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1943 yil 2 aprel

1943 yil 2 aprel

1943 yil 2 aprel

1943 yil aprel

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Germaniyaning U-124 suv osti kemasi Oportodan cho'kib ketdi



LSD ning gallyutsinogen ta'siri aniqlandi

Shveysariyaning Bazel shahrida Sandoz farmatsevtika tadqiqot laboratoriyasida ishlaydigan shveytsariyalik kimyogar Albert Xofman tasodifan 1938 yilda Lizergik kislota birikmalarining shifobaxshligini tadqiq qilish doirasida yaratgan sintetik dori LSD-25ni iste'mol qiladi. Doktor Xofman rasman lizergik kislota dietilamid nomi bilan tanilgan dorini qabul qilganidan keyin g'ayrioddiy hislar va gallyutsinatsiyalardan bezovta bo'ldi. O'z eslatmalarida u o'z tajribasini aytib berdi:

“O'tgan juma, 1943 yil 16 -aprel, men tushdan keyin laboratoriyada ishimni to'xtatishga majbur bo'ldim va ajoyib bezovtalikdan boshim aylanib, boshim aylanib qoldi. Uyda men yotdim va o'ta hayajonli tasavvurga ega bo'lgan yoqimsiz, mast holatga tushib qoldim. Ko'zlarim yumilgan holda (kunduzi yoqimsiz porlab turganini ko'rdim) tush kabi, men hayajonli rasmlarning uzluksiz oqimini, ranglarning qizg'in, kaleydoskopik o'yinlari bilan g'ayrioddiy shakllarni ko'rdim. Bir necha soatdan keyin bu holat yo'qoldi. ”

Doktor Xofmann bu g'alati jismoniy va ruhiy holatni keltirib chiqarganini tasdiqlash uchun qasddan dori ichganidan so'ng, o'z kashfiyotini e'lon qilgan hisobotni e'lon qildi, shuning uchun LSD gallyutsinogen dori sifatida dunyoga kirdi. "Aqlni kengaytiruvchi" deb nomlangan dori-darmonni keng qo'llash 1960-yillargacha boshlanmagan, Albert M. Xabbard, Timoti Liri va Ken Kesi kabi madaniyatga qarshi shaxslar LSDni rekreatsion dori sifatida ishlatishning afzalliklari haqida ochiqchasiga tushuntirishgan. LSD -ni ishlab chiqarish, sotish, egalik qilish va undan foydalanish, uni qabul qilganlarning ba'zilarida salbiy reaktsiyaga sabab bo'lganligi 1965 yilda AQShda noqonuniy deb topilgan.


Sovetlar Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Katin qirg'inini tan olishdi

Sovet hukumati Ikkinchi jahon urushidagi Katin qirg'inining aybini rasman tan oldi, o'shanda Polshaning 5 mingga yaqin harbiy ofitserlari o'ldirilib, Katin o'rmonidagi ommaviy qabrlarga dafn qilindi. Qabul Sovet Ittifoqi rahbari Mixail Gorbachyovning Sovet tarixiga nisbatan yanada ochiq va samimiy bo'lish haqidagi va'dasining bir qismi edi.

1939 yilda Polshaga g'arbdan fashistlar, sharqdan esa Sovet qo'shinlari bostirib kirishdi. 1940 yilning bahorida, minglab polshalik harbiy ofitserlar sovet maxfiy politsiya kuchlari tomonidan to'planib, Smolensk tashqarisidagi Katin o'rmoniga olib borildi, qirg'in qilindi va ommaviy qabrga dafn qilindi. 1941 yilda Germaniya Sovet Ittifoqiga hujum qildi va ruslar bosib olgan Polsha hududiga kirdi. 1943 yilda, Rossiyaga qarshi urush yomon kechganda, nemislar Katin o'rmonidan minglab jasadlarni topganliklarini e'lon qilishdi. Polsha muhojirlik hukumati vakillari (Londonda joylashgan) bu erga tashrif buyurib, qotilliklarga natsistlar emas, balki sovetlar aybdor deb topdilar. Biroq, bu vakillarga AQSh va Britaniya rasmiylari o'z hisobotlarini hozircha sir saqlashlari uchun bosim o'tkazdilar, chunki ular Sovetlar bilan diplomatik uzilish xavfini xohlamadilar. Ikkinchi jahon urushi tugagach, nemislarning targ'ibotlari Sovetlarga qarshi bostirib kirdi va Katin qirg'inini rus vahshiyliklariga misol qilib ko'rsatdi. Sovet rahbari Iosif Stalin ayblovlarni qat'iy rad etdi va qotillik uchun natsistlar aybdor deb da'vo qildi. Bu masala 40 yil davomida qayta ko'rib chiqilmagan.

Biroq, 1990 yilga kelib, ikkita omil Sovetlarni o'z ayblarini tan olishga undadi. Birinchisi, Gorbachyovning sovet siyosatida "oshkoralik" siyosati edi. Bu sovet tarixiga, xususan, Stalin davriga nisbatan aniqroq baho berishni o'z ichiga oladi. Ikkinchisi 1990 yilda Polsha-Sovet munosabatlarining holati edi. Sovet Ittifoqi Sharqiy Evropadagi sun'iy yo'ldoshlarini ushlab turish qudratini yo'qotdi, lekin ruslar iloji boricha o'z ta'sirini saqlab qolishga umid qilishdi. Polshada Lech Walesa ’s Birdamlik harakati kommunistik rejim kuchini tobora yo'q qilib yubordi. Katin qirg'ini muammosi qirq yildan ziyod vaqt davomida Polsha bilan munosabatlarda jiddiy nuqta bo'lib kelgan va Sovet rasmiylari ochiqchasiga qabul qilish va kechirim so'rash diplomatik taranglikni yumshatishga yordam beradi deb ishonishgan. Sovet hukumati quyidagi bayonot bilan chiqdi: “ Sovet Ittifoqi fojia uchun chuqur afsus bildirdi va buni Stalinistlarning eng dahshatli g'azablaridan biri sifatida baholadi. ”

Sovet qabul qilinganmi yoki yo'qmi, buni aniqlash qiyin. 1990 yil oxiriga kelib Polshadagi kommunistik rejim qulab tushdi va o'sha yilning dekabrida Lex Uelsa Polsha prezidenti etib saylandi. Gorbachyov 1991 yil dekabr oyida iste'foga chiqdi, bu esa Sovet Ittifoqiga samarali yakun yasadi.


Tarix va sevimli mashg'ulot

1943 yilgi yangiliklar Miluoki jurnali

Bu qismda men o'zimni qamrab olaman ...

Bu ikkita mavzuni ko'rib, men bilamanki, mening avlodim tushunmagan vaqtga qarayman. Men 1953 yilda tug'ilganman va ota-onam eslagan yagona narsa-bu men hech qachon boshimdan o'tkazmaganman (ular urush yillarida o'spirin edilar va dadam 1945 yilda o'rta maktabni tugatishi bilan harbiy xizmatga chaqirilgan. ).

Gap shundaki, birinchi navbatda fashistlar Germaniyasini, keyin Yaponiyani mag'lub etish edi.

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushidan beri har bir urushimizga qo'shilgan tanqidlardan biri bu umumiy qurbonlikning yo'qligi haqidagi fikrdir. Koreya, Vetnam, Ko'rfaz urushlari va Afg'oniston urushigacha Amerika uchun deyarli mavhum bo'lib qoldi, agar siz shaxsan ishtirok etmasangiz yoki kimdir bilmasangiz.

Ikkinchi Jahon Urushida bu ikki mavzu ko'rsatganidek emas edi.

Urush haqidagi filmlarni tomosha qilib, men bilardimki, urush rishtalari kabi narsa bor. Masalan, filmda Otalarimiz bayroqlari Ivo -Jimada bayroq ko'targan bir necha dengiz piyodalari (va dengiz floti korpusi) urush rishtalari yig'ilishiga jalb qilingan. Odamlar Amerikaning urush qahramonlarini ko'rish imkoniyatiga ega bo'lish uchun haydash o'tkaziladigan joyga kelardilar va qahramonlar o'z navbatida odamlarni urush zanjirlarini sotib olishni rag'batlantirar edilar, bu urush sanoatini moliyalashtiradi, xuddi shu odamlar. Bu erda http://www.signalalpha.com/WW2_War_Bonds.html dan yaxshiroq ta'rif berilgan.

Ivo Jima afishasi urush rishtalarini targ'ib qilish uchun ishlatilgan

Ikkinchi jahon urushida qatnashganlar uchun Amerika xazinasi 340 milliard dollardan oshdi. 2003 yilda bu xarajatlar qariyb 3,5 trillion dollarni tashkil qiladi. Urush harakatlarini moliyalashtirish uchun AQSh hukumati ko'plab usullarni qo'lladi. Bir yo'li urush kreditlari yoki urush obligatsiyalarini o'z ichiga oladi. Bu harakatlarni rag'batlantirish uchun AQSh hukumati mamlakat kinoteatrlarida filmlar yaratdi va namoyish etdi. Hozirgidan farqli o'laroq, Gollivud ruhni ko'taruvchi va g'alabani qo'llab -quvvatlovchi filmlar yaratdi. Ko'pincha film vatanparvarlik mavzusiga ega bo'ladi. Pearl -Harborda xiyonat qilgan yaponlarning xotirasi bir necha bor uyg'ondi.

Miluoki jurnalining 1943 yil 22 apreldagi nashridagi asosiy maqolalardan biri shunday nomlangan:

Mitinglar maqsadga erishish uchun obligatsiyalarni sotib olishga undaydi

Viloyatni tepaga qo'yishga qaror qilindi. Vatanparvarlarning hammasi Amerika kelajagiga ko'proq sarmoya kiritishni so'raydi

Bu erda hikoyaning birinchi paragraflari keltirilgan:

Chorshanba kuni kechqurun ko'plab mitinglar tufayli, obligatsiyalar savdosi o'sishda davom etdi, chunki urush zayomlari bilan shug'ullanadigan amaldorlar, xususiy shaxslar va ko'plab tashkilotlar, Milwaukee-ni 13,000,000,000 dollarlik aprel urushi kredit kampaniyasining oxirgi davrida sotish bo'yicha birinchi o'rinni egallashga va'da berishdi.

Chorshanba kuni kechqurun Beth Isroil, 2432 N. Teutonia shtatidagi Jamoat yig'ilishida 1200 kishi qatnashgan Fisih bayrami va yig'ilishida 145,175 dollarlik urush zayomlari sotildi va Pearl -Harbordan beri jamoat homiylik qilayotgan mitinglarda jami 402,000 dollarlik obligatsiyalar sotildi. . Kechaning o'ziga xos xususiyati - Chikagodagi uchta kantor Pvts tomonidan xalq qo'shiqlari, vatanparvarlik ohanglari va diniy qo'shiqlarning kuylanishi edi. Deyl, Myurrey va Fil Lind, aka -ukalar va Kamp Klaibornagi (LA) tibbiyot korpusining barcha a'zolari.

Bu erda bir nechta kuzatuvlar:

Birinchi sahifadagi boshqa bir maqolada, 13 000 000 000 dollar ikkinchi urush obligatsiyalari bilan bog'liqligi qayd etilgan. Normandiya bosqini paytida (1944 yil 6 -iyun) AQSh urush urushining ettinchi harakatida edi. Bu shuni anglatadiki, urush davom etayotgani sayin, jangovar rishtalar tezligi oshib bordi. Aftidan, biri boshqasi tugashi bilan boshlanganga o'xshaydi.

Tadqiqotlar shuni ko'rsatadiki, amerikaliklar o'z daromadlarining kamida 10 foizini urush obligatsiyalariga sarmoya kiritishga undashgan. Urush obligatsiyalari qarzning bir turi edi. Harbiy obligatsiyani sotib oluvchi, obligatsiyani hukumat keyinchalik sotib oladi yoki qaytarib beradi, degan va'da bilan sotib oldi.

O'zingizning "adolatli ulushingizni" amalga oshirayotganda, urush obligatsiyalarini sotib olish kerak edi.

Balki biz 15 trillion dollarlik davlat qarzimizni kamaytirish uchun urush majburiyatiga ega bo'lishimiz kerakdir? Yo'q, hukumat uni boshqa narsaga sarflaydi va qarzni yanada oshiradi. O'ylaymanki, Amerika xalqi urush uchun qarzni to'lashdan ko'ra, urush obligatsiyalariga sarmoya kiritgani qiziq.

Qizig'i shundaki, Miluoki jurnali yahudiy jamoasini alohida ta'kidlagan. Albatta, Fisih bayrami tanlov bilan bog'liq edi. Pasxa ibroniylarning Misr qulligidan chiqib ketishini nishonlaydi. Siz ushbu seriyaning birinchi qismidan Iso Masihning kechki ziyofatida shogirdlari bilan Fisih bayramini nishonlaganini eslaysiz. Milwaukee jurnalining 1943 yil 22 apreldagi birinchi sahifasida yahudiy va g'ayriyahudiylar uchun ko'p diniy ramziy ma'no bor edi.

Maqola bunga kirmaydi, lekin hech kimga sir emaski, 1943 yilga kelib ko'plab nemis yahudiylari fashistlar Germaniyasidan uzoq vaqtdan beri qochib ketishgan (30 -yillarda) va kimdir shubhasiz Miluokidagi nemis yahudiylari hududiga yo'l olishgan. . Ehtimol, yahudiylarning ko'pini biz fashistlar bilan kurashayotgan yovuzlikka ishontirishingiz shart emas edi.

Jamoaning manzili ham e'tiborga loyiqdir. Miluokida juda ko'p nemis aholisi bor edi, shuning uchun Teutonia ko'chasi nomi, bu teutonlar erlari yoki nemislar degan ma'noni anglatadi. Ularning sodiqligi qayerda yotadi, deb o'ylash mumkin. Esingizda bo'lsin, yapon amerikaliklar urush paytida internirlangan, nemis va italyan amerikaliklar bo'lmagan. Bu aniq irqiy va Pearl -Harborga bo'lgan g'azab, shuningdek beshinchi ustundan qo'rqish edi, bu yapon amerikaliklarning harbiy asirlar lagerlariga o'xshash lagerlarda saqlanishiga sabab bo'ldi.

Qizig'i shundaki, amerikalik nemislar natsistlarni qo'llab-quvvatlovchi "Bund" guruhini tuzdilar.

Bund nemis-amerikalik, natsistlarni qo'llab-quvvatlovchi tashkilot bo'lib, u asosan Ikkinchi Jahon urushida Amerika ishtirok etishidan oldin faol bo'lgan. U asosan Nyu -York va Chikagoda to'plangan. Otam Miluokida faol bo'lganini esladi va u bilan bog'liq odamlarni bilardi.

Bundning maqsadlari aralash sumka edi, lekin yahudiylarga, kommunistikaga qarshi bo'lgan va Versal bitimiga qarshi bo'lgan ko'plab maqsadlar va shikoyatlar ustidan natsizm bilan tuzilgan edi. Birinchi Jahon urushi uchun Germaniyani ayblashdi, birlashgan ittifoq haqida esa deyarli aytilmagan).

Bu Bund yaxshi narsa edi, degani emas, chunki Versalning adolatsizligi bor edi. Bu nemis vatanparvarligi va millatchiligiga kirib, fashistlar bilan umumiy ish olib borishga urinish edi. Bundni beshinchi ustun deb hisoblash juda ko'p narsani aytadi. Ular Amerikani urushdan saqlamoqchi edilar va shu ma'noda AQShni Pearl -Harborgacha urushdan chetlatgan izolyatsiya harakatining bir qismi edi.

Yarashish degani, ikki tomon shunchaki jangni to'xtatadi. Bu taslim bo'lish bilan bir xil emas.

Bund haqiqatan ham milliy radarda kichik zarba edi. Aksariyat nemis muhojirlari bu erda 1880 va#8217 yoki undan oldinroq bo'lgan va Evropada siyosatga unchalik qiziqishmagan. Ko'pchilik uchun madaniy aloqalar haligacha muhim bo'lsa -da, ko'pchilikni tark etishining sababi Evropa siyosati. Qizig'i shundaki, hatto Berlindagi fashistlar hukumati ham Bund haqida ko'p o'ylamagan, amerikalik nemislarning 99 foizi AQShga sodiq ekanliklarini tushungan.

Miluoki shimolida (Teutoniya) Miluoki shtatida yashagan dadamning aytishicha, u nemis tilini bilgan odamlari hech qachon Bundga hech qachon o'ylamagan va sodiq amerikaliklar bo'lgan, garchi ko'plari o'z ona tillarida gaplashsalar ham. 1941 yilga kelib, Bund ahamiyatsiz edi va endi tarixda izoh edi.

Maqolada aytilishicha, Grinfild shahri (Miluoki chekkasi) 300 kishidan 2,587,50 dollarni urush obligatsiyalari uchun yig'gan. Bu ’ ning bir bo'lagi taxminan 75-80 dollar.

"Grinfild" urushi to'g'risidagi bitimga qo'shimcha eslatma sifatida, men yuqoridagi tadbirda asosiy ma'ruzachi Ben Barkin bo'lganini payqadim. Ben Barkin ko'p yillar davomida Miluokida mashhur bo'lgan. Uning reklama firmasi Milwaukee ’s Schlitz Brewery kompaniyasini namoyish etdi. Pivo zavodining bosh ijrochi direktori Bob Ehlin va boshqalar bilan Miluoki 1963 yilda bo'lib o'tgan sirk paradi bilan mashhur bo'ldi. Bu Miluokida katta bitim, chunki u ko'p miqdordagi qayta tiklangan sirk vagonlarini o'z ichiga oladi. o'tmish davri, bularning barchasi Amerikadagi axlatxonalardan qaytarilishi kerak edi. Bugungi kunda vagonlar Viskonsin shtatining Barabu shahridagi "Sirk dunyosi" muzeyida saqlanadi va yiliga bir marta Miluokiga katta paradga o'qitiladi. 1943 yilda Ben Barkinning urush harakatlarida o'z hissasini qo'shganini ko'rish qiziq.

Paradda ishlatiladigan sirk vagonlaridan biri. Vagonlar Viskonsin shtatining Baraboo shahrida namoyish etilmoqda.

Shlitz Miluokidagi pivo ishlab chiqaruvchi bo'ldi! 970 va#8217. Blatz, Pabst va Millerning barchasi amerikalik nemislar tomonidan tashkil etilgan. Bu reklama histerik. Yigit xalatida jambon va pishloqli sendvichli pivo ichadi. Prost!

Biroz pastda Market universiteti haqida gap boradi, u erda 625 talaba 13 844 50 dollar yig'di. Maqolada aytilishicha, Miluoki Gitlerning tug'ilgan kunini (20 -aprel) va "8220 -yil" va "8221" va "8220 -bombardimon" saytlarida bayramni davom ettirgan. ular xayr -ehson qilganlarida, o'z nomlarini "#8220Berlin" yoki "#8220Tokyo" deb belgilangan bomba qutilariga yozib qo'yishgan.

Bomba korpusiga “ aziz Gitler ” yoki “ Tojo ” kabi so'zlar bilan imzo chekish odatiy hol edi. Bu B-24 Liberator.

Maqolada, ko'pchilik harbiy xizmatda o'g'li bo'lsa, qo'shimcha obligatsiyalar sotib olgani aytiladi. Bu nima uchun aytilmagan, lekin shaxsiy aloqa ularning harbiy xizmatchilariga urush ma'nosini, tanklar, kemalar, qurollar, oziq -ovqat va g'alabani ta'minlaydigan boshqa narsalarni berish uchun qo'shimcha rag'bat berdi, deb taxmin qilish oson emas. yigitlar uylariga sog 'omon bo'lishdi.

Urush zanjiri diskiga ulangan kichik maqola urush vaqtidagi ratsion bo'yicha qo'llanma bilan bog'liq.

Urush paytida metallolom kabi ko'p narsalar taqsimlangan.

Nimani aniqlay oladigan bo'lsam, siz ratsiondagi narsalarni sotib olish uchun bir qancha ballarni oldingiz va deyarli hamma narsa. Ballar bilan qancha sotib olishingiz mumkinligi haqida ba'zi narsalar cheklangan edi. Har hafta gazeta cheklovlar va muddatlarni e'lon qildi. Mana 1943 yil 22 apreldagi Milwaukee jurnali namunasi.

17 -shtampdan 15 -iyungacha bitta poyabzal uchun foydalaning.

12 -marka besh kilogramm shakar uchun 31 maygacha yaxshi.

26 -marka yakshanba kunigacha bir funt qahva uchun yaxshi.

Yoqilg'i moyi uchun kuponlar 30 litrgacha 11 gallon uchun yaxshi. (40 -yillardagi Miluokidagi ko'pchilik uylar ko'mir bilan isitilgan.

21 -maygacha to'rt gallon benzin uchun 5 -markadan foydalaning. Agar sizda mashinangiz bo'lsa, bu haftasiga taxminan bir gallonni tashkil qiladi. Jamoat transporti va velosiped mashhur edi.

Shinalar armiyani mexanizatsiyalash uchun ajratilgan.

Shinalarni sotib olish mumkin, agar siz ehtiyojni aniqlash uchun ikkita tekshiruvdan o'tgan bo'lsangiz.

Ko'ryapsizmi, mexanizatsiyalashgan urush bilan bog'liq narsalar ovqatdan ko'ra muhimroq edi. Amerika bosqinchilik bilan tahdid qilinmaganligi sababli, Buyuk Britaniyadagi kabi oziq-ovqat ta'minoti hech qachon jiddiy tahdid qilinmagan (qayiqlarda). G'ildirakli armiya va bizdan ko'p miqdorda gaz va rezina kerak edi.

Urush obligatsiyalari va ratsion bo'yicha ko'rsatma bilan bog'liq yakuniy maqola shunday nomlandi:

Qizlarning jozibali kechki ovqatlari o'g'il bolalarni yuqori obligatsiyalarga taklif qiladi

Gee, bu uzun sarlavha emasmi?

Qiziqarli quti tushliklari o'rta maktab o'quvchilari uchun maktab o'quvchilari uchun yig'ilgan edi, ularning ba'zilari urush tugashi bilan tuziladi.

Qizlar tushliklarni kambag'al buyumlar bilan to'ldirishadi, o'g'il bolalar ularni kim oshdi savdosida taklif qilishadi va tushliklarini qiz bilan bo'lishish uchun. Ba'zi qizlar bittadan ko'proq, ba'zi qizlar esa hech narsa yig'ishmagan, chunki ular o'zlarini katta taklifga ega bo'lish uchun jozibali deb o'ylamaganlar. Bir tushlik 25,00 dollarga tushdi, shuning uchun men bu past taklifni olish uchun qanchalik go'zal bo'lishing kerak deb o'ylayman. Eng yuqori taklif $ 500.00 edi. O'rta maktab o'quvchisi bunday pulni qayerdan oldi, men aniq bilmayman. Chaqirilgunga qadar dadamning qog'oz yo'li bor edi va men u bunday pul topmaganiga aminman!

Kim oshdi savdosi har kim harakatga kirgani va urush harakatlari uchun qo'lidan kelganini qilganining yana bir misolidir. Bu men aytgan umumiy qurbonlik tuyg'usi. Bu yetmish yil oldin bo'lgan bo'lsa -da, bu Amerika fuqarolar urushi kabi uzoqroq ko'rinadi. Men shubhalanamanki, biz hech qachon bunday birlik va qurbonlikni ko'rmaymiz.

Hatto o'rta maktabni qo'llab -quvvatlash rahbarlari ham urush zayomlarini sotish uchun ishlatilgan.
"Erkakning yuragiga boradigan yo'l uning qornidan o'tadi" degan gap edi


Ikkinchi jahon urushi bugun: 29 aprel

1940
Qirol Xakon VII va uning hukumati Moldadan evakuatsiya qilinadi va Norvegiya shimolidagi Tromso shahriga olib boriladi, u erdan ular kurashni davom ettirishi mumkin.

1941
Britaniya razvedkasi ‘Ultra ’, nemislar Kritga hujum qilmoqchi ekanliklarini ko'rsatadigan ko'plab xabarlarni ushlab qoldi.

Britaniyaning 10 -hind diviziyasining boshqa brigadasi Iroqning noroziliklariga e'tibor bermay Basraga qo'ndi. Iroq armiyasi Habbaniyhdagi RAF bazasini qamal qildi, garchi RAF samolyotlari ularga qarshi ko'plab havo hujumlarini uyushtirsa.

1942
Belgiya qarshiliklari Tenderloo kimyo ishlarini vayron qilib, 250 dan ziyodini o'ldirdi. Nemislar tomonidan qatllar Belgiyada har oy 25-30 da o'tkaziladi.

Yaponiya qo'shinlari Lashioni egallab olishadi va shu bilan Xitoyga "Burma yo'li" ning muhim yo'lini kesib o'tishadi.

Yaponiyaliklar Filippin garnizoniga qarshi hujumlarni kuchaytirar ekan, Mindanao oroliga qo'shimcha kuchlarni joylashtirishni davom ettirmoqdalar. Yaponlar orolga bostirib kirishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishlari bilan Korregidorning o'qqa tutilishi kuchayadi.

1943
Novorossiysk yaqinidagi kichik hujumlar nemislarni sekin orqaga qaytaradi.

U-qayiqlar Convoy ONS5-ga olti kunlik hujumni boshlaydilar, bu vaqtda 13 ta ittifoqchi kemalar oltita qayiqni yo'qotish uchun cho'kib ketishdi.

1944
Avstraliya bosh vaziri Kertin Londonga keldi.

AQSh harbiy -dengiz kuchlari Yaponiyaning Trukdagi bazasiga zarba berib, 120 ta samolyotni yo'q qildi.

1945
RAF operatsiyasini boshlaydi ‘Manna ’, etkazib berish Gollandiyaga tushadi.

Kola yarim orolidan Loch-Evega suzib borayotgan RA-66 konvoyiga Kolaning shimolida kamida 2 ta qayiq hujum qiladi. 1943 yilda AQSh tomonidan ijaraga berilgan ingliz HMS Goodall esminetsi U-286 (Obltzz Villi Ditrix) tomonidan 1150 tonnaga cho'ktirildi va bu urushda hujumga uchragan oxirgi karvon edi.

Britaniya Ikkinchi Armiyasi Meklenburgdagi rus qo'shinlaridan 100 mil g'arbda, Gamburg yaqinidagi Elba bo'ylab o'tadi. AQShning ettinchi armiyasi Myunxenga etib keldi. Frantsiyaning birinchi armiyasi Fridrixshafenni Konstans ko'lida qo'lga kiritdi.

2 -Belorusiya fronti Stralsund yo'nalishi bo'yicha tez yuradi va Anklamni egallaydi. Berlindagi g'azabli janglar Reyxstag, Kantsler va Potsdamer -Strasse atrofida bo'lib o'tadi. Berlin janubidagi Kottbusda nemis qo'shinlari haligacha ruslarni ushlab turishmoqda.

Italiyadagi nemis qo'shinlari Caserta qirollik saroyida taslim bo'lish shartlarini imzolaydilar, ammo nemis zobitlari qabul qilinishiga kafolat bermaydilar, marosim atigi 17 daqiqa davom etadi. Britaniya sakkizinchi armiyasi Venetsiyani himoya qilib, Triest tomon yo'l oladi. AQShning beshinchi armiyasi Milanga kirib, Padua shahridagi sakkizinchi armiya bilan aloqa o'rnatadi.

Mussolini va Klara Petachchining jasadlari Milanga olib kelingan va bir yil oldin 15 partizan qatl qilingan maydonda chiroq ustunlariga teskari osilgan. Jasadlar o'qqa tutilgan va tupurilgan.


Ikkinchi jahon urushi o'qi harbiy tarixi kundan-kunga: aprel

1945 yil 1 aprel: Sharqda Breslau shahri g'arbiy chekkasida qattiq janglar davom etmoqda. Janubi -sharqda, Sovet 3 -chi Ukraina fronti (Tolbuxin) Vena tomon harakatlanayotganda Wiener Neustadtga etib boradi, G'arbda AQShning to'qqizinchi armiyasi (Simpson) Lippstadtga etib boradi va Germaniyaning 300,000 German qo'shinlarini Xeresgruppe B (Model) cho'ntagiga soladi.

1941 yil 2 -aprel: Germaniyalik Afrikakorps Liviyadagi Agedabiyani bosib oldi.

1942 yil 2 -aprel: Axis havo kuchlari O'rta er dengizidagi Maltadagi Britaniya harbiy -dengiz bazasi La Valettaga qarshi bombardimon kampaniyasini boshladi.

1945 yil 3 -aprel: Sharqda, Slesiyada Breslau qamal qilinishi davom etar ekan, Qizil Armiya Slovakiya poytaxti Bratislavani egallab oladi. G'arbda, Britaniya Ikkinchi Armiyasi (Dempsi) bo'linmalari Münsterga AQShning to'qqizinchi qurol -yarog 'Ruklingxauzenida, AQShning birinchi armiyasi (Xodjes) esa Fulda va Kasselni oladi.

1945 yil 4 -aprel: Ikkinchi Britaniya armiyasi Osnabrückni qo'lga kiritdi, shu bilan birga AQShning uchinchi armiyasi (Patton) Leypsigga qarab Suxl va Gotani olib ketdi. AQShning 8 -Havo kuchlari Boltiq bo'yidagi Kielonga qarshi shu kungacha eng og'ir (700 ta bombardimonchi) reydini boshladi.

1942 yil 5 -aprel: Gitler Sharqiy janubda yangi yozgi hujumni kuzgi Blau (OperationBlue), rejasini bajarishni buyurdi, Volgaga yetib kelish uchun, shuningdek, Kavkazfildlarini egallash uchun.

1944 yil 5 -aprel: Gowel cho'ntagiga o'ralgan nemis Heresgruppe Mitte (von Klyuge) qo'shinlari qattiq janglardan so'ng yengillashdi.

1945 yil 5 -aprel: Sovet 3 -chi Ukraina fronti Vena shahrining chekkasiga etib keldi, uni himoya qilish uchun minimal nemis kuchlari bor. G'arbda frantsuz birinchi armiyasi (de Tassigny) Reynning yuqori qismidagi Karlsrueni qo'lga kiritdi. AQSh 8 -havo kuchlari Kielga qarshi yana bir kuchli hujumni amalga oshirdi (450 ta bombardimonchi), bu Hipper va Emden kreyserlariga jiddiy zarar etkazdi.

1941 yil 6 -aprel: Germaniya, Italiya va Vengriya kuchlari Yugoslaviya va Gretsiyaga bostirib kira boshladi. Luftwaffe Belgradga qarshi bir nechta halokatli portlashlarni amalga oshirdi.

1942 yil 6 -aprel: Axis bombardimonchilari Misrning Iskandariya portiga hujum qilishdi.

1943 yil 6 -aprel: Heeresgruppe A (von Veyxs) bo'linmalari Qora dengizdagi Kavkazdagi Novorossisk portiga hujum boshladi. Tunisdagi AQSh va Britaniya qo'shinlari 5. Panzerarmiga (von Arnim) qarshi hujum boshladi.

1945 yil 6 -aprel: Sharqda, Heiligenbeil cho'ntagini yo'q qilgandan so'ng, Sovet 3 -Belorusiya fronti (Vasilevskiy) Sharqiy Prussiyaning Boltiqbo'yi sohiliga etib boradi va 2. Armie (von Tippelkirch) o'rtasidagi aloqalarni ajratib turadi. Marienbrgning V delta deltasi. Janubi -sharqda Tito partizanlari Bosniyada Sarayevoni egallab olishdi.

1940 yil 7 -aprel: Krigsmarin qo'shinlari va texnikasi bo'lgan bo'linmalar Germaniya portlaridan suzib, Daniya va Norvegiyaga bostirib kirishdi.

1941 yil 7 -aprel: Buyuk Britaniya Vengriya bilan diplomatik aloqalarni uzdi. Nemis askarlari Makedoniyada Skopyeni egallab olishdi. Liviyada Afrikakorplar Dernani qo'lga olishdi.

1944 yil 7 -aprel: Sharqda Qizil Armiya Qrim sharqidagi Kerchinda nemis chiziqlarini kesib o'tdi.

1945 yil 7 -aprel: Katta artilleriya va havo bombardimonlaridan oldin, 3 -Belorusiya fronti Kenigsbergga qarshi oxirgi hujumini boshladi. G'arbda AQSh to'qqizinchi armiyasi Leypsigga boradigan yo'lda Hameln va Eyzenaxni qo'lga kiritdi.

1940 yil 8 -aprel: Britaniya dengiz kemalari Norvegiya suvlarida minalar yotqizishdi va ingliz va frantsuz qo'shinlari Namsos, Narvik va Andalsnesga qo'nishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishdi.

1943 yil 8 -aprel: Buyuk Britaniyaning sakkizinchi armiyasi bo'linmalari (Montgomeri) Tunisda Sfaksni egallab olishdi.

1944 yil 8-aprel: Kamenets-Podolsk atrofida qurshovga olingan Ukrainaning Xeresgruppe qo'shinlari (fon Menshteyn) o'z yo'nalishlariga kirishadi.

1945 yil 8 aprel: Vena markazida og'ir janglar. Qizil havo kuchlari Königsbergga 1500 tonna bomba tashladi. G'arbda Britaniya Ikkinchi Armiyasi Gildesxaymga etib boradi, AQShning ettinchi armiyasi (Patch) Reynning yuqori qismida Pforzxaymni egallaydi.

1940 yil 9 aprel: Daniya armiyasi qarshilik qilmasa ham, Germaniya qo'shinlari Daniyaning butun qismini egallab olishdi, boshqa dengiz va parashyut qo'shinlari Oslo, Kristiansand, Stavanger, Trondxaym, Bergen va Narvikga qo'ndi. Ushbu operatsiyalar paytida Kriegsmarine Blüxer (Norvegiya qirg'oq batareyalari tomonidan cho'kib ketgan), Königsberg va Karlsrue kreyserlarini Britaniya harbiy -dengiz kuchlari harakatidan mahrum qiladi.

1941 yil 9 aprel: Bolqonda nemis qo'shinlari Yugoslaviyada Nish va Gretsiyada Salonikani egallab olishdi. Liviyada Afrikakorplar Bardiyani qo'lga olishadi.

1945 yil 9 aprel: Sharqda Königsberg qal'asi Qizil Armiya tarkibiga kirdi. Italiyada AQShning beshinchi armiyasi (Klark) Boloniya va Po daryosi vodiysiga hujum qila boshladi.

1941 yil 10 aprel: Germaniya qo'shinlari Yugoslaviyada Zagrebni egallab olishdi. Xorvat fashistlarining etakchisi Ante Pavelich Italiya surgunidan qaytadi va Xorvatiyaning mustaqil davlatini e'lon qiladi, u bilan Poglavnik (rahbar).

1944 yil 10 -aprel: Germaniyaning Xeresgruppe qo'shinlari Odessani Qora dengizda evakuatsiya qilishdi va Dnestr daryosining g'arbiy sohiliga chekinishdi. G'arbda Buyuk Britaniya va Usand harbiy -havo kuchlari Frantsiya va Belgiyadagi Germaniya aerodromlari va kommunikatsiyalariga qarshi hujum boshladi.

1945 yil 10 -aprel: AQSh to'qqizinchi armiyasi (Simpson) Essenni Rurda qo'lga kiritdi. Kielga qarshi yana bir og'ir hujumda, RAF og'ir AdmiralScheer kreyserini cho'ktirdi. AQSh 8 -havo kuchlari Berlinga qarshi eng og'ir reydini (1232 ta bombardimonchi) boshladi.

1945 yil 11 -aprel: Vena markazida, shuningdek, Breziliyda davom etayotgan shiddatli janglar. G'arbda AQSh to'qqizinchi armiyasi Rurda Bochumni va Xarz tog'laridagi Goslarni qo'lga kiritdi.

1941 yil 12 aprel: Geran qo'shinlari Yugoslaviya poytaxti Belgradga kirdi. Liviyada Afrikakorp Tobrukga yaqinlashadi.

1943 yil 12 -aprel: Germaniyalik Xeresgruppe Mitte (von Klyuge) Vjasmani evakuatsiya qildi, Britaniyaning sakkizinchi armiyasi Sousni Tunisda qo'lga kiritdi.

1944 yil 12 aprel: Qrimdagi nemis qo'shinlari Sevastopolga chekinishdi.

1945 yil 12 aprel: Prezident Ruzvelt Jorjiya poytaxti Uarm -Springsda vafot etdi, vitse -prezident Truman yangi prezident sifatida qasamyod qabul qildi. G'arbda, AQShning birinchi armiyasi (Xodjes) Magdeburg yaqinidagi Elbaga etib boradi, Britaniya Gamburgdan 60 mil uzoqlikda joylashgan Ikkinchi Cellle Cellle Cellle.

1940 yil 13 -aprel: Germaniya va Britaniya harbiy -dengiz kuchlari o'rtasida Narvik yaqinidagi Yessing -Fyord shahridagi shiddatli to'qnashuv natijasida tirik qolgan ekipajlari Narvikni himoya qilgan Gebirgsjäger bo'linmalariga qo'shilgan 10 germandestroyerning cho'kishiga olib keldi.

1941 yil 13 aprel: Gretsiyada nemis qo'shinlari Olympus tog'i yaqinida yunon va ingliz pozitsiyalariga hujum uyushtirdilar. Liviyada Afrikakorps Sollumni qo'lga oladi.

1945 yil 13 aprel: Vena Qizil Armiya tarkibiga kiradi. G'arbda AQShning uchinchi armiyasi (Patton) Erfurt va Veymarni egallaydi.

1940 yil 14 -aprel: Buyuk Britaniya va Frantsiya qo'shinlari Norvegiyaning Namsos va Narvik yaqiniga qo'ndi.

1941 yil 14 -aprel: Yunonistonning Epirus armiyasi Albaniyadan chiqib ketdi. Liviyada Afrikakorpsning Tobrukni qo'lga olish uchun qilgan hujumi muvaffaqiyatsiz tugadi.

1945 yil 14 -aprel: G'arbda AQShning birinchi va to'qqizinchi armiyalari Rur cho'ntagida qolgan Heeresgruppe B (Model) kuchlarini parchalashni davom ettirmoqdalar. Buyuk Britaniyaning ikkinchi armiyasi Bremen chetiga etib boradi, AQShning uchinchi armiyasi Gera va Bayreutni qo'lga oladi. Kanadalik Birinchi Armiya (Crerar) Gollandiyaning harbiy nazoratini o'z zimmasiga oladi, bu erda Germaniya Festung Gollandiya qo'shinlari (von Blaskovits) qirg'oq bo'yidagi Atlantik devor qal'alarida qolgan.

1941 yil 15 aprel: Germaniya qo'shinlari Yugoslaviyada Saraevoni egallab olishdi.

1944 yil 15 aprel: Qizil Armiya Ukrainaning janubidagi Tarnopolni qaytarib oldi.

1945 yil 15-aprel: Sovet 3-chi Ukraina fronti (Tolbuxkin) Xeresgruppe Mitte (Shyorner) tomonidan himoyalangan Moraviyadagi Muhrisch-Ostrau sanoat maydoniga qarshi hujum boshladi. G'arbda AQShning birinchi armiyasi (Xodjes) Saksoniyadagi Leuna va Merseburgni, Frantsiyaning birinchi armiyasi (deTassigny) Reynning yuqori qismidagi Kehl va Offenburgni qo'lga kiritdi.

1945 yil 16 -aprel: G'arbda, Kanada birinchi armiyasi Gollandiyaning shimolida joylashgan Levuven va Groningenni egallab oldi. AQSh birinchi armiyasi Solingen va Vuppertalni qo'lga kiritdi. Sharqda, 1 -Belorusiya fronti (Jukov) va 1 -Ukraina fronti (Konev), Frantsiyaning N va S oder ko'prigidan Berlinga qarshi so'nggi ajoyib hujumini boshladilar. Boltiq bo'yidagi Helada, Germaniyaning "Goya" layneri Sovet suv osti kemasi tomonidan torpedo qilingan, 6500 yarador askar va qochqin halok bo'lgan.

1941 yil 17 aprel: Yugoslaviya armiyasi taslim bo'ldi, Vermaxt 345 000 mahbusni oldi.

1945 yil 17 -aprel: Xeresgruppe B nemis qo'shinlari (329 ming kishi) Ruhr cho'ntagida taslim bo'lishdi (ularning qo'mondoni FM modeli 21 aprel kuni o'z joniga qasd qildi). AQSh to'qqizinchi armiyasi Elbe bo'yidagi Magdeburgni qo'lga kiritdi. Sharqda Sovet 1 -Belorusiya frontining Berlilarga qarshi hujumi Oderdan 2 mil narida joylashgan Seelow tepaligida, qo'shinlari va tanklarida katta talafotlar bilan to'xtadi.

1945 yil 18 -aprel: Ikkinchi Britaniya armiyasi Ulzen va Lüneburgni qo'lga kiritdi. Uchinchi armiya Nyurnbergni qo'lga kiritdi va Bogemiyaga kirdi. Sharqda Sovet 1 -Ukraina fronti Neisse daryosidagi Forstni qo'lga kiritdi. Frankfurt shimolida, Sovet 1 -Belorusiya fronti, Sellov tepaligidagi hujumini davom ettirmoqda, asta -sekin ko'p sonli nemis himoyachilarini yo'q qildi.

1943 yil 19 aprel: Varshavadagi yahudiy gettosida qurolli qo'zg'olon boshlandi.

1945 yil 19 aprel: AQSh to'qqizinchi armiyasi Leypsigni bosib oldi. Sharqda Qizil Armiya Germaniyaning N va S Frankfurt mudofaasi orqali hujum qildi va odamlar va tanklarda katta yo'qotishlarga qaramay (ikki kunda 400 dan ortiq), Berlinga qarab davom etdi. Doktor Gebbels Gitlerning 56 yoshli yubileyi arafasida xalqni ogohlantiradi va barcha baxtsizliklarga qaramay, Germaniya hali ham g'alaba qozonishini, bolshevizm va plutokratiya o'rtasidagi teskari koalitsiya parchalanishini va bu Adolf Gitler ekanligini bashorat qiladi. (“Bizning Gitler!

1941 yil 20 -aprel: Gretsiyadagi ingliz qo'shinlari Olympus tog'idan chekinishdi.

1945 yil 20 -aprel: Oder ko'prigidan Stettin S -dan 2 -Belorussiya fronti (Rokossovskiy) Neubrandenburg, Stralsund va Rostok tomon hujum boshladi, sovet og'ir artilleriyasi esa Berlinni uzluksiz bombardimon qila boshladi. Ammo g'alabaning bahosi baland: Berlin jangida 1-19 aprel kunlari Sovet tanklarining yo'qotishlari 2807. Shu davrda G'arbdagi ittifoqchilar 1079 ta tankni yo'qotdilar.

1945 yil 21 aprel: Sovet 1 -chi Ukraina fronti Berlindagi Bautzen va Kottbusni 70 mil masofani bosib oldi. Sharqiy Prussiyada AOK Ostpreussen (vonSaucken) qoldiqlari hali ham Pillau portida, Frische Nehrungda va Dansig va Marienburg o'rtasidagi Vistula deltasida qarshilik ko'rsatmoqda. G'arbda, Xarz tog'laridagi Elbingerode atrofida nemis qarshiliklari davom etdi. Italiyada Bolonya yaqinida va Po daryosi bo'yida og'ir janglar.

1945 yil 22 -aprel: Berlin uchun jangda Sovet 1 -Belorusiya fronti bo'linmalari (hozirgi Sokolovskiy) shaharning shimoliy va sharqiy chekkalariga kirib kelishdi. Hitler, ignoring the entreaties of his entouragewhom he orders to leave for Berchtesgaden, and realizing that the war islost, decides to stay in his bunker at Berlin to await the inevitableend.

April 23rd, 1945: In the West, units of the British Second Army reach Harburg acrossthe Elbe from Hamburg. Reichsführer-SS Himmler begins secretnegotiations for a separate peace in the West with Count Bernadotte,head of the Swedish Red Cross. In the battle for Berlin, the attackingSoviet armies have now completely surrounded the city and aresystematically decimating the motley ranks, consisting of variousWehrmacht and Waffen-SS units (including numbers of Dutch, Danish,Norwegian, Swedish, Latvian and French volunteers) as well as Volkssturmand Hitler Youth, of the exhausted and badly outmanned and outgunneddefenders who are now under the command of General Weidling, CO of LVI.Panzerkorps.

April 24th, 1941: German forces in Greece break through British positions atThermopylae. The British expeditionary force begins the evacuation ofits troops to Egypt and Crete.

April 24th, 1945: In the West, the US Seventh Army (Patch) crosses the Danube atDillingen and captures Ulm. In the battle of Berlin, the Soviet armiesare tightening their grip and are slowly advancing toward the center ofthe city.

April 25th, 1945: Units of the US Ninth Army (Simpson) and the Soviet 1st UkrainianFront (Konev) meet on the Elbe at Torgau, 100 miles SW of Berlin. InBerlin, the battle continues with unabated ferocity, both sidessuffering heavy casualties in bitter house-to-house fighting. The reliefattack by III.Panzerkorps (Steiner) from the area of Eberswalde 50 milesNE of Berlin fails for lack of forces. The isolated fortress of Breslauis still holding out. In Italy, US and British forces cross the Po riverand capture Parma and Mantua. German U-boats sink 5 Allied supply shipsin the English Channel. Beginning of the San Francisco Conferenceconvened to discuss the founding of the United Nations.

April 26th, 1945: The British Second Army (Dempsey) enters Bremen. In the East, theSoviet 3rd Belorussian Front (Vassilevsky) captures the port of Pillau20 miles W of Königsberg, while the 2nd Belorussian Front(Rokossovsky) occupies Stettin at the mouth of the Oder. The remnants of9.Armee (Busse) are cut off and surrounded in the Halbe pocket 30 milesSW of Frankfurt.

April 27th, 1941: German troops enter Athens, the Greek capital.

April 27th, 1944: German planes spot an Allied convoy west of Start Pointalong the Channel Coast. The convoy is actually making a practice run forthe planned invasion of Normandy on a stretch of coast very much alike tothat found in the Normandy region of France. The 5.Schnellbootflottilleand 9.Schnellbootflottille are directed to attack at night, which they dowith the following boats: S100,S130, S138, S138, S140, S142, S143, S145, S150. They engagedthe convoy, consisting of 8 landing craft (LSTs or Landing Ship Tank), andprotected only by the English Korvette Azeala, at Lyme Bay. Theresult: LST 507, on fire, had to be given up, LST 531 was sunk, and LST289 received a torpedo hit which killed many soldiers. Total Allied losseswere 197 seaman and 441 soldiers lost. The event was largely coveredup by the Allies during and after WWII and is not well known.

April 27th, 1945: The US First Army (Hodges) captures Straubing and Kempten inBavaria, while in Italy the US Fifth Army (Clark) enters Genoa. In thebattle of Berlin, Red Army units reach the government center, close tothe Reichstag and Hitler’s bunker beneath the Reich Chancellery. TheGerman 12. Armee (Wenck) defending against US forces on the Elbe isordered to launch a relief attack east toward Potsdam and Berlin. TheSoviet 2nd Belorussian Front captures Prenzlau and Tangermnde 70 NW ofBerlin.

April 28th, 1940: British and French forces that were landed on the coast of Norwayare evacuated by the Royal Navy.

April 28th, 1945: The Canadian First Army (Crerar) captures Emden and Wilhelmshaven,while the US Seventh Army (Patch) occupies Augsburg, Regensburg andIngolstadt. In the battle of Berlin, the Red Army reaches the AnhaltStation and is within half a mile of the Führerbunker. Hitler marrieshis mistress, Eva Braun, and dictates his political testament in whichhe justifies the political and military actions of his 12-year-rule,blaming the war on international Jewry and exhorting the German peopleeven after defeat to adhere to the principles of National Socialism,especially its racial laws he appoints Grossadmiral Dönitz as hissuccessor. In the English Channel, German U-boats have sunk 8 Alliedships, 3 destroyers and 2 corvettes.

April 29th, 1945: The British Second Army crosses the Elbe at Lauenburg, 20 miles Eof Hamburg, and advances toward Schwerin and Wismar in Mecklenburg. TheFrench First Army (de Tassigny) captures Friedrichshafen on LakeConstance. In the battle of Berlin, the Red Army has now captured mostof the city except for the area around the Brandenburg Gate, theReichskanzlei and the Reichstag which is still fiercely defended byisolated units of the Waffen-SS.

April 30th, 1941: After the surrender of the Greek Army (Mussolini insists on aseparate surrender to the Italian forces), the German occupation ofGreece is now complete, the Wehrmacht having taken 223,000 Greek and22,000 British prisoners. In Cyrenaica, the Afrikakorps’ second attemptto capture Tobruk fails.

April 30th, 1942: Hitler and Mussolini meet at Berchtesgaden to discuss future Axisstrategy in North Africa and the Mediterranean, the main objectivesbeing the reduction of Malta and the seizure of the Suez Canal.


World War II Today: June 9

1940 German forces advancing South from the Somme capture Rouen on the Seine.

The British 51st Highland Division and part of the French 10th Army withdraw towards St-Valery-en-Caux, hoping to be evacuated to England.

The French government evacuates from Paris to Tours.

Norway officially surrenders to Germany.

1941 Fire Service Council established in Britain, with 1,400 local brigades being merged in to 32 regional ones.

British advance 40 miles into southern Syria and the Lebanon capturing Tyre in the process.

Italian casualties for May announced as 1,948 killed, 5,204 wounded and 27,292 missing.

Two thousand soldiers put an end to the strike at North American Aviation in Inglewood, CA that threatened crucial aircraft production.

1942 Heydrich lies in state in Berlin. Himmler calls him, ‘a noble, honest and decent human being’.

The Japanese high command announces that “The Midway Occupation operations have been temporarily postponed.”

1943 Tito is wounded during a German air attack.

1944 U.S. forces advancing from Utah Beach capture St. Mere-Eglise and cut the crucial road and rail links on the Cherbourg peninsula. Rommel puts all German forces in Normandy onto the defensive.

The RAF fly from French airfields for first time since 1940.

The U.S. Fifth Army is now 50 miles Northwest of Rome.

The Russians launch a heavy assault on the Finnish forces in the Karelian Isthmus to the North of Leningrad, in an attempt to force them out of war.

1945 Japanese Premier Kantaro Suzuki announces Japan will fight to the very end rather than accept unconditional surrender.

On Luzon, US Sixth Army takes Bagabag, sealing off Japanese in Cagayan Valley.

The Japanese on Okinawa’s Oroku peninsula are reported as trapped.

Tokyo radio says that 4.93m Japanese have been displaced by the bombing in the last three months.

Yugoslav partisans agree to withdraw from Austria and Trieste.

Los Angeles holds a parade for Generals George Patton and Jimmy Doolittle.


Hasegawa 1/48 Bf 109G-2/R6

This will be one of the shorter build descriptions on the site as I have virtually no recollection of making this model! I built this model in 2011 or 2012 but didn’t take any decent pictures of it at the time. Fast forward to this year on a trip back to Canada (where I lived until 2014) I took some photos of two or three models that remain there, this being one.

I do recall that this is a Hasegawa kit and that the paint scheme was the primary reason for building it. I am quite sure that I painted a standard 74/75/76 scheme first and then free-handed the white/dark green winter camouflage after applying the decals.

The only attraction German subjects hold for me is the technical difficulty of properly executing their paint scheme and this was no exception. I remember working carefully and slowly with an Testors Aztec airbrush and Tamiya acrylics to achieve the result shown here. For the record, the over-spray on the propeller blades is deliberate as it was present on the real aircraft.

It’s not perfect however I would certainly like to have weathered it more convincingly as the model looks unfinished to me now. I’ve learned a lot about weathering since completing this model and though I may flatter myself, I think I could do significantly better with it now.

A final note on the markings. I always put the swastikas on Luftwaffe models. In my opinion we must continue to remember what happened and why. The symbol that the nazis expropriated from ancient times to represent their ideology is as much a part of these models as is the wings. This symbol identifies this machine as an instrument of evil – lest we forget.


2 April 1943 - History



LYLE BERNARD AND GEORGE S. PATTON IN SICILY - 1943


World War II Timeline - Year 1943


Photo above:
Lyle Bernard and George S. Patton discussing strategy in Sicily - World War Two History 1943

February 2, 1943
The Battle of Stalingrad ends. This battle had begun on July 17, 1942. Some people suggest that this was the bloodiest battle ever fought.


1943 yil 19 aprel
Warsaw Ghetto Uprising . This revolt will be put down on May 16, 1943.


May 16, 1943
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising is crushed. It broke out on April 19, 1943.


July 5, 1943
The Battle of Kursk begins.

August 23, 1943
The Battle of Kursk ends. The Russians win.

September 8, 1943
Italy surrenders to the Allies.


October 13, 1943
Italy declares war against Germany.


November 9, 1943
Andre Le Troquer succeeds Paul Legentilhomme as head of the Commissariat la guerre of Free France (France libre).


1939-1945 - Hungary in World War II

Hungary allied with Nazi Germany early in the war. From 1939 on, Germany allowed Hungary to share in some of her booty. Hungary profited from the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia she obtained a slice of Rumania and she participated in the invasion and subsequent partition of Yugoslavia (1941). On November 20, 1940, Hungary joined the Tripartite Pact and the following June Hungarian forces joined the Germans in invading Russia and began enacting some anti- Jewish laws.

In December 1940, Teleki signed a short-lived Treaty of Eternal Friendship with Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav government, however, was overthrown on March 27, 1941, two days after it succumbed to German and Italian pressure and joined the pact. Hitler considered the overthrow a hostile act and grounds to invade. Again promising territory in exchange for cooperation, he asked Hungary to join the invasion by contributing troops and allowing the Wehrmacht (German armed forces) to march through its territory. Unable to prevent the invasion, Teleki committed suicide on April 3. Three days later, the Luftwaffe mercilessly bombed Belgrade without warning, and German troops invaded. Shortly thereafter, Horthy dispatched Hungarian military forces to occupy former Hungarian lands in Yugoslavia, and Hungary eventually annexed sections of Vojvodina.

Horthy named the right-wing radical Laszlo Bardossy to succeed Teleki. Bardossy was convinced that Germany would win the war and sought to maintain Hungary's independence by appeasing Hitler. Hitler tricked Horthy into committing Hungary to join his invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, and in December 1941 Hungary formally entered the war against Britain and the United States.

While these events were taking place Germany increased its financial and economic presence in Hungary. The Dresdner Bank obtained direct control of 16 percent of the capital stock of the Hungarian Credit Bank of Budapest, which was by far the most important commercial bank in the country. The Germans also made direct investments in existing firms and created new firms. The timber industry, for example, was developed by joint Axis and Hungarian firms. The bauxite and aluminum industry was largely German-controlled. There were also some German interests in the oil, coal, and power industries. I.G. Farben gained a foothold in Hungary's chemical industry. The Germans also obtained large interests in the Hungarian oil industry, the bauxite mines, the aluminum manufacturing facilities, and the aircraft works.

In July 1941, the government deported the first 40,000 Jews from Hungary, and six months later Hungarian troops, in reprisal for resistance activities, murdered 3,000 Serbian and Jewish hostages -- near Novi Sad in Yugoslavia. [On 17 January 2014, in an interview with the National News Agency, Sandor Szakaly, director of the government-sponsored Veritas Institute for Historical Research, called the 1941 deportation of Jews to then German-occupied Ukraine a police action against aliens because the persons expelled did not have Hungarian citizenship. His statement was harshly criticized by domestic and foreign historians, who emphasized that some 18,000 Hungarian Jews were killed in Kamyanets-Podilsky, Ukraine, not long after their deportation.]

By the winter of 1941-42, German hopes of a quick victory over the Soviet Union had faded. In January the German foreign minister visited Budapest asking for additional mobilization of Hungarian forces for a planned spring offensive and promising in return to hand Hungary some territory in Transylvania. Bardossy agreed and committed onethird of Hungary's military forces.

Horthy grew dissatisfied with Hungary's pro-German Prime Minister Laslo Bardossy, who resigned in March 1942, and named Miklos Kallay, a conservative veteran of Bethlen's government, who aimed to free Hungary from the Nazis' grip. Kallay set about disentangling Hungary from the war. Kallay faced a terrible dilemma: if he broke with Hitler and negotiated a separate peace, the Germans would occupy Hungary immediately but if he supported the Germans, he would encourage further pro-Nazi excesses. Kallay chose duplicity. In 1942 and 1943, pro-Western Hungarian government officials promised British and American diplomats that the Hungarians would not fire on their aircraft, sparing for a time Hungarian cities from bombardment.

To Hitler, the Hungarians, who were removing troops from the Russian front and not willing to deal harshly with the Jews, seemed more like a neutral than Germany's ally. Kallay refused to deport Jews to Poland when requested to do so. In April 1943 he summoned Horthy to his presence and severely criticized him, explaining Hungary's obligations to Germans and the need to eliminate the Jews.

In January 1943, the Soviet Red Army annihilated Hungary's Second Army during the massive counterattack on the Axis troops besieging Stalingrad. In the fighting, Soviet troops killed an estimated 40,000 Hungarians and wounded 70,000. As anti-Axis pressure in Hungary mounted, Kallay withdrew the remnants of the force into Hungary in April 1943, and only a nominal number of poorly armed troops remained of the country's military contribution to the Axis Powers.

Prime Minister continued his policies and in August 1943 broadcast a peace speech following Mussolini's overthrow. In March 1944 Hitler again summoned Horthy, and his cabinet, to meet him. Hitler informed Horthy and the other Hungarian leaders, minus Kallay who refused to attend the meeting, that Germany, not being able to trust Hungary, was going to occupy it.

Within days, on March 19, 1944 the Germans occupied Hungary, and on March 22, a new government was established under Prime Minister Dome Sztojay, formerly the Hungarian minister in Berlin. Aware of Kallay's deceit and fearing that Hungary might conclude a separate peace, Hitler ordered Nazi troops to occupy Hungary and force its government to increase its contribution to the war effort. Kallay took asylum in the Turkish legation. Dome Sztojay, a supporter of the Nazis, became the new prime minister. His government jailed political leaders, dissolved the labor unions, and resumed the deportation of Hungary's Jews. The real power, however, resided with the SS and Reich Plenipotentiary Edmund Vessenmayer.

While Kallay was prime minister, the Jews endured economic and political repression, but the government protected them from the "final solution." The government expropriated Jewish property banned the purchase of real estate by Jews barred Jews from working as publishers, theater directors, and editors of journals proscribed sexual relations between Jews and non-Jews and outlawed conversion to Judaism. But when the Nazis occupied Hungary in March 1944, the deportation of the Jews to the death camps in Poland began. On March 19, 1944, Adolf Eichmann and a group of SS officers arrived in Budapest to take charge of Jewish matters and ten days later anti-Jewish legislation was enacted, calling for the expropriation of Jewish property. Eichmann then set in motion machinery to round up and deport the Hungarian Jews to extermination camps. Between May 14 and July 18, 1944, over 430,00 Hungarian Jews were deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in 48 trains. Most of them were gassed.

More Jews would have perished had not it been for the efforts of Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg who arrived in Hungary on July 9, 1944 with the mission of saving as many Jews as possible. By various means, including issuing special Swedish passports and bribing guards and officials, as well as setting up a program for feeding the Jews of Budapest, it is estimated that his actions saved between 30,000 and 100,000 from extermination. In September 1944 he was forced to go into hiding to avoid the Gestapo.

Learning in July of the actions against the Jews, Horthy ordered the deportations to stop. Prime Minister Lakatos asked the Germans to removed Eichmann's men and the Hungarians lifted some of the restrictions on the remaining Jews.

Horthy used the confusion after the July 20, 1944, attempt to assassinate Hitler to replace Sztojay in August 1944 with General Geza Lakatos and halt the deportation of Jews from Budapest. By one estimate, of the approximately 725,000 Jews residing within Hungary's expanded borders of 1941, only about 260,000, mostly from Budapest, survived.

With the Germans suffering military setbacks, Sztojay resigned on August 30, 1944, and Horthy replaced him with Geza Lakatos. In September 1944, Soviet forces crossed the border, and it appeared to the Germans that Horthy was about to ask for an armistice. On October 15 Horthy announced that Hungary had signed an armistice with the Soviet Union.

The SS under Vessenmayer then kidnaped Horthy's son and held him under threats of dire consequences if Horthy to did not comply with the Nazi's wishes. The Germans abducted the regent and forced him to abrogate the armistice, depose the Lakatos government, and name Ferenc Szalasi -- the leader of the Arrow Cross Party -- prime minister.

Horthy abdicated, and soon the country became a battlefield. Some 35,000 Jews were rounded up to be sent to Auschwitz, but since that camp was being liquidated, the Jews were used as slave laborers. The remaining 160,00 Jews in Budapest suffered at the hands of the Arrow Cross, with about 20,000 perishing during the winter because of cold, hunger, disease, and Russian bombardment. In all, it is estimated that 450,000 of Hungary's estimated 650,000 pre-Final Solution Jewish population were exterminated.

Hungary was sacked first by the retreating Germans, who demolished the rail, road, and communications systems, then by the advancing Soviet Red Army, which found the country in a state of political chaos. Szalasi could not gather support to stop the oncoming Russian Army, which by November 1944, controlled two-thirds of Hungary and were on the verge of taking Budapest. Germans held off the Soviet troops near Budapest for seven weeks before the defenses collapsed in February 1945 , and on April 4, 1945, the last German troops were driven out of Hungary.

On 23 January 2014, Csaba Korosi, the country s ambassador to the United Nations, apologized publicly for the first time for the role the country played during the Holocaust. He stated, We owe an apology to the victims because the Hungarian state was guilty for the Holocaust. Firstly, because it failed to protect its citizens from destruction, and secondly, because it helped and provided financial resources to the mass murder. In a letter marking Holocaust Remembrance Day, Prime Minister Viktor Orban wrote the Hungarian Holocaust cannot be regarded as anything other than the tragedy of the whole Hungarian nation We cannot and do not tolerate the branding, humiliation, or mistreatment of anybody because of their religion or ethnicity. That is why the government has introduced a policy of zero tolerance.

On 16 April 2014, the president stated at a Holocaust memorial ceremony, the murderers were Hungarians, the victims were Hungarians. It can and obviously must be said that it happened during the time of the German occupation, but that is only an explanation, not an excuse for the actions of the Hungarian government at the time. On April 28, the president joined the annual March of the Living event commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Holocaust at the Nazi death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland and gave remarks in which he described the site as Hungary s third-largest cemetery and reminded the gathering that every third victim murdered there was a Hungarian Jew.


Videoni tomosha qiling: Battle of Berlin 1945 - Nazi Germany vs Soviet Union HD (Yanvar 2022).