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.Kumush quyqalarni sotib olish va ular ustidan G'aznachilik qog'ozlarini chiqarishga va boshqa maqsadlarga yo'naltirilgan akt.
Qabul qilingan bo'lsin. G'aznachilik kotibi vaqti -vaqti bilan to'rt million besh yuz ming untsiya miqdoridagi kumush quyqalarni yoki har oyda taklif qilinadigan shuncha narsani bozor narxida sotib olishga buyurilgan. bir dollardan oshmaydigan uch yuz etmish bir yigirma besh yuzinchi dona sof kumush va AQShning G'aznachilik pullarini sotib olish uchun to'lashda G'aznachilik kotibi tomonidan tayyorlanishi kerak. u ko'rsatganidek, kamida bir dollar yoki ming dollardan ortiq bo'lmagan bunday turdagi va bunday nominatsiyalar.
SEC 2. Ushbu akt qoidalariga muvofiq chiqarilgan G'aznachilik yozuvlari, talab bo'yicha, tangada, AQSh G'aznachiligida yoki Qo'shma Shtatlar xazinachisi yordamchisining ofisida sotib olinishi mumkin. qayta nashr etilishi; lekin bunday qog'ozlarning katta yoki kamroq miqdori, har qanday vaqtda kumush quyma va undan yasalgan standart kumush dollarlar qiymatidan oshib ketmasligi kerak, keyin esa bunday qog'ozlar bilan G'aznachilikda saqlanadi; va bunday G'aznachilik yozuvlari, agar shartnomada boshqacha ko'rsatilmagan bo'lsa, davlat va xususiy qarzlarni to'lashda qonuniy to'lov vositasi bo'lib, bojxona, soliqlar va barcha davlat yig'imlari bo'yicha olinishi kerak, va bu qabul qilinganda qayta chiqarilishi mumkin; va bunday banknotalar har qanday milliy bank assotsiatsiyasida bo'lsa, uning qonuniy zaxirasining bir qismi sifatida hisoblanishi mumkin. G'aznachilik kotibasi tomonidan taqdim etilgan har qanday G'aznachilik yozuvlari egasining talabiga binoan, u o'z xohishiga ko'ra, oltin yoki kumush tanga bilan yozib qo'yishi mumkin bo'lgan qoidalarga binoan, bu uning siyosati. Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari ikkita metallni qonuniy nisbatda yoki qonun bilan nazarda tutilgan nisbatda bir -biri bilan teng ravishda ushlab turishi kerak.
SEC 3. G'aznachilik kotibi har oyga qadar ushbu qonun qoidalariga muvofiq sotib olingan ikki million untsiya kumush bulgani standart kumush dollargacha tanga qilib berishi. [1897 yil 1 -iyul]. . va shu vaqtdan keyin u bu hujjatda nazarda tutilgan G'aznachilik yozuvlarini qaytarish uchun zarur bo'ladigan darajada ushbu akt qoidalari bo'yicha sotib olingan kumush bug'doyni tanga qiladi va bunday tangadan kelib chiqadigan har qanday daromad yoki senyoriya bo'ladi. hisobi va G'aznachilik hisobiga to'langan.
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
SEC 5. Bu juda ko'p harakat. [288 fevral, 878 yil]. . "Standart kumush dollarni tanga qilishga ruxsat berish va uning qonuniy to'lov xususiyatini tiklash to'g'risidagi akt" deb nomlangan, buning uchun har oy kamida ikki million dollar yoki to'rt milliondan ortiq bo'lmagan kumush dollarni sotib olish va tanga qilish kerak. dollarlik kumush bulyon bekor qilindi.
Oltin, kumush yoki bimetalik metallar standarti sifatida qabul qilingan mamlakat oltin va kumushdan foydalangan holda, birinchi printsip - uning zarbxonasi tangalar chiqarishi kerak. Oltin va kumush tanga uchun vakolatxona, 1792 yil va 1875 yil jadvalida AQSh tangalariga 1792 va 1875 yillar oralig'ida ruxsat bergan qonunlar batafsil ko'rsatilgan. Ikkita xususiyat e'tiborga loyiqdir. Birinchidan, eng qimmat bo'lmagan oltin tanga bir dollarga, eng qimmat kumush tanga ham bir dollarga teng edi. Oltin bir untsiya uchun kumushdan ancha qimmatroq bo'lgani uchun (va hozir ham shunday), qiymati bir dollardan yuqori bo'lgan kumush tanga amaliy foydalanish uchun juda katta bo'lardi va qiymati bir dollardan past bo'lgan oltin tanga juda kichik bo'lardi. Ikkinchidan, 1873 yildagi qonun kumushdan yasalgan uchta tangani yo'q qildi, ulardan kumush dollar eng muhim edi va xalqaro savdoda ishlatiladigan "kumush dollar" maxsus kumush tanga yaratildi.
|Oltin va kumush tanga uchun vakolatxona, 1792 yil va 1875 yil|
|Vakolatli qonun||Kumush tanga||Oltin tangalar|
|1792, P.L. 2 – 16, 1 Stat. 246||dollar a, yarim dollar, chorak dollar, tiyin, yarim tiyin a||burgut b, yarim burgut, chorak burgut|
|1849 yil, P.L. 30 – 109, 9 Stat. 397||oltin dollar c, d, ikki burgut e|
|1851 yil, P.L. 31 – 20, 9 Stat. 587||uch sent a|
|1853 yil, P.L. 32 – 79, 10 Stat. 160||uch dollar d|
|1873 yil, P.L. 42 – 131, 17 Stat. 424||savdo-dollar f|
|1875 yil, P.L. 43 – 143, 18 Stat. 478||yigirma sent g|
|1873 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonun bilan to'xtatildi.|
|b O'n dollarlik bo'lak.|
|c 1873 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonunda bir dollarlik qismning nomi o'zgartirildi.|
|d 1890 yildagi qonun bilan to'xtatilgan (P.L. 51 – 945, 26 Stat. 485).|
|e Yigirma dollarlik parcha.|
|f Faqat xalqaro operatsiyalarda foydalanish uchun mo'ljallangan. 1887 yildagi qonun bilan to'xtatilgan (P.L. 49 – 396, 24 Stat. 634).|
|g 1878 yildagi Qonun bilan to'xtatildi (P.L. 45 – 79, 20 Stat. 47).|
Ikkinchi muhim jihat shundaki, chiqarilgan tangalar, qanday bo'lishidan qat'iy nazar, egasining pul majburiyatlarini qabul qilishi va qondirishi kerak. Oltin va kumush tanganing qonuniy-tender kuchi, 1792 yil va 1875 yilgi jadval shuni ko'rsatadiki, 1792 yildan 1875 yilgacha oltin tangalar cheksiz moliyaviy majburiyatlarni bajarishi mumkin edi ("cheksiz qonuniy tender" kuchiga ega edi), 1853 yildan keyin esa kumush tangalar kumush dollar faqat besh dollargacha bo'lgan majburiyatlarni bajarishi mumkin edi (faqat "cheklangan qonuniy-tender kuchiga" ega). 1873 yildagi Pullar to'g'risidagi qonun bu masalani hal qilmagan bo'lsa -da, kelgusi yilda qayta ko'rib chiqilgan nizom standart kumush dollarni qonuniy to'lov vositasi sifatida besh dollargacha cheklab qo'ydi.
|Oltin va kumush tanganing qonuniy tender kuchi, 1792 yil va 1875 yil|
|Kumush tanga||Oltin tangalar|
|Vakolatli qonun||Tangalar||To'lovlar a||Tangalar||To'lovlar a|
|1792, P.L. 2 – 16, 1 Stat. 246||hamma||cheksiz b||hamma||cheksiz b|
|1834, P.L. 23 – 95, 4 Stat. 699||hamma||cheksiz b|
|1837 yil, P.L. 24 – 3, 5 Stat. 136||hamma||cheksiz||hamma||cheksiz|
|1849 yil, P.L. 30 – 109, 9 Stat. 397||ikki burgut, oltin dollar||cheksiz|
|1851 yil, P.L. 31 – 20, 9 Stat. 587||uch sent||30 sent|
|1853 yil, P.L. 32 – 79, 10 Stat. 160||yarim dollar, chorak dollar, tiyin, yarim tiyin||besh dollar||uch dollar||cheksiz|
|1873 yil, P.L. 42 – 131, 17 Stat. 424||savdo-dollar c, yarim dollar, chorak dollar, tiyin||besh dollar||hamma||cheksiz d|
|1874 yil, P.L. 43 – 333, 18 Stat. 113 e||hamma f||besh dollar||hamma||cheksiz d|
|1875 yil, P.L. 43 – 143, 18 Stat. 478||yigirma sent||besh dollar|
|chegara, agar mavjud bo'lsa.|
|b tangalar haqiqiy og'irliklariga mutanosib bo'lgan qiymatdan kamroq.|
|c 1876 yilda bekor qilingan qonuniy to'lov vositasi (J.R. 44-17, 19 Stat. 215).|
|d tangalar standart og'irlikdan kam va haqiqiy og'irliklariga mutanosib baho berishda bardoshlik chegarasi.|
|e 1874, 43-3586, Rev. Stat. 708.|
|f shu jumladan dollar.|
Tangalar standartining uchinchi elementi - "tekin tangalar" bo'lishi, ya'ni har qanday xususiy partiya zarb qilinadigan zarbxonaga ko'p miqdorda oltin yoki kumush olib kelib, tanga yoki uning ekvivalentini olishi mumkin. Tangalar erkinligi, 1792 yil va 1873 yilgi jadval shuni ko'rsatadiki, oltin uchun bepul tanga har doim 1792 yildan 1873 yilgacha mavjud bo'lgan (va aslida AQSh 1933 yilda oltin standartidan voz kechmaguncha). Biroq, bir dollardan kam bo'lgan kumush tangalar uchun tekin zarb qilish 1853 yilda, 1873 yildagi qonun esa standart kumush dollarning tekin pul ishlashini tugatdi. U hech qachon tiklanmagan.
|Pul tanga qilish erkinligi, 1792 yil va 1873 yil|
|1792, P.L. 2 – 16, 1 Stat. 246||hamma||hamma|
|1837 yil, P.L. 24 – 3, 5 Stat. 136||hamma||hamma|
|1853 yil, P.L. 32 – 79, 10 Stat. 160||faqat kumush dollar|
|1873 yil, P.L. 42 – 131, 17 Stat. 424||faqat savdo-dollar||hamma|
Tanganing "nozik vazni" - bu o'z ichiga olgan sof metal (oltin yoki kumush) miqdori. "Oddiy noziklik" - bu tanganing og'irligi foizining sof metaldan iboratligi, qolgan qismi esa, aslida, qimmat bo'lmagan qotishma. "Standart vazn" - bu tanganing umumiy og'irligi (sof metall va qotishma). Dollarning qonuniy oltin va kumush qiymati, 1792 yil va 1873 yilgi jadvalda oltin va kumush dollarlarning 1792 yildan 1873 yilgacha bo'lgan qonuniy nozik va standart og'irliklari ko'rsatilgan. Jadvalda oltin/kumushning qonuniy nisbati (kumush untsiya soni) ko'rsatilgan. tangadagi oltin untsiyalari bilan solishtirganda), "yalpiz nisbati". Oltin va kumush tangalar uchun mos ravishda 1485/1664 va 11/12 (1792 yildagi qonun), oltin tanga uchun 116/129 (1834 yildagi qonun) va oltin va kumush tangalar uchun 9/10 bo'lgan noziklik ko'rsatilmagan. 1837 va 1873 yildagi aktlar).
|Dollarning qonuniy oltin va kumush qiymati, 1792 yil va 1873 yil|
|Dollarning og'irligi (don a)|
|Vakolatli qonun||Yaxshi||Standart||Yaxshi||Standart||Oltin/kumush narx nisbati b|
|1792, P.L. 2 – 16, 1 Stat. 246||371.25||416||24.75 v||27 c||15.0000|
|1834, P.L. 23 – 95, 4 Stat. 699||23.2 v||25,8 v||16.0022|
|1837 yil, P.L. 24 – 3, 5 Stat. 136||371.25||412.5||23.22 c||25,8 v||15.9884|
|1873 yil, P.L. 42 – 131, 17 Stat. 424||378 d||420 d||23.22||25.8||—|
|a Odatiy "avoirdupois" o'lchov tizimi ostida (16 untsiya = 1 funt), 1 untsiya = 437,5 don.|
|b Oltin ham, kumush ham cheksiz qonuniy to'lov vositasi bo'lganida, nozik kumushning oltin tarkibiga nisbati.|
|c) burgutning o'ndan bir vazniga teng (10 dollarlik oltin parcha).|
|d Savdo-dollar, cheklangan qonuniy to'lov.|
Qiymati bir dollardan past bo'lgan barcha tangalar kasrli tangalar kumushdan qilingan. Fraktsion tangalar XIX asrda hozirgi kunga qaraganda ancha muhimroq edi, chunki narxlar ancha past edi. Aslida, chakana savdo operatsiyalari asosan shunday tangalar bilan amalga oshirilgan. "Fraktsion tanganing nozik kumush tarkibi", 1792 yil va 1875 yilgi jadvalda bunday kumushning standart metallar bilan taqqoslaganda ingichka metallarning qonuniyligi ko'rsatilgan. 1853 yilgi qonunga qadar, fraktsion kumush tangalarning (uch sentlik tangani hisobga olmaganda) nisbiy qiymati (nozik vaznning umumiy vaznga nisbati) kumush dollar bilan bir xil edi. 1853 yildagi qonun bu nisbatni pasaytirdi, shuning uchun dollarlarga nisbatan kasrli tangalarni haddan tashqari oshirdi. 1873 yildagi qonun kasr tangalar uchun bu nisbatni biroz oshirdi.
|Fraktsion tanganing nozik kumush tarkibi, 1792 yil va 1875 yil|
|Vakolatli qonun||Tangalar||Kumush dollardan farq|
|1792, P.L. 2 – 16, 1 Stat. 246||hamma||nol|
|1837 yil, P.L. 24 – 3, 5 Stat. 136||hamma||nol|
|1851 yil, P.L. 31 – 20, 9 Stat. 587||uch sent||– 16,67 foiz|
|1853 yil, P.L. 32 – 79, 10 Stat. 160||hamma uch sentdan tashqari||– 6,91 foiz|
|1853 yil, P.L. 32 – 96, 10 Stat. 181||uch sent||– 6,91 foiz|
|1873 yil, P.L. 42 – 131, 17 Stat. 424||yigirma sentdan tashqari hamma||– 6,47 foiz|
|1875 yil, P.L. 43 – 143, 18 Stat. 478||yigirma sent||– 6,47 foiz|
Kumush sertifikat dollarlik veksellarni tushunish
1873 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonunning qoidalari unchalik e'tiborga olinmagan. Amal bimetalizmni samarali ravishda tugatib, AQShni oltin standartiga qo'yib, kumush uchun tekin tanga yasashni tugatdi. Kumush tangalar haligacha qonuniy to'lov vositasi sifatida ishlatilishi mumkin bo'lsa -da, ozchilik muomalada edi.
AQSh hukumati 1878 yilda Bland-Allison qonuni bo'yicha sertifikatlar berishni boshladi. Amalga ko'ra, odamlar AQSh G'aznachiligiga kumush tangalarni tashish osonroq bo'lgan sertifikatlar evaziga qo'yishlari mumkin edi. Bu pulni sertifikatning nominal qiymatiga teng kumush evaziga ham sotib olish mumkin. Ilgari, Xitoy, Kolumbiya, Kosta -Rika, Efiopiya, Marokash, Panama va Gollandiya kabi boshqa davlatlar kumush sertifikatlar berishgan.
1792 yilda Kongress pulning bimetalik standartini qabul qilib, oltin va kumushni ayirboshlash vositalariga aylantirdi. Bepul tangalar siyosati bo'yicha, xom oltin yoki kumushni AQSh zarbxonasiga olib borib, tangalarga aylantirish mumkin edi. Biroq, 1793-1873 yillar oralig'ida kamdan -kam kumush tangalar zarb qilingan, chunki tanga yasash uchun zarur bo'lgan xom kumush ularning oltin dollari va yashil dollarlardan qimmatroq bo'lgan.
Bir yil o'tgach, Qayta ko'rib chiqilgan Nizomning 3568 -bo'limi kumush tangalarni besh dollardan oshadigan qonuniy to'lov vositasi sifatida ishlatishni taqiqlab, kumush maqomini yanada pasaytirdi.
Kumush huquqlar: Karterlar oilasining hikoyasi va o'z farzandlarini oq maktablarga yuborish va fuqarolik huquqlarini talab qilish haqidagi jasur qaror.
Kitob – Badiiy adabiyot. By Constance Curry. Marian Rayt Edelman tomonidan kirish. 1996 yil
Karterlar oilasi o'z farzandlarini Missisipi shtatining Drew shahridagi oq rangdagi maktabga yuborishga qaror qilgani haqidagi hikoya.
Quyidagi tavsif sharhdan olingan Kumush huquqlar Pol Traxtman tomonidan Smitsonlik jurnal, 1997 yil iyun.
Kumush huquqlar [Afrikalik-amerikalik oilaning hayajonli xotirasi va o'z farzandlarini Missisipi shtatining Drew shahridagi oq maktablarga yuborish uchun kurashgan.
Muallif, Konstans Karri, Amerika Do'stlariga Xizmat Qo'mitasining (AFSC) dala vakili edi, u Karterlar oilasiga qo'rqitish, qasos va haqoratli sinovlar orqali yashashga yordam berishga harakat qildi, chunki uning yetti farzandi Drewdagi yagona qora tanli talabalar bo'lishdi. 1965 yilda oq boshlang'ich va o'rta maktablar. (Sakkizinchisi 1967 yilda ularga qo'shilgan.)
Kitobdagi ovozlar, asosan, Karterlarniki, Curry ’ ning intervyularidan va May Berta Karterning do'stlari va boshqa inqirozdan keyin do'stlar shtab -kvartirasiga yozgan xatlaridan. Natijada, kitobda tarix kamdan -kam ochib beradigan yaqinlik, yaqinlik va hissiy haqiqat bor. Bu, shuningdek, Cartersni jasorat, imon va muhabbatni har qanday o'quvchi baham ko'rishi mumkin bo'lgan so'zlar va faktlarning soddaligi bilan ochiladi. Hatto kitobning nomi ham shu tilning aksidir. Missisipi deltasining qora tanli oilalari orasida "fuqarolik huquqlari" va "8221" byurokratik atamalari "kumush huquqlar" orzusi deb tarjima qilingan.
Bu hikoyani aytib berish uchun, Curry o'tgan bir necha yillarni Karterlar bilan do'stligini yangilab, voyaga etgan bolalar bilan suhbatlashdi, 1960 -yillardagi voqealarga nuqtai nazar bilan qarashga harakat qildi. Karterlar Drew tashqarisidagi paxta plantatsiyasida sherikchilik qiladigan oila edi, Missisipi federal mablag'larni yo'qotish xavfi ostida federal qonunni chetlab o'tish rejasini tuzdi. Carters kabi oilalar bolalarini oq maktablarga yuborish uchun qog'ozga imzo chekishlari mumkin edi, lekin qora tanlilar ham, oq tanlilar ham bunday tanlov qilgan oilalar bilan nima bo'lishini bilishar edi. “Agar ular sizni yuvishga kirgizmasalar, sizni yuvib tashlashadi, ” Mey Berta Karter oilani qo'llab -quvvatlagan Ogayo shtatidan tashrif buyurgan vazirga aytdi.
Karterlarni uydan chiqarib yuborish bilan tahdid qilishdi va mahalliy do'konlarning kreditlari kesilib, uylari qorong'uda o'q ovozi bilan vayron bo'lgani, ularni qo'rquvdan polda uxlashga majbur qilishdi. Hayot oson bo'lmagan maktabga avtobusda minib kelayotgan bolalarga spitbollar va haqoratlar yog'di. “ Men tarix darsidan nafratlandim, ” katta yoshli bolalardan biri esladi: "Biz fuqarolar urushini yoritganimizda va o'qituvchi" nigger "deb aytganida va talabalarga men u erda bo'lmaganimda aytishga ruxsat bergan edi. #8221
Oq maktablarga borishni Karter bolalari tanlagan. Ularning hech biri qora maktablarga qaytib kelmagan, ularda o'quvchilar paxta dalalarida ishlashlari uchun bo'linmalar o'tkazilgan. "Men paxta dalasida bo'lishimni va terish paytida oq maktab avtobuslari yonimizdan o'tayotganini ko'rish men uchun eng yomon ko'rar edi", deb esladi Rut. Ammo Rut ham oq maktabdagi kunlarini yomon ko'rishga kelgan.
Bu vaqt ichida men nafratga to'lib ketgandek bo'ldim. Men Missisipidan, oq tanli odamdan nafratlandim. Men o'qituvchilarimni yomon ko'rardim. Men hamma narsani yomon ko'rardim. Keyin biz maktabdan keyin tushdan keyin bu kichik mashg'ulotlarni uyda o'tkaza boshladik. Bu deyarli terapiyaga o'xshardi. Biz o'tirardik va onam: "Bugun maktabda ishlar qanday o'tdi? ’ Biz nima bo'lganini gaplashardik va ko'p marta birga yig'lardik. . . .
Peshindan keyin Rut tiklaganida, bu uning onasining ovozi edi va u xotirasida aks -sado eshitdi. “Agar onam aytganimni eshitgan bo'lsa, "men oq tanlilarni yomon ko'raman, men ularga dosh berolmayman," u doim javob berar edi, "Sen buni hech qachon aytma". Siz hech qachon oq tanli odamlardan yoki hech kimdan nafratlanmasligingizni aytmaysiz. ’. . . U bizga aytishni istamagan boshqa narsa, biz hech qachon tug'ilmasligimizni xohlardi. ”
Shunga qaramay, bolalarga qilingan bosimlar shafqatsiz edi. Eng kichigi, 1967 yilda birinchi sinfga kirgan Karl izolyatsiyaning og'irligini esladi. Keyingi yili, ikkinchi sinfda, u shunchaki qochishga harakat qildi.
O'yin do'stlari yo'q. . . meni yomon his qildi. . . . Men bir kuni maktab hovlisidan chiqib, uyga keldim. Men faqat etti yoshda edim. . . Men onamga uygacha piyoda yurganimni aytdim va qaytmayman. Men kasalman, yotishga yotdim, dedim.
Ammo ertasi kuni u qaytib keldi, uning asosiy panohi matematika fakultetining a'lochisi edi.
Mey Berta va uning eri Metyu fuqarolik huquqlari harakatining yuragi bo'lgan jasorat va imon bilan farzandlarini eng yomon kunlarda boshqargan, lekin ular buni yolg'iz o'zi qilolmagan. Konstans Karri kabi fuqarolik huquqlari xodimlari orqali xabarlar tarqaldi va ko'p joylarda yaxshi niyatli odamlar Karterlarni qo'llab -quvvatlash manbaiga aylandi.
Mana, masalan, nazoratchi Karter paxtasi ostida paxta terimidan oldin shudgor qilganda nima bo'ldi:
Amzi Mur, Missisipi, 1963. Xarvi Richards surati.
Paxtachilikdan pul bo'lmasa ham, Karterlar noyabr va dekabr oylarida omon qolishdi. Amzi Mur [uyga kelgan va NAACP mahalliy filialini tashkil qilishga yordam bergan qora tanli faxriy] oziq -ovqat olib keldi, Boulder do'stlari [Koloradoda] tushlik pulini yuborishda davom etdilar, AFSC kichik grantlar yubordi, Nyu -Yorkdagi Morningside Gardens fuqarolik huquqlari qo'mitasi. kiyim -kechak va pul qo'shdi va ba'zi konservalar Nyu -Jersidagi cherkovdan keldi. Va nazoratchi oilasi bilan kelmagan kunida, mashinasi uchun har yili 15 dollar to'lanadigan, AQShning Missisipi Erkinlik Demokratik partiyasining etakchisi bo'lgan Fanni Lou Xamer Mey Bertaga pul olib keldi.
Bu kitobni o'qish bizning hayotimizning chuqur bog'liqligini, odamlar bir -biriga g'amxo'rlik qilganda va nafrat va zo'ravonlikka qarshi sevgi bilan harakat qilishga tayyor bo'lgan vijdon kuchini eslatadi. Drew maktablarini ajratgan sakkizta Karter bolalarining ettitasi keyinchalik Missisipi universitetini tamomlagan, u erda qora tanli birinchi talaba AQSh marshallari eskortiga muhtoj bo'lgan. Ularni qo'llab -quvvatlagan ruh 1966 yil may oyida Mey Bertadan Konstans Kariga yozgan maktubida ifodalangan:
Men yakshanba kuni cherkovga bordim va va'zgo'yim bir -birlarini sevish haqida va'z qilishdi - bu faqat negr degani emas, bu hamma qora va oqni anglatadi.
[Yuqorida ta'kidlab o'tilganidek, kitobning bu ta'rifi Pol Traxtman tomonidan yozilgan.]
ISBN: 9780156004794 | Mariner Books tomonidan nashr etilgan.
Chidab bo'lmas yuk: Mukofotga sazovor bo'lgan 56 daqiqali Karterlar oilasi haqidagi hujjatli film, Drew maktablarini ajratish uchun kurash. Chea Prince va Constance Curry tomonidan 2003 yilda ishlab chiqarilgan. Icarus filmlar. “Degregatsiya davrining eng yaxshi video tarixlaridan biri. 1960 -yillardagi hujjatli filmlar qanday bo'lishi kerakligiga ajoyib misol. Jasoratli bo'lish nimani anglatishini filmga yozib oladi. Bu dramatik hikoyaning sehrli ravshanligi tomoshabinning diqqatini doimo ushlab turadi. Talabalar uchun ajralmas …, chunki haqiqiy ishtirokchilar markaziy sahnani egallashadi va bu davrning boshqa bir hikoyasida bu darajadagi ishni topish juda qiyin bo'ladi. ” - professor Kertis Ostin, Janubiy Missisipi universiteti
Bu maktab oq emas!: Dorin Rappaport va Kertis Jeyms tomonidan tasvirlangan, boshlang'ich maktab rasmli kitobi, Karterlar oilasi va Drew maktablarini ajratish uchun kurashayotgani haqida. (Quyoshga sakrash, 32 bet, 2005.)
Vahima 1893 yil
Aksariyat yirik moliyaviy inqirozlar singari, 1890 -yillar depressiyasidan oldin ham jamoatchilik ishonchini pasaytirgan va iqtisodiyotni zaiflashtirgan bir qator zarbalar yuz berdi. 1893 yildagi vahima iqtisodiy inqirozga olib kelgan ajoyib moliyaviy inqirozni keltirib chiqardi. Harrison ma'muriyatining oxirgi kunlarida Sharqning yirik liniyasi bo'lgan Reading Railroad qabulxonaga o'tdi. Bu qulash tez orada Reading va boshqa temir yo'llarga bog'liq bo'lgan yuzlab banklar va korxonalarning muvaffaqiyatsizligi bilan kuchaytirildi. Qimmatli qog'ozlar bozori keskin pasayish bilan javob berdi. Yana yiqilishdan qo'rqib, evropalik sarmoyadorlar o'z mablag'larini AQShdan tortib olishdi, lekin tez orada depressiya Atlantikaning narigi tomonini ham qamrab oldi. G'arbda va janubda davom etayotgan qishloq xo'jaligi depressiyasi chuqurlashib, baxtsizlikni o'sha mintaqalarga tarqatdi. Minglab korxonalar vayron bo'lgan va to'rt milliondan ziyodi ishsiz qolgan bo'lsa -da, Klivlend ozgina ish qildi. U, har ikkala yirik partiyaning aksariyat odamlari singari, biznes aylanishi tabiiy hodisa va siyosatchilar tomonidan buzilmasligi kerak, deb hisoblardi. Biroq, bitta iqtisodiy masala prezidentni qattiq xavotirga soldi. Harrison ma'muriyatining so'nggi yillarida mamlakatning oltin zaxirasi tobora kamayib bordi. "Milliard dollarlik Kongress" ning katta xarajatlari va Sherman kumush sotib olish to'g'risidagi qonun sabab bo'lgan oltin oqimi profitsitni kamaytirishning asosiy omillari edi. Klivlend qasamyod qilganidan bir necha hafta o'tgach, mamlakat zaxiralari 100 million dollardan pastga tushdi, bu psixologik to'siq bo'lib, xalq ishonchini yanada susaytirdi. Prezident oltin standartni qutqarish uchun harakat qildi, lekin bu jarayonda Demokratik partiyani bo'linib, janub va g'arbning kumush kuchlarini begonalashtirdi. 1893 yil iyun oyining oxirida Kongress tanaffus qilganda, prezident Klivlend bozorlarga salbiy ta'sir ko'rsatishi mumkinligidan qo'rqib, yashirincha katta sog'liq muammosini hal qildi. 1893 yildagi vahima va boshqa omillar doimiy ta'sir ko'rsatdi. 1890 -yillardagi depressiya 1897 -yilgacha to'liq to'xtamadi. Bir qator muvaffaqiyatsizliklar va bankrotliklarga bitta javob biznes konsolidatsiyasining o'sishi bo'ldi. Jamiyatning kambag'al elementlari og'ir paytlarda ularga e'tibor berilmasligiga ishonishgan, keyin esa ishonuvchilar rahm -shafqatida qolishgan. 19 -asrning oxirgi choragida olib borilgan islohotlar etarli emas edi, keyingi asr uchun yangi rahbariyat zarur edi.
Dollar ispan 8 real realiga ko'ra zarb qilingan. Ingliz tili ma'ruzachilari ispan 8 realini ispan tilidagi dollar deb atashdi. "Tegirmonli" so'zi, taxta deb nomlangan blankalarning og'irlik va o'lchamlarga mos kelishi va soxtalashtirishning oldini olish uchun frezalash dastgohida "tegirmon qilingan" degan ma'noni anglatadi. Oldinga siljish jarayoni bu ispan tangalarini dunyoning ko'plab mamlakatlarida ishlatishga imkon berdi.
1834 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonun
Oltinning AQSh hukumati rasmiy narxi 1792 yildan 1834 yilda 20,67 dollarga ko'tarilgunga qadar 1792 yildan bir troy unsiyasi uchun 19,75 dollarni tashkil etdi. 1934 yilda narx 35 dollarga ko'tarildi. 1972 yilda narx 38 dollarga, 1973 yilda 42,22 dollargacha ko'tarildi.
Kongress oltinning yangi qiymatini 1834 yildagi Endryu Jekson boshchiligidagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonunning qabul qilinishi bilan yarashtirdi. Oltinning qiymatini bozorga va uning qiymatini kumushga moslashtirish uchun oltinning og'irligi va qiymatining yangi reglamenti qabul qilindi. Qonun oltinning dollar uchun nisbatini bir untsiya oltin uchun 20,67 dollar ekvivalentiga qayta ko'rib chiqdi, oltin qiymatini oshirdi va kumush-oltin nisbati taxminan 16: 1 ga etdi.
1873 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonun
1873 yildagi tangalar to'g'risidagi qonun g'arbiy kumush qazuvchilar tomonidan "1873 yildagi jinoyat" deb ham atalgan. G'arb davlatlari iqtisodiyotini boyitgan kumush bumni tugatib, bu harakat kumushni pulsizlantirdi. Oltin standarti uchun kumush tashlandi, keyinchalik butun dunyo hukumatlari tomonidan qabul qilinadi.
1878 yildagi Bland Allison qonunining qabul qilinishiga yordam beradigan "Erkin kumush harakati" deb nomlangan kuchli kuch tashkil etildi. Bu qonun G'aznachilik departamentiga muomalada kumush dollarga aylantirish uchun 2-4 million dollarga mahalliy kumush sotib olish imkonini berdi. Bu akt Prezident Rezerford B. Xeytsning vetosini bekor qilganidan keyin Kongressdan o'tdi.
1890 yilda qabul qilingan Sherman kumush sotib olish to'g'risidagi qonun oldingi qonunni almashtirdi va har oyda 4,5 million untsiya kumush quyma sotib olishni ko'paytirdi. Prezident Klivlend keyinchalik 1893 yilda bu xatti -harakatni bekor qildi, chunki AQSh G'aznachiligining oltin zaxiralari oltinni evaziga kumush sotgan investorlar tomonidan kamayib ketdi.
Janubiy vazirlar 1861 yilda G'aznachilik kotibi Salmon P. Cheyzni tangalarga "Biz Xudoga ishonamiz" deb yozishga undagan. Kongress ikki tsentlik tanga haqidagi iborani 1864 yilda ma'qullagan va birinchi marta ishlatgan. 1865 yilgi qonunning qabul qilinishi bilan yozuv oltin va kumush tangalarga kengaytirilgan. 1873 yilga kelib, barcha tangalar Kongress roziligisiz "In God We Trust" bilan tasdiqlandi.
1921-35 yillar tinchlik dollar
“ urushi barcha urushlarni tugatish ” bu olijanob intilishdan ancha past bo'ldi. Hozirgi tarix 1914 yildan 1918 yilgacha Evropani vayron qilgan Birinchi Jahon Urushi deb atalgan narsa butun dunyo bo'ylab tinchlikka intilishni qo'zg'atdi. Bu kuchli umidning bevosita natijalaridan biri Millatlar Ligasi edi. Ikkinchi, shuhratparast, ammo samimiy, tinchlik dollari edi. Amerika Ligadan voz kechdi, lekin tangani iliq quchoqladi.
Urushdan keyin tinchlikning tiklanishini nishonlaydigan va eslab turadigan tanga chiqarish haqidagi fikrlar keng tarqaldi. Bu taklifni ilgari surishda Amerika Numizmatika Assotsiatsiyasi asosiy rol o'ynadi. Shu bilan birga, AQSh zarbxonasi millionlab kumush dollar ishlab chiqarishni boshlash zarurati oldida qoldi. Bu ehtiyoj 1918 yilda kumush qazib olish manfaatlarini ilgari surgan va aniq foyda keltirgan Pittman qonunidan kelib chiqqan. Bu choraga ko'ra, hukumatga 350 million kumush dollarni eritish, kumushni quyqaga aylantirish, keyin metallni sotish yoki yordamchi kumush tanga ishlab chiqarish uchun vakolat berilgan edi. Bundan tashqari, eriganlarning hammasini almashtirish uchun dollarni urish kerak edi.
Kumush ishlab chiqaruvchilarga yordam berishdan tashqari, qonun o'sha paytda urush ittifoqchisi bo'lgan Buyuk Britaniyaga ham yordam bergan. 1918 va 1919 moliyaviy yillarida AQSh hukumati jami 270 milliondan ortiq kumush dollarni eritib yubordi va ularning 259.112.554 -ining katta qismi pul inqirozini engish uchun kumushga muhtoj bo'lgan inglizlarga sotildi. Hindiston. Xuddi shu davr mobaynida Qo'shma Shtatlar o'z yordamchi tangalar uchun yangi xom ashyo olish uchun 11,111,168 kumush dollar eritdi.
Pittman qonuni shartlari asosida erigan tangalar shu kungacha AQSh zarbxonasi tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan standart kumush dollar (savdo dollarlaridan farqli o'laroq) ishlab chiqarishning deyarli yarmini tashkil etdi. Shunday bo'lsa -da, bu yo'qotish xalq savdosi uchun alohida zarba bo'lmadi. Kumush dollar cheklangan miqdorda ishlatilgan, qolgan zaxiralar esa tijorat ehtiyojlarini qondirish uchun etarli edi. Tangalarga talab shu qadar kam ediki, 1904 yildan buyon o'n yildan ortiq ishlab chiqarilgani yo'q.
Bu fonda, zarb qilingan erigan pullarni almashtirish uchun yangi kumush dollarni urish uchun hech qanday sabab yo'q edi, lekin Pittman qonuni buni talab qilgan. Shunga ko'ra, 1921 yilda, kumush narxi urushdan keyingi yuqori darajadan tushganidan so'ng, Morgan kumush dollarlarini yana to'xtatib qo'ydi. Bu haqiqatan ham rekord raqamlarda amalga oshdi: o'sha bir yil mobaynida turli zarbxonalar jami 86 milliondan ziyod misollar keltirdilar, bu seriyadagi bir yillik eng yuqori ko'rsatkichdir.
Qiziqarli tasodif bilan, 1921 yil 9 -may kuni Morgan dollar ishlab chiqarish qayta tiklandi, Kongressda urushdan keyingi tinchlikni bildiruvchi yangi kumush dollar chiqarishni talab qiluvchi qonun qabul qilindi. Uning homiylari qo'shma qarorda ta'riflaganidek, yangi tanga Germaniya Imperator hukumati va Amerika Qo'shma Shtatlari xalqi hukumati o'rtasidagi urushning tugatilganligini eslatuvchi tegishli dizaynga ega bo'ladi. ”
Kongress bu chora bo'yicha hech qanday chora ko'rmasdan, tanaffus qildi. Ma'lum bo'lishicha, Kongressning ruxsatnomasi haqiqatan ham kerak emas edi, chunki Morgan dollari qonuniy minimal 25 yildan ortiq ishlab chiqarilgan bo'lsa, qonun hujjatlarining roziligisiz o'zgartirilishi kerak edi.
Tanganing dizaynini olish uchun Tasviriy san'at federal komissiyasi mamlakatning kichik guruhi va eng yaxshi medal sovrindorlari ishtirokida tanlov o'tkazdi. To'qqiz taklif etilganlar orasida Viktor D. Brenner, Adolf A. Vaynman va Xermon A. MakNil kabi taniqli rassomlar bor edi, ularning hammasi AQShning oldingi tangalarini ishlab chiqardi. Ammo g'olib Entoni de Frensischi ismli italiyalik yosh muhojir bo'lib chiqdi, uning Ozodlik portreti uning yosh rafiqasi Tereza namunasi bilan yaratilgan. Tanganing teskari tomonida burgut osmonda, bir necha nurlar orasidan quyoshga qarab turibdi va qoyaga Tinchlik so'zi qo'yilgan. AQSh shirkatining aylanishi uchun ishlab chiqarilgan boshqa hech bir tanga hech qachon bunday shiorga ega bo'lmagan.
1921 yil tinchlik dollarlarini ishlab chiqarish dekabr oyining oxirgi haftasigacha davom etmadi va milliondan ortiq misollar ishlab chiqarildi. Tez orada ma'lum bo'ldiki, tangalar rölyefi juda baland bo'lib, zarba berishni qiyinlashtirdi va haddan tashqari sinib ketishiga olib keldi. Yalpiz muammosini 1922 yilda yengillikni kamaytirish orqali tuzatdi, lekin bu jarayonda tanganing estetik jozibasini ham biroz pasaytirdi.
1928 yilga kelib, Mint Pittman qonunining talablarini qondirish uchun etarli miqdorda tinchlik dollarlarini ishlab chiqardi. Bu ishlab chiqarishni to'xtatdi. Kumush dollar qopqog'i keyingi yil depressiya boshlanishi bilan yanada qattiqroq yopildi. Dizayn 1934 yilda ikki yillik parda chaqiruviga qaytdi, chunki kumush sertifikatlar uchun ko'proq aravachalar kerak edi. 1934-yillar 1921 va 1928 yillar bilan bir qatorda seriyadagi asosiy tangalardan biri bo'lib chiqdi. Bir nechta matli dalillar mavjud, lekin faqat 1921 va 1922 yillar uchun.
1960 -yillarning boshlariga qadar kollektsionerlar ikkala dizayndagi kumush dollarlarni ham e'tibordan chetda qoldirdilar, o'shanda kumush guvohnomani qaytarish va G'aznachilik bilan bog'liq reklama hamma istaganlarga 1000 dollarlik dollar sotish katta kumush tangalarga yangi qiziqish uyg'otdi. Ajablanarlisi shundaki, tinchlik dollarlari o'nlab yillar davomida banklarda mavjud edi va G'aznachilik departamenti siyosatiga binoan Morgan dollarlari berilishidan oldin to'langan. Ammo bir nechta kollektsionerlar bu qimmatroq tangalar to'plamini to'ldirishga qiziqish bildirishdi, shuning uchun kichikroq nominatsiyalarni yig'ish amaliyroq edi: kumush dollar 1930 va 40 -yillarda katta miqdordagi summani tashkil etdi, bu esa o'nlab tuxum yoki o'n quti bug'doy sotib olish uchun etarli edi. . 1960 yillarning boshlariga qadar, G'aznachilik tinchlik dollarini deyarli bo'shatib bo'lmaguncha, Morganlar ko'proq qidira boshladilar va bu jarayonda ikkala seriya uchun ham kollektsionerlarning g'ayratini oshirdi.
Tinchlik dollarlarining butun aylanmasi atigi 24 tangadan iborat bo'lib, ularning hech biri juda kam uchraydi. Shunday qilib, ko'plab kollektsionerlar to'liq xurmo va yalpiz to'plamlariga intilishadi. Toza, yuqori darajadagi buyumlar qiyin, ammo zaif zarbalar tez-tez uchrab turardi va keng, ochiq dizayn tangalarni eskirishi va shikastlanishiga olib keldi. Liberty -ning yuzi, bo'yni va qulog'idagi sochlari, peshonasi ustidagi sochlar kiyinishni tekshirishi kerak. Orqa tomonda kiyinish birinchi navbatda burgutning qanoti, oyog'i va boshida namoyon bo'ladi.
Tinchlik dollarining erta vafot etishi ramziy ma'noga ega edi. Four years later, in 1939, World War II erupted in Europe. The design came very close to reappearing once more in 1964, when Congress authorized production of 45 million new silver dollars, apparently in an effort to serve the needs of Nevada gambling casinos. With the smaller silver coins rapidly disappearing from circulation, this was viewed as a gift to special interests. After the Denver Mint produced 316,076 Peace dollars (dated 1964) in May of 1965, the authorization was rescinded by order of President Johnson. Although all pieces were to be recalled and melted, rumors persist of several coins surviving.
PHOTO PROOF – Copyright © 1994-2014 Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.
1878-1921 SILVER MORGAN DOLLAR
Political pressure, not public demand, brought the Morgan dollar into being. There was no real need for a new silver dollar in the late 1870s the last previous “cartwheel,” the Liberty Seated dollar, had been legislated out of existence in 1873, and hardly anyone missed it.
Silver-mining interests did miss the dollar, though, and lobbied Congress forcefully for its return. The Comstock Lode in Nevada was yielding huge quantities of silver, with ore worth $36 million being extracted annually. After several futile attempts, the silver forces in Congress led by Representative Richard (“Silver Dick”) Bland of Missouri finally succeeded in winning authorization for a new silver dollar when Congress passed the Bland-Allison Act on February 28, 1878. This Act required the Treasury to purchase at market levels between two million and four million troy ounces of silver bullion every month to be coined into dollars. This amounted to a massive subsidy, coming at a time when the dollar’s face value exceeded its intrinsic worth by nearly 10%.
In November 1877, nearly four months before passage of the Bland-Allison Act, the Treasury saw the handwriting on the wall and began making preparations for a new dollar coin. Mint Director Henry P. Linderman ordered Chief Engraver William Barber and one of his assistants, George T. Morgan, to prepare pattern dollars, with the best design to be used on the new coin. Actually, Linderman fixed this “contest” in Morgan’s favor he had been dissatisfied with the work of the two Barbers William and his son, Charles, and in 1876 had hired Morgan, a talented British engraver, with plans to entrust him with new coin designs. At that time, resumption of silver dollar coinage was not yet planned, and Morgan began work on designs intended for the half dollar. Following Linderman’s orders that a head of Liberty should replace the full-figure depiction then in use, Morgan recruited Philadelphia school teacher Anna Willess Williams to pose for the new design.
Morgan’s obverse features a left-facing portrait of Miss Liberty. The reverse depicts a somewhat scrawny eagle which led some to vilify the coin as a “buzzard dollar.” The designer’s initial M appears on both sides a first. It’s on the truncation of Liberty’s neck and on the ribbon’s left loop on the reverse. Mintmarks (O, S, D, and CC) are found below the wreath on the reverse. Points to check for wear on Morgans are the hair above Liberty’s eye and ear, the high upper fold of her cap and the crest of the eagle’s breast.
Soon after production began, someone advised the Mint that the eagle should have seven tail feathers, instead of the eight being shown, and Linderman ordered this change. As a result, some 1878 Morgan dollars have eight feathers, some seven and some show seven over eight. The seven-over-eight variety is the scarcest, though all are fairly common.
More than half a billion Morgan dollars were struck from 1878 through 1904, with production taking place at the main mint in Philadelphia and the branches in New Orleans, San Francisco and Carson City. Carson City production was generally much lower and ended altogether after that branch was closed in 1893. The coin came back for one final curtain call in 1921, when more than 86 million examples were produced under the terms of the Pittman Act at Philadelphia, San Francisco and Denver but that was a double-edged sword: Under the 1918 legislation, more than 270 million older silver dollars, almost all Morgans, had been melted. The law required replacements for these, but most were of the Peace design, which replaced the Morgan version at the end of 1921.
In all, some 657 million Morgan dollars were produced in 96 different date-and-mint combinations. Hundreds of millions were melted over the years by the government under the Pittman Act and the Silver Act of 1942, and by private refiners since the late 1960s, when rising silver prices made this profitable. Despite all the melting, Americans had more than enough Morgans to fill their daily needs, since the dollars circulated regularly only in the West. As a result, huge stockpiles remained in the Treasury’s vaults, as well as bank vaults nationwide. This explains why so many Morgan dollars are so well preserved today despite their age few saw actual use.
Even as the numismatic hobby underwent rapid growth beginning in the 1930s, interest in other collecting areas far outpaced the attention paid to the large Morgan cartwheels. Most collectors preferred the lower face-value coins (with their lower cost) that were readily available in circulation. Although it was possible to order silver dollars through banks or directly from the Treasury, few noticed or cared. In the late 1930s, however, several Washington dealers learned that the Treasury Department’s Cash Room near the White House was paying out uncirculated Carson City dollars coins having a market value of $5 or more at the time! More than a few dealers quietly exploited this discovery throughout the 1940s and `50s.
In the early 1960s, with silver rising in price, opportunists recognized the chance to turn fast profits by redeeming silver certificates for dollar coins mostly Morgans at the Treasury. By the time the government closed this lucrative window in 1964, only 2.9 million cartwheels were left in its vaults, almost all of them scarce Carson City Morgans. These were dispersed by the General Services Administration in a series of mail-bid sales from 1972 through 1980, earning big profits for the government and triggering great new interest in silver dollars.
Interest in Morgans was further heightened by the publicity surrounding the 400,000+ dollars found in the basement of Nevada eccentric LaVere Redfield’s home. After word leaked out of the amazing cache, several dealers got into the act, each jockeying for position in a scramble that ultimately ended with a Probate Court auction held in January of 1976. At that sale, A-Mark Coins of Los Angeles captured the hoard with a winning bid of $7.3 million. The coins were cooperatively marketed by a number of dealers over a period of several years. Rather than depressing prices, the orderly dispersal of these coins only served to bring more collectors into the Morgan dollar fold. Similarly, the early 1980s witnessed the equally successful distribution of the 1.5 million silver dollars in the Continental Bank hoard.
The Morgan dollar’s story is a Cinderella tale: Until the 1960s, it was largely ignored by the public. Since then, it has gradually become among the most widely pursued and desired of all U. S. coins. Although many collectors find the challenge of assembling a complete date and mintmark set in Mint State compelling, others satisfy themselves with collecting just one coin per year. Exceptional specimens are also sought after by type collectors.
Major keys include 1895, 1893-S, 1895-O, 1892-S, 1889-CC, 1884-S and 1879-CC. Mint records show that 12,000 business-strike dollars were made in Philadelphia in 1895, but only proofs are known the mintage of these is 880. Proofs were made for every year in the series, but only a few brilliant proofs variously reported at 15 to 24 are known for 1921. Prooflike Morgans also are highly prized and are collected in both Prooflike (PL) and Deep-Mirror Prooflike (DPL or DMPL).
Few coins in U.S. history have been greeted with more indifference at the time of their release than this silver dollar. And few, if any, have then gone on to stimulate such passionate excitement among collectors.
PHOTO PROOF – Copyright © 1994-2014 Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan.
The federal government began issuing its own currencies during the Civil War as it tried to meet funding and money circulation emergencies. In 1861, Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase directed the Treasury to issue Demand Notes to pay expenses. As the first national currency, Demand Notes earned their name from the fact that they were redeemable on demand for gold coin at the Treasury.
The government also created the United States Note, another currency designed as a temporary financing measure, with the passage of the Legal Tender Act of February 25, 1862. Almost bankrupt, the United States needed money to pay suppliers and troops during the Civil War. The plan was to print a limited supply of U.S. Notes to meet the crisis. However, U.S. Notes became popular and were issued for decades, coming to be known as Greenbacks.
The Civil War also brought about a shortage of coins. In response to this problem, Treasury issued currency notes in denominations of less than one dollar, ranging from three cents to fifty cents, in 1863. These small value notes are known as fractional currency. They were the first notes printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, and were issued until 1876.
In an effort to get control over the chaos of the monetary system, Secretary Chase advocated the creation of a system of National Banks in 1863 that would issue a uniform, national currency. The National Bank Act of June 3, 1864, created National Bank Notes that were redeemable at any National Bank of the Treasury. The notes proved a success, and were issued well into the 20th century.
In the same year it authorized National Bank Notes, Congress also created another new form of currency, Gold Certificates. One could deposit gold at the Treasury and receive Gold Certificates in exchange. The first Gold Certificates were issued in November 1865, with a maximum denomination of $10,000.
By 1878, U.S. Notes, National Bank Notes, and Gold Certificates co-circulated. That same year, Congress introduced the Silver Certificate. The act authorizing these notes allowed people to deposit silver coins in the Treasury in exchange for certificates, giving people an alternative to carrying numerous silver dollars. Silver Certificates became very popular and were a major form of currency for many years.
Twelve years later, the growth of silver mining in the United States led to another form of currency known as Treasury Coin Notes, which the Treasury Note Act of 1890 authorized. Until 1893, the law required the Treasury to purchase silver bullion and to pay for it with the new notes.
The close of the 19th century saw various forms of currency co-circulating in the nation’s economy, but money-related economic and banking crises continued. A central problem revolved around the inability of the supply of these currencies to expand or contract to meet economic conditions. Part two of this series, to be posted later this week, will explore the solution to this problem.
Silver as Money: A History of US Silver Coins
The history of silver as money goes back many thousands and thousands of years. Silver coinage first appeared around 600 BC in current day Turkey, and from there it has been used in every major empire, from the Greeks & Romans to the Spanish and current day United States.
I’d like to take a look at the history of US silver coins that have been used as money since our nation begun. It’s amazing how few people even realize that for the first
175 years of the US, silver was used in everyday coins and circulated throughout the economy as common money up until the year 1964, when they stopped making silver coins.
Even though many coins overlap in dates, I organized the events in a timeline to view it in chronological order. I also included the dates of the various Coinage Acts and how they affected silver coinage. Take some time to look at the coins’ designs and appreciate the artwork.
It begins. The Constitution goes into effect after the 1st Congress convened on March 4, 1789, replacing the Articles of Confederation. The power to coin money was given to Congress, and no state shall . make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts. Article I Section 10.
The Coinage Act of 1792 establishes the First Mint in Philadelphia, PA and that the silver dollar would be the unit of Money in the US. From this Act would eventually come the following silver coins, the Silver Dollar, half dollar, quarter dollar, dime, and half dime.
Also, the ratio of 1 gold unit would equal 15 silver units of given proportion. Oh, and for anyone caught debasing (replacing the silver with other metals) or making fake silver coins, the death penalty! How times have changed.
Considered to be the first coin ever minted, the Flowing Hair Half Dime was struck for just 2 years from 1794-1795. Coin was designed by Robert Scot and contains approximately 89.2% silver and 10.8% copper weighing only about 1.35 grams and containing roughly 0.0434 ounces of silver. There is an estimated 86,425 coins in circulation, so these coins will sell for a good 5 figures in the right condition.
Continuing in the Flowing Hair series is the Flowing Hair Half Dollar, or the standard fifty-cent piece. Although the dollar was the standard, the half dollar quickly became more common in everyday transactions due to its mass circulation and lighter weight. Plus, with .434 troy ounces of silver at 89.2% with the remaining balance in copper, a single half dollar was sometimes more than a day's wages in 1795. A total of 323,144 flowing hair half dollars were minted.
The Flowing Hair Dollar is one of the most unique and prized silver dollar coin in the US mintage history. Interestingly is that this coin was based on the weight and size of the Spanish Dollar, which was very prevalent at the time. A recent 1794 Flowing Hair Dollar sold for over $10 million dollars! A total of 162,053 coins were struck, about half that of the Half Dollar.
Quickly ending the Flowing Hair design, the Draped Bust Dollar began circulating in 1795 up until 1804. It was rumored that the new mint director, Henry William de Saussure appointed in 1795, was responsible for the abrupt change in design. The 1804 Draped Bust Dollar is notorious for its rarity & prestige. It was requested by President Andrew Jackson to be back-minted for trade missions and is often titled the "King of Coins".
The draped bust half dime began circulation in 1795 only to end 2 years later in 1797. The series continued in 1800 - 1805. There were 2 obverse designs, the small eagle and a large heraldic eagle with outstretched wings (shown). All the coins were minted in Philadelphia with no mintmark and a total of 179,027 half dimes were struck, with only 3,060 coins in the year 1802.
The Draped Bust Dime was the first dime to appear in the US. With no indication of its denomination, the coin's obverse featured 15 stars to represent each of the states in the Union. When Tennessee entered in 1797, 16 stars were included, but was changed back to the original 13 by Elias Boudinot to prevent clutter with new states being added. Over 469,406 Draped Bust dimes were struck and included 31 different varieties of dimes.
The Draped Bust Quarter was the first quarter to appear in the US. Interesting to note, how common the quarter is today, yet the half-dime, half-dollar, and silver dollar were all minted earlier. After just 1 year of minting, the Draped Bust quarter was halted and only resumed in 1804 again with the heraldic eagle on the obverse. A total of 561,045 coins were minted, with the 1796 Draped Bust Quarter being the rarest.
The end of the Draped Bust series, the Draped Bust Half Dollar again features lady Liberty with flowing hair tied in a ribbon that extends into the draped bust. Rumor has it that Ann Willing Bingham was the lady featured on the Draped Bust series, drawn by artist Gilbert Stuart. Over 1,604,705 coins were struck with only 3,918 coins for the years 1796-1797.
Moving on from the Draped Bust, the next design in American silver coinage was the Capped Bust. For the Capped Bust Half Dollar it was struck from 1807 - 1839. This design shows Liberty wearing a cloth cap on her head instead of the flowing free hair in previous designs. The denomination is noted with a 50 Cents or Half Dol. With this series, a significant ramp up in production of coins appears, with around 91,088,096 Capped Bust Half Dollars struck.
Capped Bust Dime featuring Lady Liberty wearing a Phrygian or Freedom Cap, this was often used as a symbol of the American Revolutionary War. This design was by German born, John Reich who replaced Robert Scot's earlier designs. Denomination is noted by 10 C. for 10 cents. Total coins minted are 71,690,392 Capped Bust Dimes with 123 known varieties.
Capped Bust Quarters enter the scene in the year 1815 til 1838 with a pause from 1828 - 1831. With new machinery and equipment the US Mint would continue production. Denomination of this coin is marked by a 25 C. Proofs also exist with this coin, but are extremely rare with immense value. Total circulation strikes of this coin are 5,328,984 Capped Bust Quarters.
Concluding the Capped Bust series is the Capped Bust Half Dime which began circulation in 1829 after a 24 year hiatus. The same date that coincided with the inauguration of the second Philadelphia Mint which would eventually open in 1833. The total number of Capped bust Half Dimes struck were 13,058,700, with just under 10-20 proofs per year.
The Coinage Act of 1834 was responsible for raising the silver-to-gold ratio from 15:1 since 1792 to 16:1. This put a 1 ounce gold coin at $20.67. The history behind its passage lies with President Andrew Jackson and his fight against a Central Bank. President Jackson feared a Central Bank would use its power to exploit the country (How right he was!).
The Gobrecht Dollar was the first silver dollar produced since the halt of minting silver dollars in 1805. Designed by Christian Gobrecht, his name is prominently displayed on the coin just above the year. This design would ultimately make way for the next major series in American Coinage, the Seated Liberty. A restrike of the coin in 1837 led to the standard 90% silver 10% copper composition instead of the 89.2% and 10.8% of previous years. An estimated 1900 were produced making them very rare and valuable. It was also the
The Seated Liberty Half Dime was the last half dime ever minted. In this design, taking from Gobrecht, we have Lady Liberty seated holding a shield looking over her shoulder. The reverse features the inscription United States of America with the denomination "Half Dime". A total of 84,828,478 coins were struck at the New Orleans, San Francisco, and Philadelphia Mints.
The Seated Liberty Dime not much different than the half dime, features Liberty sitting on a rock holding a staff. She also dons a Liberty cap with the Liberty shield in her right hand. There are many varieties of this series large vs. small date, partial drapery vs. no drapery, closed bud vs. open bud, and short flag vs. long flag to name a few. Total circulation strikes are 247,477,444.
The Seated Liberty Quarter was debuted in 1838 and continued production until 1891. Several years feature the Carson City Mint Mark or CC from 1870 - 1878. These are a very sought after coin as they are very rare fetching extremely high prices. The total coins struck were 155,910,955.
The Seated Liberty Half Dollar continues the series with Lady Liberty on the obverse and the heraldic eagle on the reverse, which was taken from earlier designs by John Reich. This coin was struck at 4 different mints: New Orleans, San Francisco, Carson City, and Philadelphia which minted a majority of the coins. In total over 155,215,816 half dollars were struck in circulation.
The Seated Liberty Silver Dollar started up production in 1840 after demand again began requesting the silver dollar again for circulation. However, soon after the California Gold Rush began which pushed the price of silver up relative to gold. This urged people to keep the coins as bullion or export them overseas to foreign investors. The Civil War from 1861 - 1865, also limited coins being struck as well as entering circulation due to the presence of inflationary greenbacks. The Coinage Act of 1873 finally ended minting of the silver dollar.
The 3 cent silver piece was a one of a kind coin, that was minted from 1851 – 1873. This denomination was requested because at the time the postage stamps were 3 cents. 1851 – 1853, the coin was 75% silver and 25% copper, until in 1854 the coin changed to 90% silver and 10% copper to promote use. These coins were called 'fishscales' because of their small size and ease of discolor. One of main reasons for removal was the confusion with the silver dime which was similar in diameter. Over 42,718,300 3 cent silver pieces were minted for circulation.
The Coinage Act of 1864 authorized Congress and the US Mint to place the phrase "In God We Trust" on all silver coins. The phrase would later replace E Plubris Unum as the national Motto. For a more in depth look, read a History of 'In God We Trust', on the Treasury.gov website. This Act also authorized the minting of the 2 cent copper piece.
The Coinage Act of 1873, also known as the Crime of 1873, was the Act that put the US on the Gold Standard, thus demonetizing silver. As a result of this Act, it stopped the production of the silver dollar (Seated Liberty) but allowed the minting of a Trade Dollar for foreign commerce. It also stopped production of the 3 cent piece and the half dime. The Free Silver Movement would spring forth as miners and other silver proponents fought to bring silver back.
The short-lived US Trade Dollar has a unique history. It was specifically made for foreign use and international trade. With the Coinage Act of 1873 that demonetized silver, the Trade Dollar was a way to continue using silver dollars. The designer of this coin was William Barber who was the fifth Chief Engraver at the US Mint. A majority of the coins were sent to the Far East, specifically China and Hong Kong for commerce to compete with the Spanish Silver Dollar. Business strikes were minted up until 1878, with proof strikes lasting until 1885 when the coin ceased being struck. A total of 35,965,939 coins were struck.
The US Twenty Cent Piece had a short life of only 3 years. The failure of this coin to take off was it resembled too much in similarity and size to the quarter, so people often confused the two. Banks were reluctant to be buying silver twenty cent pieces so demand was also absent. The design is very similar to the Seated Liberty series on the obverse and contains the full denomination "Twenty Cents" on the reverse. 1,349,930 coins were minted for circulation.
Resuming production of the silver dollar since the Coinage Act of 1873 is the Morgan Dollar. This coin features Lady Liberty's side profile on the obverse with a heraldic eagle and outstretched wings on the reverse. The Act that jump started production again was the Bland-Allison Act which stated the Mint would purchase said amount of silver per month and strike them into coins. Production continued until 1904 when it stopped and resumed again only for 1 year in 1921, when the Peace Dollar took over. 656,930,590 total coins were minted.
The Barber dime is the next in American coinage series featured on the dime, quarter, and half dollar. Designed by Chief Engraver, Charles Barber, the dime features Liberty on the obverse wearing a wreath and headband with the words Liberty. The highlight in this series is the 1894-S Barber dime, which is a highly coveted coin in the numismatic world comparable to the 1804 Draped Bust Silver Dollar. One recently sold for over $2 million dollars! Total coins in circulation is 504,515,051.
Barber Quarters came into circulation in 1892. The head of Liberty is a purely classical rendition of a Roman style portrait and is also referenced to the French 'Ceres' coinage in the late 19th century. The reverse differs from the Barber dime by featuring a heraldic eagle representing the Great Seal of the US. 2 key dates with low minting making the coin value rare and high are 1901-S and the 1913-S strikes. A total of 264,670,792 coins were struck.
1892 was a busy year, the first basketball game was played in Massachusetts, General Electric is formed, University of Chicago opens, and the 1892 Barber Half Dollar is struck! This coin was struck at all 4 mints Philadelphia, Denver, New Orleans, and the San Francisco Mint. The 1892-O and the 1914 Half Dollars can fetch high prices due to their rarity. A total of 135,898,329 coins were minted.
The Winged Liberty Head or "Mercury" Dime, is sometimes said to be the most beautiful coin ever minted! Breaking away from Barber's design, the obverse figure is Goddess Liberty, not the Greek mythological one, wearing a Phrygian cap with wings to the side of its head symbolizing freedom of thought. On the reverse is a fasces or bundle of rods with a blade to the left side. Mintages of this coin soared with a total of 2,676,523,880 coins.
Following the Barber Quarter is the Standing Liberty Quarter. This new design by Hermon MacNeil, depicts Liberty standing facing to the viewer's right with shield in her left and an olive branch in her right hand as she walks through a gate with the inscription "In God We Trust". Doris Doscher, a silent movie actor, posed as Lady Liberty for MacNeil. A flying eagle is on the reverse. A total of 226,770,400 quarters were minted.
The Walking Liberty Half Dollar design was a result of a Fine Arts competition that the Mint Director Robert Woolley held. The obverse features Lady Liberty walking towards a dawning sun holding branches with the US flag over her shoulder. The reverse depicts an eagle perched on a branch in a heraldic pose. The Walking Liberty design would later be borrowed to mint the ever popular American Silver Eagle. 485,320,340 half dollars were produced.
The Peace Dollar is the last silver dollar to be struck for circulation. The design was to represent "Peace" memorializing the end and peace after World War I. The initial design was that of a broken sword, but was immediately rejected as it conjured up thoughts of defeat. The obverse features Liberty's side portrait with the reverse an eagle at rest with an olive branch in its grip. Production ceased in 1935. In 1964, trial production of the Peace Dollar began again, only to be stopped as political pressure was applied about the hoarding of coins. This would eventually lead to the Coinage Act of 1965. In total, 190,577,270 coins were minted.
The Washington Quarter was struck to honor and celebrate the bicentennial birth of the first president George Washington. There was actual intention of a Washington Half Dollar but later was changed to the quarter, due to waning demand from the Depression. The obverse of the coin depicts Washington's head facing left, the reverse features a bald eagle outstretched on a bundle of arrows and two olive branches below. 90% silver quarters would cease in 1965 with the Coinage Act, but the Washington quarter would continue being struck until 1998 in 75% copper and 25% nickel. A total of 3,776,126,601 silver quarters were struck.
The Jefferson 'Wartime' Nickel was initially minted beginning in 1938, but for a brief period from 1942-1945 it was struck in 35% silver and 56% copper with the remains in manganese. The reason for the change was because during World War II, nickel was in high demand and a critical metal, so the Mint adjusted the composition. Wartime nickels had their Mintmarks above the Monticello on the reverse, while all other nickels had theirs positioned to the right. A total of 869,896,100 nickels were struck during this period.
Following Franklin D. Roosevelt's death in 1945, Congress soon pushed for replacing the Mercury dime with Roosevelt's image. This was also to honor his work with the March of Dimes, which raised donations to fight polio and infantile paralysis. John R. Sinnock was the chief engraver at the time and responsible for the current design. Silver content was removed in 1965, however, this coin and its design continues to this day. A total of 6,595,617,673 silver dimes were put in circulation.
The Franklin Half Dollar features Benjamin Franklin on the obverse and a cracked Liberty bell on the reverse. Many critics complained the crack featured on the bell would be ridiculed, but the Mint continued anyway. It also features a small eagle next to the bell, to satisfy the legal requirement that all Half Dollars must depict an eagle. The Mint Director at the time, Nellie Tayloe Ross, wanted to honor Franklin and his famous quote of "A penny saved is a penny earned". A total of 465,814,455 Franklin half dollars were minted.
With the death of John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963, there was immediate discussion to put Kennedy on a coin as a memorial. Jacqueline Kennedy preferred the half dollar as she did not want to replace Washington on the quarter. In March 1964 the Kennedy Half Dollar began production. The majority of these coins were never circulated due to collectors. Starting in 1965, the silver content was reduced from 90% down to 40% to encourage circulation but the coin was still kept in individual's hands. In 1971, silver was completely eliminated from the coin, yet the half dollar had been so long out of circulation banks & the population expressed little interest in using it. A total of 848,895,006 Kennedy Half dollars with silver were struck.
This act completely eliminated silver from dimes and quarters, and reduced the silver content from 90% to 40% in the Kennedy Half Dollars. This act was brought about because of coin shortages from people hoarding silver as the price rose relative to the USD. Prseident LBJ who signed the act into Law commented,
"When I have signed this bill before me, we will have made the first fundamental change in our coinage in 173 years. The Coinage Act of 1965 supersedes the act of 1792. And that act had the title: An Act Establishing a Mint and Regulating the Coinage of the United States. "
In an ironic sense, he goes on to state,
"If anybody has any idea of hoarding our silver coins, let me say this. Treasury has a lot of silver on hand, and it can be, and it will be used to keep the price of silver in line with its value in our present silver coin. There will be no profit in holding them out of circulation for the value of their silver content. "
You can read President Lyndon B. Johnson's full remarks on signing the act.
The one question that remains is:
When will the Coinage Act that reintroduces silver into our Monetary system be signed into effect?