasiga ega bo'lgunga qadar taxminan 15 yil o'tdi. L98 sekin jarayonni boshladi. GM L98 350-ni Chevy muxlislari tomonidan TPI sifatida abadiy tanilgan va filli yuguruvchilar tomonidan tan olingan, yangi sozlangan yonilg'i quyish tizimiga ega bo'ldi. Garchi u atigi 230 ot kuchiga baholangan bo'lsa -da, bu o'tgan yilga qaraganda 205 ot kuchiga ega L83 ga qaraganda yuqori edi. 1991 yilga kelib, Camaro va Pontiac Firebird-da 245 ot kuchiga va Corvette-da 250 ot kuchiga va 345 lb-fut momentga yetdi.

Birinchi avlod kichik blokining eng katta versiyasi 400 (6,6 litr) edi. Bu 4,125 dyuymli va 3,75 dyuymli krank mili bilan ishlaydigan yagona dvigatel edi. U 1970 yilda debyut qilgan va 10 yil ishlab chiqarilgan. U katta diametrli va kattaroq 2,65 dyuymli tayoqli jurnalga ega bo'lgan Siamesed silindrlariga ega edi. Dastlabki modellar 265 ot kuchiga ega, ikki barrelli karbüratorli. 1974 yilda to'rt barrelli karbüratör varianti paydo bo'ldi. Uning eng qorong'i vaqtida u atigi 145 ot kuchiga ega edi. Ot kuchiga qaramasdan, 400 torkli yirtqich edi. Dvigatel A-korpusining to'liq o'lchamli va o'rta o'lchamli B korpusli Chevy rusumli avtomashinalarida 1976 yil model yilining oxirigacha mavjud edi. U yana bir necha yil to'liq o'lchamli pikaplarda jang qildi.

Issiq rodderlar 400-ning 3,75 dyuymli krank milini 350 dvigatel blokiga qo'yib, 383 zarbasini yaratdi. 350 dvigatel blokining barcha tsilindrlari orasidagi suv ko'ylagi haddan tashqari qizib ketishga qarshilik ko'rsatdi, bu 400 blokdan farqli o'laroq, bu sovutish ustunligiga ega emas edi. Garchi 383 hech qachon zavod varianti sifatida taklif qilinmagan bo'lsa -da, ushbu konfiguratsiyaning mashhurligi GMni ishlash katalogida 383 sandiqli motorni taklif qilishga undadi.

Corvette har doim Chevrolet-ning eng yangi texnologiyalari uchun sinov to'shagi bo'lib kelgan va 1992-yilgi Generation II LT kichik blokli modeli bundan farq qilmagan. Ko'p qismlar Gen I va Gen II dvigatellari o'rtasida bir -birining o'rnini bosa olganda, LT dvigatel blokidan pastga tushmasdan oldin sovutish suvini silindr boshlari orqali yuboradigan "teskari oqim" sovutish tizimiga ega yangi blok va bosh dizaynidan foydalangan. Kallaklar va yonish kamerasi doimiy ravishda sovuq bo'lib qoldi, bu esa yuqori siqilish va quvvatni oshirish uchun uchqun oldinga siljishini ta'minladi. Suv nasosi, assimilyatsiya manifoldu va namlagich/kasnaq tizimi Gen II kichik blokiga xos edi.

Biroq, GM oqilona ravishda dvigatellar va qo'ng'iroqlar murvatini bir xil ushlab turdi, shuning uchun issiq haydovchilar yangi dvigatelni eski shassisga ko'chirishdi.

1992 yilgi Corvette 300 ot kuchiga va 330 lb-fut momentga ega edi. To'rtinchi avlod F-Body egizaklari (Chevrolet Camaro va Pontiac Firebird) 1993 yildagi dizayni uchun LT1ga ega bo'lishdi va 275 ot kuchiga va 325 lb-fut momentga ega bo'lishdi. Dvigatel, shuningdek, to'liq o'lchamli B va D korpusli GM avtomobillarida ham mavjud edi. Eng esda qolarli narsa-1994-1996 yillardagi Chevrolet Impala SS, 260 ot kuchiga va 330 lb-fut momentga ega. Barcha dvigatel bloklari temir edi, lekin Corvettes va F-korpusli avtomashinalarda alyuminiy boshlari bor edi. To'liq o'lchamli mashinalarning boshlari temir edi. 1996 yil uchun olti pog'onali mexanik uzatmalar qutisi bilan jihozlangan Corvettes (barcha Grand Sports-ni o'z ichiga olgan) 340 ot kuchiga ega 330 ot kuchiga ega LT4 dvigateli bilan jihozlangan (6359 dona). 1997 yilda Chevrolet Camaro SLP/LT4 SS va Pontiac Firebird SLP/LT4 Firehawk LT4 bilan sotuvga qo'yildi. LT4 bilan faqat 135 ta F tanasi qurilgan.

LT1 birinchi ikki yil ichida yonilg'i quyish tezligi bilan yonilg'i quyish tezligini boshqarish tizimidan foydalangan. 1994 yilda u ommaviy havo oqimi sensori va ketma -ket port in'ektsiyasini oldi. Dvigatelni boshqarish moduli (ECM) ham kuchliroq boshqaruv moduliga (PCM) almashtirildi. 1994 yilda Corvette 1996 yilda hukumat majburiy talabi boshlanishidan oldin yangi OBD II tizimini sinovdan o'tkazdi.

Yangi dvigatelda kamchiliklar yo'q edi. Dastlabki modellar Opti-Spark distribyutorining dizayndagi kichik kamchiliklari bilan qiynalgan. Distribyutorga uning uchqun qobiliyatiga ta'sir qilgan namlikni olib tashlash uchun vakuum teshiklari qo'shilgan. Afsuski, suv oqayotgan suv va sovutish suvini shamollatish teshiklariga quyib, distribyutorni vayron qildi. Garchi Chevy yoki LS dvigatellari oilasi kabi kichik kichik blokli LT1/LT4 hali ham ko'plab ixlosmandlarga yoqadi.

"Balki, SBC avlodidagi yagona hiqichoq LT1/LT4 ning teskari sovutilishi va Opti-Spark tutashuvining o'zgaruvchanligi bo'lib, bu dvigatelni unchalik mashhur qilmagan. Va shunga qaramay, u juda oz nasl-nasabiga qaramay, qiziqish uyg'otadi",-deydi Smit.

LS1/LS6

GM Generation III dvigateli birinchi marta 1997 yilda butunlay yangi C5 Corvette-da paydo bo'lgan. LS seriyali dvigatellari kichik blokli Chevy-ning dastlabki ikki avlodi bilan deyarli o'xshash emas edi, lekin baribir 4,4 dyuymli teshik oralig'idan foydalanilgan. Gen III dvigatellar oilasining yuk mashinalarining ko'pgina versiyalarida temir blok va alyuminiy boshlari bor edi, lekin ishlash dvigatellari olti boltli asosiy qopqoqli alyuminiy bloklarga ega edi.

Corvette-da LS1 345 ot kuchiga va 350 lb-fut momentga ega edi. U F-korpusli egizaklarga bir yildan so'ng Z28 va Formula-da 305 ot kuchiga va 325 ot kuchiga ega SS va Trans Am ram-havo paketlariga ega bo'ldi.

Gen III dvigatellari distribyutor o'rniga tsilindrli vilkaning yonishini va havo oqimi va quvvatini oshirish uchun qayta ishlangan boshlarini o'rnatdilar. LS1 Gen I va Gen II 350/5,7 litrli V-8larga qaraganda kichikroq va uzunroq zarbaga ega edi. Yangi dvigatelda 3,89 dyuymli (99,0 mm) teshik va 3,62 dyuymli (92 mm) zarba ishlatilgan, agar umumiy hajmi 345,7 kub dyuym yoki 5,7 litr bo'lsa.

2001 yilda Corvette Z06 LS6 deb nomlangan 5,7 litrli yuqori quvvatli ishlab chiqarildi. Quvvat 385 ot kuchiga va 385 lb-fut momentga aylandi. Keyingi yili u yana 405 ot kuchiga va hatto 400 lb-moment momentga ega bo'ldi. LS6 Corvette Z06 da 2005 yilda C5 C6 bilan almashtirilgunga qadar ishlatilgan. Cadillac LS6 ni 2004-2005 yillarda birinchi avlod CTS V da ishlatgan.

LS6 LS1 dvigateliga asoslangan edi, lekin "katta" eksantrik mili va yuqori siqilish koeffitsienti va nafas olish uchun qayta ishlangan moylash tizimini yaxshiroq nafas olish uchun kuchliroq blokli, qayta ishlangan assimilyatsiya manifoldu va kattaroq MAF sensori bor edi.

Generation IV kichik blokli Chevy V-8 2005 yilda ko'chalarda paydo bo'lgan va III avlodga asoslangan, lekin talab bo'yicha joy almashish va o'zgaruvchan valfli vaqt texnologiyalaridan foydalanish uchun qayta ishlab chiqilgan. LS7-zavodda o'rnatilgan eng katta Chevy V-8 kichik blokidir, uning hajmi 427,8 kub dyuym yoki atigi 7,0 litrdan oshadi. U 1970-yillardagi 4125 dyuymli (104,8 mm) 400 kubikli dyuymli dvigatel bilan bir xil teshikka ega edi, lekin 400dan farqli o'laroq, LS7 to'liq 4,00 dyuymli (102 mm) krank miliga ega edi. 7,0 litrli kichik blokli yirtqich hayvon 7100 aylanish tezligiga ega va hayratlanarli 505 ot kuchiga va 470 lb-fut momentga ega-bu GM tarixidagi har qanday tabiiy blokli eng kuchli ot kuchidir.

Hali ham asl 4,4 dyuymli teshik oralig'iga asoslanib, LS7 mustahkamligi uchun bosilgan tsilindrli laynerlar va soxta po'latdan yasalgan qopqoqlar, soxta titan biriktiruvchi tayoqlar va giperevtektik pistonlardan foydalanadi. Qabul qilish klapanlari titandan, egzoz klapanlari esa natriy bilan to'ldirilgan. Qo'lda qurilgan LS7 Michigan shtatining Wixom shahridagi General Motors Performance Builder markazida yig'ilgan bo'lib, u yo'lda va tajribali haydash paytida yuqori tajribali g bilan kurashish uchun quritilgan moy quyish tizimiga ega. Shimoliy Amerikada dvigatel 2006 yilda zavod bilan jihozlangan bo'lib, Corvette Z06 yoki sandiq dvigateli sifatida taqdim etiladi.

LS9/LSA

Kichik blokli V-8 tarixidagi muhim voqea IV avlod LS9 dvigateli bo'lishi kerak edi: 6,2 litrli (376 kubikli) dvigatelli Eaton to'rt lobli Roots tipidagi 2300 TVS supercharger. LS7 asosiy dvigatel uchun hisoblanar edi, lekin mustahkamligi uchun LS3 dvigatelining kichikroq teshiklari va qalinroq silindrli devorlari kuchaytirgich ostida mustahkam bo'lishi kerak edi. Teshik - 4,06 dyuym (103 mm) va urish - 3,62 dyuym (92 mm). Quvvat 658 aylanish tezligida 638 ot kuchiga va 3800 aylanish tezligiga 604 lb-fut momentga ega-bu zavodda o'rnatilgan eng kuchli Chevy kichik blokidir. Dvigatel GM -ning eng ekstremal sport avtomobilida debyut qilgani ajablanarli emas: 2009 C6 Chevrolet Corvette ZR1. Bizning sinovimizda ZR1 soatiga 0-60 mil tezlikni 3,3 soniyada bosib o'tdi va chorak milni 11,2 soniyada 130,3 mil tezlikda tozaladi.

LSA-bu LS9 dvigatelining eskirgan versiyasi va 2009 yil Cadillac CTS V da chiqarildi. Bu versiya hali ham 556 ot kuchiga va 551 lb-ft momentga qodir. Bu Cadillac -da shu paytgacha taqdim etilgan eng kuchli dvigatel bo'lib, u CTS korpusining uchta turida ham mavjud edi: sezgir kupe, sedan sedan, vagon. Bu dvigatel qariyb 4353 funtli vagonni 60 km / soat tezlikka 4,1 soniyada, chorak milni esa 12,5 soniyada 114,8 mil tezlikda bosib o'tishga qodir.

Gen V LT5

C7 Corvette katta, juda zaryadlangan portlash bilan chiqib ketdi: 6,2 litrli LT5 bilan ishlaydigan ZR1. Bu Eaton super zaryadlovchisining 755 ot kuchiga ega bo'lishidan hayratlanarli narsa. U taniqli LT4 dvigateliga asoslangan, biroq u erda bir nechta yangi bitlar bor: 95 mm gaz kelebeği korpusi, port va to'g'ridan-to'g'ri quyish, kuchliroq krank mili, yangi moylash tizimi va 52 foiz katta zaryadlovchi. Maksimal aylanish tezligiga yaqin 13,96 psi tezlikda cho'qqiga ko'tarilish.

Ammo LT4dan farqli o'laroq, to'rtta yangi issiqlik almashinuvi va umumiy sovutish havosi oqimining 41 foizga oshishi tufayli issiqlik bilan bog'liq muammolarga moyillik kam. Bu kuchlarning barchasi ZR1 raketasini 3,2 soniyali 0-60 marta va 11,2 soniyada chorak milga raketa bilan o'tkazishda yaxshi. Qanday final.

Yakuniy fikrlar

Taxminan 25 yil yuk mashinalarida va yo'lovchi avtoulovlarida o'z xizmatlarini o'tkazgan LS-seriyali oila keng tarqalgan va arzon narxga ega bo'ldi. Keyingi bozor uni xuddi Chevy V-8 rusumli kichik blokka o'xshatdi.

"Chevy-ning asl kichik bloklarini yig'ish-yig'ish joylarida topish qiyinlashganda, biz GMning LS dvigateli asl kichik blok qolgan joyni egallaganini ko'rishda davom etamiz", dedi Tichenor. "LS dvigatellari hozirda mavjud va ularni kuch ishlatish aslidan ko'ra osonroq. Ular juda ishonchli va silliqdir. Endi Xolli an'anaviy kichik blokli Chevyda bo'lgani kabi LS uchun tezlik qismlarini ham tayyorlamoqda. yana boshidan o'ting! "

Ushbu maqola dastlab 2011 yilda nashr etilgan va kontekst va ravshanlik uchun engil tahrirlangan va yangilangan.


Inson bilimlari: sharaf ishi – Duel

Bizning hozirgi zamonda, do'stni tashqariga chiqishni so'rash orqali muammoni hal qilish, odatda, etuk, past darajadagi ish deb hisoblanadi.

Ammo ko'p asrlar davomida boshqa odamni duelga chaqirish nafaqat sharaf cho'qqisi, balki jamiyat tomonidan haqiqiy janoblar deb topilgan yuqori sinflar uchun ham amal qilib kelgan.

"Erkak o'z xarakteriga tajovuz qilgan odamni, uyiga bostirib kirmoqchi bo'lgan odamni otishi mumkin." -Samuel Jonson

Zamonaviy erkaklar uchun duel vahshiy tuyulishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, bu erkaklarning sharafini saqlash mutlaqo ustuvor bo'lgan jamiyatda mantiqiy bo'lgan marosim edi. Erkakning shon -sharafi uning shaxsiyatining eng muhim jihati edi va shuning uchun uning obro'si har qanday yo'l bilan ham buzilmagan bo'lishi kerak edi. Ba'zida yuzlab odamlar qatnashgan duellar erkaklar uchun jasorat va erkalikni ochiqchasiga isbotlashning bir usuli edi. Bunday jamiyatda, sudlar janobga hech qanday haqiqiy adolatni taklif qila olmasdi, masalani qon to'kish bilan hal qilish kerak edi.

Erkakligini isbotlashning bu zo'ravon usuli qanday rivojlandi? ’lar sharaf ishi tarixini ko'rib chiqaylik kod duello uni boshqargan.

Yagona jangning kelib chiqishi

Qadimgi yakkakurash urf -odatiga ko'ra, har bir tomon o'z qo'shinlari vakili sifatida o'z "chempioni" ni yuborar va bu ikki kishi o'limigacha kurashardi. Bu musobaqa ba'zida masalani hal qilar yoki faqat keyingi jangga tayyorgarlik sifatida xizmat qilar edi, bu xudolar tarafdor bo'lgan belgi edi. Taniqli yakkaxon janglari tarix va afsonalarga aylandi, masalan, Ela vodiysida Dovud va Go'liyot o'rtasidagi jang va Axillesning Gomerda Ajax va Gektor bilan to'qnashuvi. Iliada. Urush rivojlanib borgan sari, yakka tartibdagi janglar tobora kam tarqalib bormoqda, biroq musobaqa axloqi janoblarning dueliga ilhom bag'ishlaydi.

Evropada duel

"Qo'rqoq, o'zini himoya qila olmaydigan yoki qasos olmaydigan odam, erkak xarakterining eng muhim qismlaridan birini xohlaydi." Adam Smit, Millatlar boyligi

Duel qadimgi Evropada "jang yo'li bilan sinov" sifatida boshlangan, bu "adolatsizlik" shakli bo'lib, unda ikki da'vogar kim mag'lub bo'lsa, aybdor deb hisoblangan. O'rta asrlarda bu musobaqalar sud sohasini tark etib, maqtanchoqlik va shon -sharaf uchun musobaqalarda maydonga tushadigan ritsarlar bilan tomoshabin sportiga aylandi.

Ammo ikkita monarx harakatga kelganida, duel haqiqatan ham asosiy oqimga aylandi. 1526 yilda Frantsiya va Ispaniya o'rtasidagi shartnoma buzilganda, Frants I Karl Vni duelga chaqirdi. Duelning tartib -qoidalari haqida ko'p va uzoq bahslashgandan so'ng, ularning oyoq barmog'igacha borishga bo'lgan qat'iyati tarqab ketdi. Ammo shohlar Evropada g'azab bilan duel o'tkazishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Bu Frantsiyada ayniqsa mashhur bo'lgan, Genrix IV davrida 10 yil davomida 10 ming frantsuz vafot etgan. The king issued an edict against the practice, and asked the nobles to submit their grievances to a tribunal of honor for redress instead. But dueling still continued, with 4,000 nobles losing their lives to the practice during the reign of Louis XIV.

Dueling in America

“Certainly dueling is bad, and has been put down, but not quite so bad as its substitute — revolvers, bowie knives, blackguarding, and street assassinations under the pretext of self-defense.” -Colonel Benton

Dueling came to American shores right along with her first settlers. The first American duel took place in 1621 at Plymouth Rock.

Dueling enjoyed far more importance and prevalence in the South than the North. Antebellum society placed the highest premium on class and honor, and the duel was a way for gentlemen to prove both.

The majority of Southern duels were fought by lawyers and politicians. The law profession was (as it is now) completely saturated, and the competition for positions and cases was acute. In this dog-eat-dog society, jostling for position and maintaining an honorable reputation meant everything. Every perceived slight or insult had to be answered swiftly and strongly to save face and one’s position on the ladder to respect and success.

And while we tend to paint modern politics as uncivil and romanticize the past, politicians of the day slung bullets in addition to mud. Legislators, judges, and governors settled their differences with the duel, and candidates for office debated their issues on the “field of honor.” Political showmanship of the day involved timing a duel for right before an election and splashing the results in the papers.

Dueling and Violence

“The views of the Earl are those of a Christian, but unless some mode is adopted to frown down by society the slanderer, who is worse than a murderer, all attempts to put down dueling will be in vain.” -Andrew Jackson

Despite putting on a courageous front, no gentleman relished having to fight a duel and risk both killing and being killed (well, perhaps with the exception of Andrew “I fought at least 14 duels” Jackson). Thus duels were often not intended to be fights to the death, but to first blood. A duel fought with swords might end after one man simply scratched the arm of the other. In pistol duels, it was often the case that a single volley was fired, and assuming both men had survived unscathed, satisfaction was deemed to be achieved through their mutual willingness to risk death. Men sometimes aimed for their opponent’s leg or even deliberately missed, desiring only to satisfy the demands of honor. Only about 20% of duels ended in a fatality.

Duels founded on greater insults to a man’s honor, however, were often designated to go well beyond first blood. Some were carried out under the understanding that satisfaction was not gained until one man was incapacitated, while the gravest insults required a mortal blow.

To us, duels seem like a pointlessly barbaric way to settle disputes going into a duel the odds were nearly 100% that one man or both would be wounded or killed. And, adding insult to injury, it could very well be the innocent party who was slain.

Even at the time, there were many critics that argued that dueling was unnecessarily violent and contrary to morality, religion, common sense, and indeed, antithetical to the very concept of honor itself. But there were also those who argued that dueling actually prevented violence.

The idea was that single combat warriors averted endless bloody feuds between groups and families ala the Hatfields and McCoys. The duels nipped these potential feuds in the bud as insults were given immediate redress, with satisfaction given to both parties.

The practice was also thought to increase civility throughout society. To avoid being challenged to the duel, gentlemen were careful not to insult or slight others. The courtly, formal manners this time period is famous for-the stately dress, the bowing, toasting, and flowery language-were designed to convey honorable intentions and avoid giving offense. Jealousies and resentments had to be repressed and covered with politeness.

In the 1836 manual, The Art of Duelling, the author summarizes the pro-dueling perspective of the time with comments that seem remarkable to the modern ear:

“The practice is severely censured by all religious and thinking people yet it has very justly been remarked, that ‘the great gentleness and complacency of modern manners, and those respectful attentions of one man to another, that at present render the social discourses of life far more agreeable and decent, than among the most civilized nations of antiquity must be ascribed, in some degree to this absurd custom.’ It is certainly both awful and distressing to see a young person cut off suddenly in a duel, particularly if he be the father of a family but the loss of a few lives is a mere trifle, when compared with the benefits resulting to Society at large.

I should consider it very unwise in the members of government, to adopt any measures that would enforce the prohibition of duelling…the man who falls in a duel, and the individual who is killed by the overturn of a stage-coach, are both unfortunate victims to a practice from which we derive great advantage. It would be absurd to prohibit stage-travelling-because, occasionally, a few lives are lost by an overturn.”

Dueling Necessities

The components of the gentleman’s duel were often quite varied. The challenged party was usually given the choice of weapons, and the possibilities were endless. Duels have been fought with everything from sabers to billiard balls. A duel was once even fought over the skies of Paris, with the participants utilizing blunderbusses in an attempt to rupture each other’s hot air balloons. One succeeded, sending the opposing man and his comrade plummeting to their death, while the winner floated triumphantly away.

Swords were the weapon of choice until the 18 th century, when the transition to pistols made dueling more democratic (fencing took skill-a man might challenge another to a duel, spend a year learning swordsmanship, and then return to fight the duel. But nearly anyone could pull a trigger). As the practice of using guns grew in prominence, arms makers began to create sets of pistols specifically built for dueling. The idea behind this practice was simple. If two men were going to engage in a duel, their “equipment” needed to be as similar as possible so as not to give one man an unfair advantage over the other. Thus, by the latter 18th century, sets of dueling pistols were being produced by fine arms makers throughout Europe. Dueling pistols were often smooth bored pistols, and usually fired quite large rounds. Calibers of .45, .50, or even .65 (caliber = inches of diameter) were in common usage. The pistols were made to exact specifications and were tested to ensure that they were as equal in performance and appearance as possible. A man’s dueling pistols were a prized possession, an heirloom passed down from father to son.

Code Duello: The Dueling Code

“A duel was indeed considered a necessary part of a young man’s education…When men had a glowing ambition to excel in all manner of feats and exercises they naturally conceived that manslaughter, in an honest way (that is, not knowing which would be slaughtered), was the most chivalrous and gentlemanly of all their accomplishments. No young fellow could finish his education till he had exchanged shots with some of his acquaintances. The first two qualifications always asked as to a young man’s respectability and qualifications, particularly when he proposed for a lady wife, were ‘What family is he of? And ‘Did he ever blaze?” -19 th century Irish duelist

Dueling code evolved over the centuries as weapons and notions of honor changed. Proper dueling protocol in the 17th and 18th centuries was recorded in such works as The Dueling Handbook by Joseph Hamilton and The Code of Honor by John Lyde Wilson. While the dueling code varied by time period and country, many aspects of the code were similar.

Despite our romanticized notion of duels as being fought only over the most grievous of disputes, duels could often arise from matters most trivial-telling another man he smelled like a goat or spilling ink on a chap’s new vest. But they were not spontaneous affairs in which an insult was given and the parties marched immediately outside to do battle (in fact, striking another gentleman made you a social pariah). A duel had to be conducted calmly and coolly to be dignified, and the preliminaries could take weeks or months a letter requesting an apology would be sent, more letters would be exchanged, and if peaceful resolution could not be reached, plans for the duel would commence.

The first rule of dueling was that a challenge to duel between two gentleman could not generally be refused without the loss of face and honor. If a gentleman invited a man to duel and he refused, he might place a notice in the paper denouncing the man as a poltroon for refusing to give satisfaction in the dispute.

But one could honorably refuse a duel if challenged by a man he did not consider a true gentleman. This rejection was the ultimate insult to the challenger.

The most common characteristic of a duel between gentlemen was the presence of a “second” for both parties. The seconds were gentlemen chosen by the principal participants whose job it was to ensure that the duel was carried out under honorable conditions, on a proper field of honor and with equally deadly weapons. More importantly, it was the seconds (usually good friends of the participating parties) who sought a peaceful resolution to the matter at hand in hopes of preventing bloodshed.

Once the challenge to duel was given, several issues had to be settled before the matter could be resolved. The challenger would first allow his foe the choice of weapons and conditions of the combat, and a time would be set for the event. Seconds were responsible for locating a proper dueling ground, usually a remote area away from witnesses and law enforcement, since dueling remained technically illegal in most states, though rarely prosecuted. Duels were sometimes even fought on sandbars in rivers where the legal jurisdiction of the time was hazy at best.

Honor was not only given for showing up for the duel-proper coolness and courage under fire was also required to uphold one’s reputation. A gentleman was not to show his fear. If he stepped off the mark, his opponent’s second had the right to shoot him on the spot.

The End of the Dueling Age

Many modern men mistakenly believe that dueling was a rare occurrence in history a last resort only appealed to in the case of serious matters or by two overly hot-headed men. In fact, from America to Italy, tens of thousands of duels took place and the practice was quite common among the upper classes.

But dueling’s popularity eventually waned at the end of the 19 th century, lingering longer in Europe than America. Stricter anti-dueling laws were passed, and sometimes even enforced.

The bloodshed of the Civil War on this continent, and the Great War on the other, also dampened enthusiasm for the duel. Despite our modern romanticism for dueling, it was a practice that hewed down young men in the prime of their life. Having lost millions of their promising youth in battle, felling those who remained became distasteful.

Additionally, Southern society was vastly transformed in the aftermath of the Civil War. The aristocracy was shattered busy with Reconstruction and rebuilding, there was less time and inclination to duel. A man’s prestige and position in society became less about his family, reputation, and most of all, honor, than it did about cash. Disputes were taken not to the field of honor but to the courts, with vindication given by “pale dry money instead of wet red blood.”

Sources and Further Reading

Gentlemen’s Blood by Barbara Holland. An absolutely delightful book. Covers a serious topic in a strangely breezy and humorous way that really works and is full of truly interesting stories and insights. (The last quote is from this book)

The Art of Duelling by The Traveller. A readable contemporary manual on the ins and outs of dueling. Reading up the author’s tips and advice for those going into a duel gives an interesting window to the time.

Code Duello: The Rules of Dueling. Take a look at the very specific rules which governed the duel.


Man Knowledge: Dueling Part II – Prominent Duels in American History

The United States currently finds itself in a rancorous political moment, with partisan name-calling on the one hand and much hand-wringing about the classless nature of the debate on the other. Those in the latter camp seem to think that politics has devolved from an unspecified golden age in which politicians sipped tea and talked about their issues with solemn decorum.

In truth, politics has always been a rowdy arena, and if one looks to our founding period for a bastion of politeness, they will not find it there.

Men in public life called each other, not just the traditional ‘liar,’ ‘poltroon,’ ‘coward,’ and ‘puppy,’ but also ‘fornicator,’ ‘madman,’ and ‘bastard’ they accused each other of incest, treason, and consorting with the devil. —Gentlemen’s Blood: A History of Dueling

Political tensions ran especially high in the 19 th century because men found it difficult to separate political disagreement from personal insults:

In our early years a man’s political opinions were inseparable from the self, from personal character and reputation, and as central to his honor as a seventeenth-century Frenchman’s courage was to his. He called his opinions “principles,” and he was willing, almost eager, to die or to kill for them. Joanne B. Freeman, in Affairs of Honor, writes that dueling politcos ‘were men of public duty and private ambition who identified so closely with their public roles that they often could not distinguish between their identity as gentlemen and their status as political leaders. Longtime political opponents almost expected duels, for there was no way that constant opposition to a man’s political career could leave his personal identity unaffected.’ —Gentlemen’s Blood

Refusing a challenge to duel would effectively end a man’s political career. Dueling proved to a man’s constituents that he had the requisite honor, courage, and leadership to represent them in Washington.

And thus you had governors and legislators, Congressman and judges squaring off not through bumper stickers and robo-calls, but on the field of honor. Here are a few of the most famous of these single combats in American history.

3 Famous Duels That Actually Occurred

The Burr-Hamilton Duel

The most famous duel in American history is unquestionably that which occurred between Vice President Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, who greatly influenced the founding of America’s economy and was possibly on track to become President himself. Burr and Hamilton had long been political enemies by the time they met on the field of honor. Hamilton had been instrumental in preventing Burr from winning the Presidency when Burr tied Thomas Jefferson’s vote count, leading to Burr’s eventual appointment as VP. The two men continued to square off politically until rumors that Hamilton had been saying “despicable” things about Burr led the slandered veep to issue a formal challenge to duel.

The two men met on the field of honor in Weehawken, New Jersey on the morning of July 11, 1804. Interestingly enough, Hamilton’s son had fallen to a mortal blow in a duel at the very same place just two years before. The same guns used in his duel were also used in his father’s.

The accounts of precisely what happened are conflicting, but it is generally thought that Hamilton fired first, aiming high and missing Burr completely. Burr then aimed squarely at Hamilton’s torso and returned fire. Hamilton fell, the bullet lodged in his spine, and he died the following morning.

Whether Hamilton’s miss was intentional or not is debatable. Hamilton had recorded in a letter the previous night that he intended to purposefully miss Burr in an effort to end the confrontation without bloodshed. Still, other believe that Hamilton so detested Burr that he shared this sentiment simply to paint Burr as the villainous shedder of innocent blood, thus forever besmirching his character.

If that truly was his wish, it was certainly granted. Though murder charges were levied against Burr, he was never brought to trial. But the ensuing political fallout undermined Burr’s political clout and brought a swift end to his career.

The Jackson-Dickinson Duel

Prior to his presidential career, Andrew Jackson was known for his inclination to invoke violence in defense of his honor he was the veteran of at least 13 duels. These showdowns left his body so filled with lead that people said he “rattled like a bag of marbles.”

The most famous of Jackson’s affairs of honor was his confrontation with prominent duelist Charles Dickinson. Dickinson, rumored to be the best shot in the country, had insulted the future President by alleging that he cheated in a horse racing bet between Jackson and Dickinson’s father-in-law. Insults were exchanged, culminating with Dickinson insulting Jackson’s wife. Slandering Jackson’s wife was “like sinning against the Holy Ghost: unpardonable.” Biographer James Parton claimed that Jackson “kept pistols in perfect condition for thirty-seven years” to use whenever someone “dared breathe her name except in honor.” Jackson had no choice but to issue a challenge to duel.

Jackson and Dickinson met at Harrison’s Mill on the Red River in Kentucky on May 30, 1806. The men were to stand at eight paces and then turn and fire. Dickinson was a well-known sharpshooter and Jackson felt his only chance to kill him would be to allow himself enough time to take an accurate shot. Thus he calmly allowed Dickinson to fire into his chest. The bullet lodged in his ribs, but Jackson hardly quivered, calmly leveling his pistol at Dickinson. But when the trigger was pulled the hammer of his gun only fell to the half-cocked position and did not fire. According to dueling etiquette, this should have been the end of the duel. Jackson, however, was not finished with Dickinson. Re-cocking his pistol, he aimed and fired, striking Dickinson dead.

It was only then that Jackson took heed of the fact that blood was dripping into his boot. Dickinson’s musket ball was too close to his heart to be removed and forever remained lodged in Jackson’s chest. The wound would lend him a perpetual hacking cough, cause him persistent pain, and compound the many health problems that would beleaguer him throughout life. But Jackson never regretted the decision. “If he had shot me through the brain, sir, I should still have killed him,” he said.

The Clay-Randolph Duel

John Randolph was quite a character. He fought his first duel at 18, seriously wounding a fellow student over his mispronunciation of a word. His volatility continued as a Congressman “he called Daniel Webster “a vile slanderer,” President Adams a “traitor,” and Edward Livingston “the most contemptible and degraded of beings, whom no man ought to touch, unless with a pair of tongs.” When he wasn’t hurling insults at his associates, he was challenging them to duels.

Following a slanderous speech on the Senate floor in which he accused sitting Secretary of State Henry Clay of “crucifying the Constitution and cheating at cards,” Senator John Randolph found himself the recipient of a formal challenge to duel. While comfortable with assailing the man’s character, Randolph, an experienced marksman, had no intention of robbing Clay’s family of their patriarch (and suffering the political fallout of slaying the Secretary of State). Several days before the duel took place, Randolph confided in Senator Thomas Hart Benton that he was unwilling to kill Clay, but did not want to sacrifice his personal honor either, so he would instead purposefully aim high when the time came to fire.

When the day of the duel arrived on April 8, 1826, both men met on the field of honor. As preparations for the start of the duel were still being made, Randolph accidentally fired his gun, which was pointed at the ground. Clay accepted that the misfire was an accident and allowed the duel to proceed. Marching the agreed upon number of steps in opposite directions, both men turned and fired. Randolph, apparently motivated by the humiliation of his misfire (and his missed chance to come off as the magnanimous one), made no effort to aim high, although he still just missed his intended target, the bullet perforating Clay’s coat. Clay also missed, and having gained no satisfaction, demanded another go around. This time Clay missed again, and Randolph followed through on his promise to Benton by firing into the air. Moved by the sentiment, Randolph met Clay at midfield for a handshake to end the duel, noting to his opponent that he owed him a new coat. Clay simply replied “I am glad the debt is no greater.”

A Couple of Close Calls

Not every challenge to duel ended with gunfire. Here are a couple of noteworthy near misses.

The Lincoln-Shields Duel

As an elected official in the Illinois State Legislature, future President Abraham Lincoln was sharply critical of James Shields’ performance as Illinois State Auditor. Lincoln even resorted to adopting various pseudonyms and publishing many satirical letters criticizing Shields (a common tactic at the time). In an unfortunate twist of fate, Lincoln’s future wife Mary Todd and a friend also wrote several letters. But the women got carried away, changing the tone from satirical criticism to insult. Shields, upon discovering that Lincoln was behind the letters in one form or another, issued an immediate challenge. Lincoln, unwilling to accept the public disgrace that came with refusing a duel, and eager to impress his future wife Mary, accepted.

As the challenged party, Lincoln set the parameters for the duel. It was to be fought with large cavalry broadswords in a deep pit divided by a board which no man could step over. In creating such parameters, Lincoln aimed to disarm his opponent using his superior reach advantage and avoid bloodshed on either side. Furthermore, Lincoln hoped that such ridiculous conditions would force Shields’ withdrawal. But initially, they did not.

On September 22, 1842, the two men met on the field of honor. As the seconds desperately tried to sway Shields’ determination, he looked over and saw Lincoln chopping at the branches of a nearby tree that would be far out of his own reach. Realizing that he was outmatched, Shields agreed to attempt to talk it out with Lincoln. Lincoln’s second convinced Shields that Lincoln had not written the letters, and Lincoln offered an apology for the misunderstanding, which Shields fortunately accepted. Shields went on to become a prominent United States Senator, and Abraham Lincoln went on to become, well, Abraham Lincoln.

The Twain-Laird Duel

Finally, we end in a duel that neither came to fruition nor is invested with any great historical significance. But it is quite funny.

While living in Virginia City, Nevada, sharp-witted satirist Mark Twain was up to his usual pot stirring, writing such outrageous editorials for The Territorial Enterprise that locals dubbed him “The Incorrigible.” When Twain wrote a piece erroneously accusing a rival paper, The Virginia City Union, of reneging on a promised pledge to charity, the publisher of the paper, James Laird, made such a stink over the false accusation that Twain challenged him to a duel. Twain’s second, Steve Gillis, took Twain to practice his shooting, only to find that the man’s pen was truly mightier than his pistol Twain couldn’t hit the side of a barn. Filled with fear, Twain collapsed. As Laird and his men were making their way over, Gillis grabbed a bird, shot his head off, and stood admiring the corpse. Laird’s second asked, “Who did that?” and Gillis responded that Twain had shot the bird’s head off from a good distance and was capable of doing it with every shot. Then he gravely intoned, “You don’t want to fight that man. It’s just like suicide. You better settle this thing, hozir.” The creative ploy worked, and the men reconciled. Tom Sawyer would have been proud.

If you missed it, read part 1 of this series: An Affair of Honor – The Duel


The literary history of duels, those absurdly formal fights to the death


John Leigh’s book is a scholarly but lively look at an old tradition. (Courtesy of Harvard University/Courtesy of Harvard University)

A duel is inherently stupid, being largely a form of ritualized murder or suicide. Perhaps chance will favor one opponent over another, a foot might slip, a gun misfire. But, in general, the better swordsman or more practiced shot will triumph every time. Honor may be served, but justice only coincidentally, and one man will almost certainly be dead, usually for no good reason at all.

As John Leigh reminds us in “Touché,” this has been one of the arguments against dueling at least since Louis XIV outlawed the practice. And yet the romance of swords at sunset or pistols at dawn remains as powerful as ever. There lingers, even in our mercantile age, an admiration for the aristocratic ethos, the punctilio, of the duel. After all, unlike feuds or plain murder for revenge, a traditional affair of honor always involves social equals — there is no glory in killing a peasant and considerable shame in being killed by one.

As we know from countless historical novels, movies and costume dramas, the steps toward a duel are highly codified, starting with a real or imagined insult to a lady or one’s personal honor. After the insufferable affront comes the challenge, often accompanied by the “soufflet” or slap, the icy presentation of one’s card, and a demand for satisfaction, soon followed by the choice of weapons and the naming of seconds. Come the evening before the actual “rencontre,” at least one of the duelists, either racked with fearful misgivings or maintaining a languid sang-froid, will have settled his affairs so that he can spend what may be his last hours composing a letter to a beloved wife or mistress.

When the two adversaries finally meet on the field of honor, they will be elegantly and spotlessly dressed, their weapons of the highest quality and their comportment toward each other one of restrained and delicate courtesy. A witty sally or quip is never amiss as a demonstration of one’s style and self-command. After the fatal thrust or shot, the “winner” will cast aside his weapon and hurriedly bend to hear the dying man’s final words, sometimes of forgiveness. Duelists, as Leigh observes, “tend to face each other as opponents, not enemies.”

As the subtitle of “Touché” indicates, Leigh’s main interest lies in the presentation of the duel in plays, novels and short stories, beginning with Corneille’s near-tragedy “Le Cid” and ending with “The Radetzky March,” Joseph Roth’s novel about the decline of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In between he discusses such key 18th-century texts as Richardson’s “Clarissa,” Laclos’s “Les Liaisons dangereuses” and Smollett’s “Roderick Random,” as well as such 19th-century works as Pushkin’s narrative poem “Eugene Onegin” and Dumas’s classic swashbuckler “The Three Musketeers.” Leigh also devotes some outstanding pages to Casanova’s account of his duel with a Polish nobleman, to comic duels in Dickens and to two of Maupassant’s short stories, in one of which a man, out of fear of what a future encounter will bring, prefers to commit suicide. There is even a brief consideration of the American cowboy version of the duel, the showdown at high noon on a dusty street.

While Leigh probes and theorizes to a fare-thee-well, he does convey a good deal of pure information. Did you know that “stickler” was another name for the second, whose chief responsibility, after all, was to make sure that all the proprieties were strictly observed? Leigh tells us that Malta, alone among European countries, not only permitted dueling but also specified that a refusal to fight could lead to imprisonment. During the early 19th century, the duel fell out of literary favor because it lacked intensity and spontaneity: Romantic poets and novelists preferred honest, impassioned murder to coolly calculated encounters. Later 19th-century literature, however, reveals an “embourgeoisment” of the duel, as it became a means of gaining social status and cachet. More modern writers have often imbued the face-to-face encounter with a psychological or Freudian twist, viewing it as a combat “with a doppelganger or with oneself.” One part of the self slays another. Leigh — almost parenthetically — then adduces a superb general pronouncement, applicable to all of us: “In choosing our path through life, and in order to become ourselves, we each need to kill off potential versions of ourselves, the persons we might have become.” That’s worth copying into a commonplace book.

Besides fiction and drama, Leigh also analyzes some representations of duels in art, notably Jean-Léon Gérôme’s haunting 1857 painting “The Duel After the Masquerade.” On a snow-covered field, a dying clown — more precisely, an 18th-century Pierrot dressed all in white silk — is being lowered to the ground by his seconds, a sword still clutched in his hand, while his killer is led away toward the misty trees in the background. Here the theatricality, absurdity and brutal reality of the duel all come together in one unforgettable image. Do look it up online.

Throughout “Touché,” Leigh shows himself a master of the neatly turned observation. “Charm,” he writes, “is a sort of refined insincerity.” Though dueling might look harebrained and utterly irrational, “gentlemen were not particularly interested in the promptings and pleas of reason. That is an essentially bourgeois scruple, rather like spelling correctly or counting one’s money.” In fact, a duelist “fights not for gain from his adversary but to declare who or what he is.” Leigh can also be witty: “ ‘The Three Musketeers’ is one of those familiar novels that we think we might somehow have read, although without quite remembering when.” He later speaks of D’Artagnan’s successive sword fights with Athos, Porthos and Aramis at, respectively, noon, 1 and 2 p.m. on the same day as “a form of speed dueling.”

Sometimes, though, Leigh’s thickly textured prose can grow almost, but not quite, impenetrable in that casual, inbred way so common to academics. At one point, this Cambridge University professor speaks of duels between foreign nationals as “an informal way of winning back national pride. A nation might be appraised by the way its men conducted their duels. This approach, more common in the later nineteenth century, places duels at the service of an anthropological inquiry, reducing them to an epiphenomenon of wider mentalities.”

Fortunately, such academese is relatively rare, though no one should mistake “Touché” for anything but a scholarly book. It is, though, an excellent one. Still, I was sorry that Leigh left out my favorite duel in modern literature: The encounter between Sherlock Holmes and Professor Moriarty on the paths high above the Reichenbach Falls. You will remember that Dr. Watson discovers a note on a boulder, held down by Holmes’s cigarette case: “My dear Watson, I write these few lines through the courtesy of Mr. Moriarty, who awaits my convenience for the final discussion of those questions which lie between us. . . .” Here, in the understated, euphemistic language of the duel, the world’s greatest detective and the Napoleon of Crime arrange to meet for the last time.


Generation II

The second generation Legendary Pokémon ( 伝説 ( でんせつ ) のポケモンの 第 ( だい ) ニ ( に ) 世代 ( せだい ) Densetsu no Pokemon no Dai Ni-sedai) are the second set of Legendary Pokémon introduced in the Pokémon series and originate within the Johto region.

Legendary Beasts

The Legendary Beasts ( 伝説 ( でんせつ ) の 獣 ( けもの ) Densetsu no Kemono) consist of the Electric -type Raikou (ライコウ Raikou), the Fire -type Entei (エンテイ Entei), and the Water -type Suicune (スイクン Suikun).

The three Legendaries were originally unidentified Pokémon trapped and killed within the Brass Tower when it burned down due to lightning. Ho-Oh revived the trio with each Pokémon acquiring an attribute of the accident: Raikou, an Electric-type, symbolized the lightning that had struck the tower Entei, a Fire-type, was the flames that had engulfed the tower and Suicune, a Water-type, represented the rain that put out the blaze. Those that witnessed the accident and revival of the trio feared their power, causing the beasts to flee. As a result, they are the first roaming Pokémon the player character encounters.

In Pokémon Gold and Silver, the trio will individually wander the Johto region after the player character first encounters them in the Brass Tower. In Pokémon Crystal, the player character is also required to force Team Rocket to vacate the Radio Tower and acquire the Clear Bell to meet Suicune in the Tin Tower. In Pokémon Colosseum the trio was captured by Cipher and transformed into Shadow Pokémon each are owned by different Admins. In Pokémon FireRed and LeafGreen, one member may be found roaming Kanto after defeating the Pokémon League if the player character chose Bulbasaur they may find Entei if the starter Pokémon is Charmander, then Suicune is roaming if the player character has Squirtle, then Raikou can be found. The encounters in Pokémon HeartGold and SoulSilver the circumstances are similar to those in Crystal however, Suicune must be followed throughout the Kanto region until it stops at Route 25, outside Bill's house, where it may be battled. Notably, Eusine chases Suicune throughout the game but is constantly eluded.

All three members of the trio have appeared as a major character of separate movies and in episodes of the anime. An Unown-produced Entei served as an antagonist-turned-protagonist in Spell of the Unown, while a Suicune helped heal a Celebi by purifying a lake's water in Celebi: Voice of the Forest. Shiny versions of each member also appeared in Zoroark: Master of Illusions, where they attempted to defeat a Zoroark.

Not listed here is Raikou's appearance in the Pokémon Chronicles episode Legend of Thunder!, where it was being hunted by members of Team Rocket.

Tower Duo

The Tower Duo (タワーデュオ Tawā Duo) is the two bird-like Pokémon the Fire / Flying -type Ho-Oh (ホウオウ Houou) and the Psychic / Flying -type Lugia (ルギア Rugia).

Known as the "guardian of the skies" and "guardian of the seas", respectively, Ho-Oh and Lugia formerly resided in Ecruteak City, claiming the Tin Tower and Brass Tower. When lightning struck the Brass Tower and burned the building, Lugia escaped to the Whirlpool Islands. Ho-Oh remained long enough to revive three Pokémon that had been trapped within the tower, creating the Legendary Beasts, but left in search of a pure-hearted Trainer thus, Ho-Oh is considered their trio master.

Both Pokémon appear in the Pokémon Gold and Silver Versions their method of encounter varies between the games. In Gold, the player character may capture Ho-Oh, a Fire/Flying-type, at the Tin Tower once acquiring a Rainbow Wing after Team Rocket leaves the Goldenrod Radio Tower and locate Lugia, a Psychic/Flying-type, at the Whirlpool Islands once given a Silver Wing from a citizen in Pewter City. In Pokémon Silver, this is reversed: the player character is given the Silver Wing once Team Rocket leaves the Radio Tower and the Rainbow Wing in Pewter City. In Pokémon Crystal, the player character must capture Raikou, Entei, and Suicune to gain the Rainbow Wing, and visit the Pewter City resident to gain the Silver Wing. Both Pokémon reappear in FireRed and LeafGreen, as well as Pokémon Emerald, but must be gained through an event they may be found at Naval Rock if the player character has a MysticTicket. Ho-Oh can be caught in Pokémon Colosseum if the player character purifies all Shadow Pokémon in the game, while Lugia can be caught as a Shadow Pokémon in Pokémon XD: Gale of Darkness. Contrary to initial belief, this Lugia is capable of being purified. Ho-Oh and Lugia return again in HeartGold and SoulSilver and may be acquired under similar circumstances, though the player character must also have a Clear Bell and Tidal Bell for each Legendary.

Both Pokémon have appeared within the anime, though only Lugia has made an appearance in a film, The Power of One. In the film, Lugia was the only creature capable of quelling the three Legendary Birds, Articuno, Zapdos, and Moltres, making Lugia their trio master. Ho-Oh, however, was the first Legendary Pokémon to appear in the anime, debuting at the end of the first episode of the series. At the time Ho-Oh had not been officially announced nor was it identified in the episode, being endemic to Johto.

The episodes that each Ho-Oh and Lugia have appeared in are listed below.


NASCAR Muscle for the Street: The Legendary Chevy Impala SS and Its 409 V-8

Before American cars had officially "gone muscle" with the Pontiac GTO, the 1961 Chevy Impala Super Sport captured the formula nicely: upgrade a regular passenger car with the biggest engine the company could make producing as much power as it could muster. When you thought that Chevy had done it all, go a step farther and sell race motors to the public.

You could order a 409 in any of Chevy's full-size offerings, but the burly Impala SS again carried the majority of the big-block/four-speed manual transmission sales. The 409 was directed largely to both drag and stock-car racers and by the engine's second production year, 1962, it had drawn serious attention by cleaning up the NHRA's Super Stock class. The top-trim versions of the street-car 409 churned out an astonishing 425 horsepower, while the Bill "Grumpy" Jenkins-tuned NHRA cars could run the quarter mile in under 13 seconds.

Few examples of the 409-powered drag cars are more famous than "Old Reliable," the '62 Chevy that Jenkins tuned and Dave Strickler drove to the NHRA class title that year. That car, along with Hayden Profitt's 409-powered Bel Air, featured some clandestine speed parts, namely "Z-11" option heads, camshaft, and two-piece induction that gave a healthy horsepower dose. A few of the Strickler/Jenkins Old Reliables from various years are still around and they sound fantastic.

NASCAR hall of famer Rex White was at the same time racing his own Chevy Bel Air as a privateer in NASCAR's top Grand National Series. The short-of-stature White had won the Grand National title in 1960 with the Chevy 348, upon which the 409 was based, and he switched to the 409 in '61 along with that season's champion Ned Jarrett. White racked up a pile of race wins for the 409 and was among the first, along with Junior Johnson, to race Chevy's stroked, Smokey Yunick-built "Mystery Motor" 427 thoroughbred—an engine that HOT ROD Magazine dyno-tested in 2015— at the 1963 Daytona 500.

The 409 remained on the Chevy options sheet through 1965, after which it was replaced by the next-generation 396 Big Block. As it stands, you'll regularly still find the early '60s Impala SS with an original 409 in it. Do yourself a favor and check out Car Craft's 409 rebuild story from February 2016 to see the ins and outs of this legendary motor.


Tarix

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Videoni tomosha qiling: Duel 9-son Umid Ibragimov vs Abror Azizov (Iyun 2022).


Izohlar:

  1. Russel

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  2. Christiaan

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  3. Earvin

    Men bunga shubha qilmayman.

  4. Vilhelm

    Buni cheksiz bahslashish mumkin ..



Xabar yozing