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Miloddan avvalgi 52 -may, Gergoviya qurshovi

Miloddan avvalgi 52 -may, Gergoviya qurshovi

Miloddan avvalgi 52 -may, Gergoviya qurshovi

Gergoviyani muvaffaqiyatsiz qamal qilish (miloddan avvalgi 52 -may) butun Gallik urushi paytida Yuliy Tsezar boshchiligidagi armiya boshidan kechirgan yagona katta muvaffaqiyatsizlik edi.

Buyuk gallik qo'zg'oloni boshlanganda, galiyaliklar Qaysarning o'z shimolidagi Galiyadagi legionlariga qaytishiga yo'l qo'ymaslikka umid qilishgandi. Qachonki bu muvaffaqiyatsiz Vercingetorix Gorgobinaga hujum qilsa, bu harakat Qaysarni qamalni olib tashlash uchun legionlarini qishki uylaridan olib chiqishga majbur qildi. Rimliklar janubga ko'chganlarida, ular bir qator shaharlarni (Vellaunodunum, Senabum va Noviodunum) egallab olishdi. Vercingetorix Gorgobina qamalidan voz kechishga majbur bo'ldi va Noviodunumdagi kichik otliqlar to'qnashuvidan so'ng, Avaricumni himoya qilishga yordam berish uchun, uning irodasiga qarshi. Qanchalik urinmasin, bu shahar tez orada rimliklar qo'liga o'tdi va shafqatsiz to'ntarish va aholining qirg'iniga uchradi.

Avaricumning qulashi eramizdan avvalgi 53-52 yillar qishining oxiriga to'g'ri keldi. va ob -havoning yaxshilanishi Qaysarni kengroq kampaniya xavfi borligiga ishontirdi. U o'n legiondan iborat qo'shinini yarmiga ajratdi. To'rtta, uning eng qobiliyatli leytenanti Labienus boshchiligida, shimolida Senon va Parisiy erlariga yuborilgan, ular o'sha paytda isyon ko'targan eng shimoliy qabilalar bo'lgan. Qaysarning o'zi qolgan oltita legionni janubga, Vercingetorixning o'z qabilasi bo'lgan Arverni erlarida, Gergoviyaga hujum qilish uchun olib bordi.

Qaysarning rejasi, uning eng sodiq gallik ittifoqchisi Aedui ichidagi muammolarning birinchi belgilari bilan buzildi. Bu qabilani har yili saylanadigan magistrat boshqarar edi, lekin bu yil ikki erkak - Convictolitanis va Cotus turli guruhlar tomonidan saylangan edi va fuqarolar urushi xavfi bor edi. Qaysar Aeduan hududidagi Decatia (zamonaviy Decize) ga sayohat qilib, u erda Konvictolitanis foydasiga topdi. Keyin Qaysar o'z legionlariga qaytmasdan oldin Aeduidan ko'proq otliq va 10 000 piyoda askar so'radi.

Tsezarning keyingi muammosi tabiiy to'siq - Allier daryosi edi. Vercingetorix daryoning g'arbiy qirg'og'ini qo'riqlayotgan edi, agar Gergoviyaga etib boradigan bo'lsa, Qaysar o'tishi kerak edi. Oxir -oqibat, Qaysar olti legiondan to'rttasini daryo bo'yidagi shovqinli yurishga yuborib, Gallarni aldab o'tdi, u esa ikki legion bilan yashirinib qoldi. Qaysar odamlari asosiy kuchdan keyin ko'chib o'tgach, daryo ustidagi ko'priklardan birini qayta qurdilar va g'arbiy qirg'oqqa o'tdilar. Qaysarning so'zlariga ko'ra, jang qilish xavfi emas, Vercingetorix janubdan Gergoviyaga chekindi va u erda shahar yaqinidagi bir qancha tepaliklarda lager qurdi.

Gergoviyaning o'zi tik tepalikda kuchli holatda qurilgan. U kelganida, Qaysar shaharga bostirib kirolmasligini tushundi va muntazam qamal qilishga tayyorgarlik ko'rishga qaror qildi. Dastlab barcha olti legion lager qurdilar, lekin bir necha kundan keyin Qaysar himoyachining toza suvga kirishini cheklaydi deb umid qilgan kichik tepalikni egallashga qaror qildi. Bu tepalikdagi kichik lagerga ikkita legion qo'yildi, qolgan to'rtta legion esa tekislikdagi asosiy lagerda. Ikki lagerni kengligi o'n ikki fut bo'lgan ikkita xandaq bog'lab qo'ydi, bu esa rimliklarning orasidan xavfsiz o'tishiga imkon berdi.

Rimliklarga muntazam qamal qilishlari uchun imkoniyat berilmadi. Konviktolanis, Qaysarning Aedui bosh magistrati sifatida tanlagani, tezda Vercingetorix qo'zg'oloniga qo'shilishga qaror qildi. U o'z ittifoqchilaridan biri bo'lgan Litavicusni Qaysarga qo'shiladigan 10 ming piyoda askarga buyruq berdi. Bu kuch Rim lageridan bir necha kun narida bo'lganida, Litavicus, rimliklar o'z lageridagi har bir Aeduni qirg'in qilgan, deb da'vo qilgan va voqealarga guvoh bo'lgan deb guvohlar bergan. Aedui bashoratli tarzda javob berdi, Rim elchilarini armiya bilan o'ldirdi va Gergoviyada Vercingetorixga qo'shilish uchun tayyorgarlik ko'rdi.

Bu birinchi inqiroz tezda bartaraf etildi. Litavicus o'ldirilgan odamlardan biri bo'lgan yuqori darajali otliq qo'mondoni Eporedirix nima bo'layotganini bilib, Qaysarga xabar berdi. Tsezar o'zining olti legionidan to'rttasini boshqarib, 10 ming Aeduan piyoda askarini ushlab oldi. Ikki kuch yuzma -yuz kelganida, Qaysar Eporedirixni Aeduan lageriga yubordi va Litavicusning rejasi tezda buzildi. U Vercingetorixga qochishga majbur bo'ldi va uning odamlari Qaysarga bo'ysundilar, ular keyinchalik ularni qamalda ishlatdilar.

Yiqilishidan oldin, Litavicus hikoyani tarqatish uchun Aedui hududiga xabarchilar yubordi. Convictolanis bu hikoyalarni umumiy qo'zg'olonni qo'zg'atish uchun ishlatgan, bu qabilaga tez tarqaldi.

Bu xabar Qaysarga etib kelganida, u o'zining barcha legionlarini birlashtirish uchun Gergoviya qamalidan voz kechishi va shimolga ketishi kerakligini tushundi. Uning muammosi, orqaga chekinishni qanday topish kerak edi, aslida u shunday qilgan edi.

Tez orada kichik muvaffaqiyatga erishish imkoniyati paydo bo'ldi. Gallik lageri bo'lgan tepalikni qamal qilishning ko'p qismi qattiq himoyalangan edi, lekin bir kuni ertalab rimliklar garnizonning katta qismi g'oyib bo'lganini tushunishdi. Qo'lga olingan mahbuslar, Gaullar tepaliklarning boshqa qismida rimliklar ularni kesib tashlamasligi uchun istehkomlar qurayotganini aniqladilar. Tsezar Galliya lageriga hujum qilishga qaror qildi, bu muvaffaqiyat Gergoviyadan chekinmasdan chekinishga imkon berdi. Qaysarning so'zlariga ko'ra, hujum niyatida edi - lager qo'lga olingandan so'ng, ular o'z pozitsiyalarini ushlab turishlari kerak edi.

Hujumda qatnashgan legionlar tezda gallik lagerini egallab olishdi va deyarli bir gallik podshohni asir olishdi. Keyin Qaysar to'xtash uchun signal berdi, lekin faqat o'ninchi legion buyruqqa bo'ysundi. Qaysar davlatlari ochko'zlik bilan boshqarilgan bir qancha yuzboshilar boshchiligida, qolgan kuchlar devorlarga hujum qilishga urinishdi. Yuzboshi Lucius Fabius boshchiligidagi kichik kuch hatto devorlarning tepasiga etib bordi, lekin Rim hujumi betartiblik bilan tugadi. Gallik qo'shimchalari tez orada inqiroz darajasiga yetdi va devorlarda ko'p bo'lgan rimliklar kesib tashlandi va o'ldirildi. Qaysar o'zining Aeduanlik ittifoqchilarini o'ng tomonga yo'naltiruvchi hujumga yuborgan edi, lekin ular bu hujumdan qaytganlarida, vahimaga tushib, dushman gallik qo'shinlari deb adashishdi. Faqat o'ninchi legion va o'n uchinchi legionning ba'zi kogortlari betartiblikning vayronagarchilikka aylanishiga to'sqinlik qilishdi va oxir -oqibat rimliklar o'z lagerlariga qaytishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi. Devorlarga qilingan muvaffaqiyatsiz hujum ularga 46 yuzboshi va 700 ga yaqin odamga qimmatga tushdi.

Ertasi kuni Qaysar o'z odamlarini shoshqaloqliklari va buyruqlariga bo'ysunmasliklari uchun tanbeh berdi. U haligacha qamaldan qutulishning yo'lini izlardi, shuning uchun u o'z askarlarini qo'rqitib, lageridan chiqarib yubordi va armiya jang tartibida tuzildi. Vercingetorix o'lja olishdan bosh tortdi. Qaysar buni yuqori Rim qo'shiniga qarshi jang qilishni xavf ostiga qo'ymasligini tasvirlab berdi va ertasi kuni o'z odamlarini Allierga olib keldi. Bir necha kun o'tgach, ular Loirani bosib o'tishga muvaffaq bo'lishdi va butun armiya Senon erlarida birlashdi.


Vercingetorix

Vercingetorix (miloddan avvalgi 82-46 yillar)-Galli boshlig'i, miloddan avvalgi 52 yilda Rim Yuliy Tsezarning bosqinini qaytarish uchun Gaul (hozirgi Frantsiya) qabilalarini birlashtirgan. Uning ismi "Yuz jangning g'olibi" degan ma'noni anglatadi va uning tug'ilgan ismi emas, balki unvoni va unga ma'lum bo'lgan yagona ism edi. Gollar tug'ilgan ismlarini sir tutishdi, faqat o'zlariga va yaqinlariga ma'lum edi, chunki ular odamning haqiqiy ismini bilish boshqalarga ularga kuch beradi deb ishonishgan. Vercingetorix baland bo'yli va chiroyli xarizmatik rahbar, ilhomlantiruvchi notiq va talabchan general sifatida tasvirlangan. U erni himoya qilgani uchun Frantsiyaning birinchi milliy qahramoni sanaladi va o'z davrida hatto dushmanlari tomonidan ham katta hurmatga sazovor bo'lgan.

Germaniya bosqini va Qaysar

Miloddan avvalgi 52 yilda isyon ko'tarilishidan oldin Vercingetorix haqida kam narsa ma'lum, faqat u aristokratik gallik boshlig'ining o'g'li va o'z qabilasining hurmatli a'zosi bo'lgan. Vercingetorixning otasi Celtillus, aristokrat va Gaulning eng kuchli qabilalaridan biri bo'lgan, averni, ba'zi kichik qabilalar ittifoqini boshqargan. Averni kuchlar muvozanatini saqlashga yordam beradigan o'z ittifoqchilari bo'lgan boshqa gallik qabilasi-Aedui bilan uzoq vaqtdan beri janjalni davom ettirdi. Qabilalar miloddan avvalgi IV asrda Rimga hujum qilish va talon -taroj qilish uchun birlashgan bo'lsalar -da, ular o'z hududidan tashqaridagi masalalarga unchalik ahamiyat bermaganlar.

Reklama

Gall qabilalarining an'anaviy turmush tarzi o'zgarishga majbur bo'ldi, ammo german qabilalari Reyn daryosidan o'z hududlariga o'tishni boshlaganda. Nemis Helvetii qabilasi ko'chib o'tayotganda, o'zlarini boshqalar tashlab ketishdi va Golliya provintsiyasi (hozirgi Provans, Frantsiya) hududiga o'tdilar. Bu vaqtda Yuliy Tsezar yaqin Ispaniya (hozirgi Ispaniya) gubernatori edi, lekin viloyatga ko'chib o'tdi va u erda o'z nazoratini kengaytirdi. Helvetiylar Qaysarga hududga kirishga ruxsat berishlarini so'raganda, u rad etdi va keyin hujum qildi. Helvetiylar osonlikcha mag'lubiyatga uchradilar, lekin ularning Qaysar nazorati ostidagi erlarga bostirib kirishi boshqa ko'plab german qabilalari va kelajakda yuzaga kelishi mumkin bo'lgan muammolarni ko'rib chiqishga sabab bo'ldi. U o'z kuchlarini to'ldirish va german xalqini Reyn orqali o'z erlariga qaytarish uchun yollanma askarlar sifatida Gaullardan yordam so'radi. Vercingetorix, bu janglarda nemislarga qarshi rimliklar uchun otliq bo'linmalarni boshqargan va Qaysar tomonidan boshqarilgan Gauls orasida edi. U o'sha paytda Rim urushi va taktikasida qimmatli tajribaga ega bo'lib, undan keyin foydalanadi.

Vercingetorix qo'zg'olonlari

Nemis bosqini muammosi hal qilinib, ular Galiyadan quvilganidan so'ng, Qaysar o'z hududini nazorat qilishni kengaytirdi va Rim huquqi va madaniyatini o'rnatishni boshladi. Gollar bu yangi maqomni zabt etilgan xalq sifatida qabul qilishdan bosh tortishdi, ayniqsa ular nemislarni quvib chiqarishda katta rol o'ynaganlari uchun. Eburones qabilasidan Ambiorix ismli gallik etakchi o'z mamlakatida erkinlik huquqini da'vo qilib, o'z xalqini qo'zg'olonga ko'tardi. Tsezar o'z generallaridan biriga ishonish o'rniga, Rim kuchlari qo'mondonligini o'z qo'liga oldi va ikkilanmasdan va rahm qilmasdan Gaullarga hujum qildi. Eburone qabilasi Rimga qarshi kuch yig'ishga jur'at eta oladigan har kimga o'rnak sifatida qirg'in qilindi va uning xabarini ta'kidlash uchun tirik qolganlar qullikka sotildi va qabilaning erlari yoqib yuborildi.

Reklama

Vercingetorix bunga dosh berolmadi va Eburonlardan qasos olish uchun Rimga urush qilishni maslahat berdi, lekin qabila oqsoqollar kengashidagi qolganlar tavakkal qilishga tayyor emas edilar. Vercingetorixning otasi vafot etdi va u endi o'z qabilasining boshlig'i edi. U oqsoqollarning maslahatiga e'tibor bermadi va rimliklarni Galiyadan haydab chiqarishni o'z zimmasiga oldi. Eramizdan avvalgi 52 yilda u Kenabumga hujum qilib, Eburon qirg'ini uchun qasos olish uchun u erdagi Rim aholi punktini qirg'in qilgan. Keyin u o'z xalqiga rimliklar saqlagan oziq -ovqat mahsulotlarini tarqatdi va ularni rimliklar to'plagan qurollar bilan qurollantirdi. U G'alaba orqali xabarchilarni yuborib, g'alabasini e'lon qildi va barchani o'z ishiga qo'shilishga va o'z vatanini zabt etishdan qutqarishga taklif qildi.

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Qaysar o'sha paytda mamlakatdan tashqarida edi va o'z qo'mondoni Labienni boshqargan edi. Labienus hech qachon hozir olib borilayotgan mehribon Vercingetorix kabi partizan urushi bilan shug'ullanmagan: rimliklarga va ularning ta'minot liniyalariga tezlik bilan zarba berib, so'ngra atrofdagi landshaftda g'oyib bo'lgan. Rimliklar uchun g'alaba bo'lishi mumkin emas edi, chunki ular bilan shug'ullanish uchun dushman yo'q edi. Gaullar xuddi ruhlar singari g'oyib bo'lishdi va bundan tashqari, hozir Gallada qish edi va Labienus oziq -ovqatlari kesilmaguncha ham oz edi. Agar Qaysar Gablni yutish uchun Labienga bog'liq bo'lganida, butun mamlakat tarixi boshqacha bo'lar edi. Qaysar bunday rahbar emas edi va u qo'zg'olon va Labienusning muammolari haqida eshitib, o'z qo'shinini safarbar qildi. Qaysarning Galga etib borishiga va isyonchilar kuchlarini yo'q qilishiga hech narsa to'sqinlik qila olmadi va u o'z maqsadiga erishish uchun odamlarini bo'ronlar va tog'lar ustidan, ba'zan olti metrgacha chuqurlikda yurdi.

Kuygan Yer va Avaricum

Qaysarning Gaulga yurishini eshitgan Vercingetorix o'zining kuydirilgan siyosati doirasini kengaytirdi, Rimliklarga har qanday yo'l bilan yordam berishi mumkin bo'lgan hamma narsa yo'q qilindi. Butun shaharlar, qishloqlar, hatto shaxsiy xo'jaliklari va uylari ham Qaysarning qo'liga o'tib ketmasligi va uning qo'shiniga oziq -ovqat yoki boshpana bermasligi uchun yoqib yuborilgan. Gollar bu siyosatning zarurligini tushundilar va Vercingetorixning buyruqlari Avaricum shahriga kelguniga qadar bajarildi. U erda galiyaliklar undan himoyalanishni, yo'q qilmaslikni so'rashdi, chunki bu juda chiroyli va odamlar uchun faxrlanish joyi edi. Vercingetorix bu rejaga qarshi edi va Rim shaharni osonlikcha vayron qilishi, aholini o'ldirishi va ular talon -taroj qilgan narsalarini o'z foydasiga burishi mumkinligini ta'kidladi. Gollar tirishmadi, lekin u istaklarini bajonidil bajardi, lekin ular bilan shaharda qamalib qolishdan bosh tortdi. U minib ketdi va yigirma chaqirimdan ozroq masofada lagerga joylashdi, agar kerak bo'lsa, lekin rimliklar jang qilsa, qochib qutulish uchun.

Reklama

Qaysar o'z qo'shinining boshida, Avaricumga etib keldi va uni qattiq himoyalangan va mustahkamlanganini ko'rdi. U darhol uni qamal qilib, atrofini xandaklar va minoralar bilan o'rab oldi, lekin galiyaliklar shiddatli tarzda jang qilishdi. Qaysar o'sha paytdagi xotiralarida shunday yozadi:

Gollar haqiqatan ham g'oyalarni moslashtirishda va ularni o'z maqsadlarida ishlatishda mohir. Ular bizning qamaldagi zinapoyamizni lasso bilan tuzoqqa tushirishdi, keyin esa ularni devorga tortish uchun vintlardek ishlatishdi. Ular bizning qamal devorlarimizni buzib, qulab tushishiga sabab bo'ldi. Ular o'z hududlarida temir konlari ko'p bo'lgani uchun bu turdagi ishlarda tajribali. Va ularning butun devori minoralar bilan mustahkamlangan edi (7.22).

Himoyachilar mardonavor kurashdilar, lekin Qaysarning qat'iyatliligiga teng kelmadilar. Qachonki ular bitta dvigatelni vayron qilishganida, u boshqasini qurgan va qancha qamal narvonlari arqon bilan o'ralgan va devorlar ustidan tortilgan bo'lsa ham, ularning o'rnini boshqalar egallagan. Qaysar askarlari kechayu kunduz erni tashib, Avarikumning tashqi devoriga ulkan burilish yasadilar. Qamal kun sayin, kuchli bo'ron kelguncha davom etdi va himoyachilar undan yopiq holda panoh topdilar. Devorlarning bo'shab qolganini ko'rib, Qaysar o'z odamlarini qamal dvigatellaridan birini shahar devorlariga urishga majbur qildi. Keyin rimliklar eshiklarni ochib, bo'ron paytida qarshiliksiz shaharga kirishdi. 40 ming odamga chorak berilmadi, faqat 800 tasi qirg'in haqida gapirib qochdi.

Avaricumning qulashi haqidagi hikoyalar mamlakatni Rimga qarshi yig'di. Keyingi haftalarda Verceingetorix armiyasi deyarli ikki baravar ko'paydi. U partizanlar urushi, ko'priklarni yoqish, ta'minot tarmoqlarini kesish va Rim ovchilariga samarali zarbalar berish taktikasini davom ettirdi. Gergoviya qamalida, Vercingetorix vaziyatni o'zgartirishga muvaffaq bo'ldi, shuning uchun uning ta'minot liniyalarini qo'riqlash uchun Qaysar tomonidan ro'yxatga olingan gallar ularni yoqishdi. Qaysar shaharga to'g'ridan -to'g'ri hujumda mag'lubiyatga uchradi va uni qabul qilmasdan davom etishga majbur bo'ldi.

Reklama

Vercingetorixning har bir uchrashuvda Qaysardan ustun bo'lgan asosiy ustunligi uning otliq askarlari edi, ular Rim kuchlari bilan jang qila oladigan, yugurib chiqadigan va manevr qila oladigan edi. Qaysar unga Galliya bilan teng keladigan otliqlar kerakligini tan oldi va o'zining sobiq dushmanlari nemislarni askarlik mahorati bilan mashhur edi.

Alesiyani qamal qilish

Vercingetorix Rim kuchlariga kutilmagan hujumlarini davom ettirdi, lekin nemis yollanma askarlari uning otliq qo'shinlarini mag'lubiyatga uchratganida o'zini hayron qoldirdi. U shunday janjallardan keyin maydondan haydab chiqarildi va ta'qib qilindi. Qishloqda yashirinadigan xavfsiz joy topishga vaqt topolmay, Vercingetorix o'z odamlarini Alesiya shahriga olib bordi, keyin u o'z vaqtida iloji boricha mustahkam qilib oldi.

Qaysar undan ko'p o'tmay keldi va shaharni va uning atrofidagi erlarni ko'zdan kechirganidan so'ng, xuddi Avaricumda bo'lgani kabi, qamal qilish ishlarini olib bordi, lekin himoyachilar va hujumlardan xalos bo'lishga yordam beradigan kuchlarning hujumini oldini olish uchun o'z armiyasi atrofida mudofaa qurdi. qamalni olib tashlash. Vercingetorix va uning gallik kuchlari, shuningdek, uning kelganidan hayratga tushgan shahar aholisi shahar devorlari ichida qolib ketishdi va oziq -ovqat asta -sekin tugay boshladi. Vercingetorix birinchi bo'lib barcha otlarini qo'yib yubordi va ko'p odamlarini yordamga olib keldi, ularning ba'zilari Rim chizig'ini kesib o'tib, qochib ketishdi. Keyin u Alesiya fuqarolarini darvozalar orqali tashqariga jo'natdi, rimliklar jang qilmaydiganlarni o'tkazib yuborishiga umid qilib, rimliklar asosan keksalar, ayollar va bolalar edi, lekin ular ochlikdan va elementlardan asta-sekin o'lishdi. ikki raqib orasidagi noman yurtida.

Reklama

Vercingetorixning amakivachchasi Vercassivellaunus, otliq askarlari bilan Vercingetorix birinchi Alesiyaga kelganida, armatura olib kelish uchun yuborilgan edi. U hozir katta kuch bilan qaytib keldi va Qasarning chiziqlarini shimoli -g'arbga qamal qilishda kichik bo'shliqqa urdi. Yordam kelayotganini ko'rib, Vercingetorix o'z odamlariga shahar tashqarisiga o'sha joyga zarba berishni buyurdi va ikkita gallik kuchlari rimliklarni oralariga tutdilar. Rim chizig'i qulab tusha boshladi va galiyaliklar uchun g'alaba yaqin tuyuldi. Tsezar, minoradan turib, o'z odamlari va dushmanlari uchun darhol taniladigan qizil plashini kiydi va dushmanni o'z qilichi bilan urib tashlagan odamlarini dalda berib, jangga o'zi kirdi. Rimliklar to'planib, gallilarni orqaga haydab, jangda g'alaba qozonishdi.

Vercingetorixning o'limi va merosi

Hamma umid endi Alesiyada devorlar ortida yo'qoldi. Umid qilingan yordam mag'lubiyatga uchradi va quvildi va qamal davom etardi. Vercingetorix o'zi va odamlari uchun hech qanday qochish yo'qligini tushundi. Bu vaqtda voqealarning ikki xil versiyasi paydo bo'ladi: Qaysarning so'zlariga ko'ra, Vercingetorix qo'shinidagi gallik boshliqlar uni qamalni tugatish uchun topshirishga qaror qilishgan, tarixchi Kassius Dio so'zlariga ko'ra, Vercingetorix o'zini topshirib, Qaysar va uning xodimlarini hayratda qoldirdi. ularning lagerlari. Kassiy Dioning so'zlariga ko'ra, Vercingetorix "kutilmaganda keldi, birdaniga Qaysar hukm chiqargan tribunalda paydo bo'ldi" (40.41). Eng yaxshi qurol -aslahalarini kiygan Vercingetorix, hatto mag'lubiyatda ham hayratlanarli shaxs edi va Dio ta'kidlashicha, Qaysarning lagerida ko'plar qo'rqib ketishgan, shekilli, Qaysarning o'zi. Vercingetorix hech narsa demasdan, asta -sekin qurol -yarog'ini olib tashladi va keyin Qaysarning oyog'iga tiz cho'kdi. Dio yozadi: "kuzatayotganlarning ko'pchiligi uning hozirgi ahvolini avvalgi omadlari bilan solishtirganda achinishdi" (40.41). Qaysar rahm -shafqat qilmadi va uni zanjirband qilib, Rim qamoqxonasiga jo'natdi. Alesiya himoyachilari qirg'in qilindi, qul sifatida sotildi yoki qamal paytida xizmat qilgani uchun askarlarga qul sifatida berildi. Qaysar Golliya zabtining so'nggi tafsilotlarini tugatgandan so'ng, Vercingetorix qamoqdan sudralib, Rim ko'chalarida Qaysarning zafarli paradida qatnashdi va keyin qatl qilindi.

Mag'lubiyatga uchragan bo'lsa -da, Vercingetorixning shuhrati oshdi va u vafotidan ko'p o'tmay mashhur diniy shaxs va afsonaga aylandi. Olim Filipp Matisak "Gollar millat sifatida birlashgan vaqtlarini hech qachon unutmagan" va "bugun u Frantsiyaning birinchi milliy qahramoni sifatida tan olinganini" (127) qayd etadi. Vercingetorixning jasorati va qat'iyati, u o'z hayotini va o'z hayotini xavf ostiga qo'yib, chet ellik istilo va qullikka qarshi turishga haligacha odamlarni ilhomlantiradi va uning ismi qadimgi dunyoning buyuk qahramonlari orasida e'zozlanishda davom etmoqda.


Miloddan avvalgi-bugun tarixda, FRI 28 MAY, HFR

Bugun 28 -may, juma, 2021 -yilning 148 -kuni. Yilga 217 kun qoldi.

1977 yil 28 -mayda Kentukki shtatining Sautgeyt shahridagi Beverli -Xillz kechki ovqat klubi orqali o't ochilganda 165 kishi halok bo'ldi.

1863 yilda ozod qilingan qora tanlilardan tashkil topgan 54 -Massachusets ko'ngilli piyoda polki Bostondan fuqarolar urushida Ittifoq uchun kurashga jo'nab ketdi.

1912 yilda Senat Savdo qo'mitasi "Titanik" falokati to'g'risida o'z hisobotini e'lon qildi, unda "mutlaqo tayyorgarliksizlik holati", noto'g'ri tekshirilgan xavfsizlik uskunalari va "xavfga befarqlik" "keraksiz fojianing" ba'zi sabablari sifatida ko'rsatildi.

1918 yilda amerikalik qo'shinlar Birinchi Jahon urushi paytida birinchi yirik jangini o'tkazdilar, chunki ular frantsuzlarning Kanti qishlog'iga hujum uyushtirdilar (amerikaliklar qishloqni egallab olishdi).

1929 yilda birinchi rang-barang nutqli rasm "Shouda!" Nyu -Yorkda ochilgan Warner Bros. tomonidan ishlab chiqarilgan.

1934 yilda Dion beshliklari - Annette, Sesil, Emili, Mari va Yvon - Elzire Diondan Kanadaning Ontario shahridagi oilaviy fermada tug'ilgan.

1937 yilda prezident Franklin D. Ruzvelt Vashingtondagi tugmachani bosib, Kaliforniyadagi yangi ochilgan Oltin darvoza ko'prigidan avtomobillar harakati boshlanishi mumkinligini ko'rsatdi. Nevill Chemberlen Britaniya bosh vaziri bo'ldi.

1940 yilda, Ikkinchi jahon urushi paytida, Belgiya armiyasi nemis qo'shinlariga bostirib kirdi.

1959 yilda AQSh armiyasi rezus maymun Able va maymun maymun Beykerni Yupiter raketasi bilan suborbital uchish uchun uchirdi, ular ikkala primat tirik qoldi.

1964 yilda Quddusda Falastin Milliy Kongressi yig'ilishi boshlanganda, Falastin Ozodlik Tashkilotining nizomi chiqarildi.

1972 yilda Uollis Uorfild Simpsonga uylanish uchun ingliz taxtidan voz kechgan Vindzor gersogi Edvard 77 yoshida Parijda vafot etdi.

1987 yilda sovet amaldorlarini sharmanda qilib, G'arbiy Germaniya yosh uchuvchisi Matias Rust (mah-TEE'-uhs rust) shaxsiy samolyotini Moskvaning Qizil maydoniga ruxsatisiz qo'ndi. (Rustni keyingi yili sovetlar ozod qildi.)

2003 yilda prezident Jorj Bush 10 yillik 350 milliard dollarlik soliq imtiyozlari paketiga imzo chekdi va ular "iqtisodiy tiklanish uchun yoqilg'i qo'shayotganini" aytdi.

Prezident Barak Obama Varshavada prezident Bronislav Komorovskiy bilan uchrashuvdan so'ng Polshaning demokratiyaga o'tishini maqtadi. To'rt yillik blokadadan so'ng, Misr G'azo sektorining tashqi dunyoga asosiy darvozasini doimiy ravishda ochdi. Shimoliy Koreya yarim yil ushlab turgan amerikalik Eddi Junni dinni targ'ib qilgani uchun ozod qildi.

3 yoshli bola Cincinnati hayvonot bog'ida gorilla to'sig'iga qulab tushdi, uni qutqaruvchilar bolaning hayoti xavf ostida degan xulosaga kelganidan so'ng, 400 kilogrammlik Harambe ismli gorillani otib o'ldirgan guruh qutqarib qoldi. butun dunyoda motam va tanqid. Nyu-Orlean Pelikan qo'riqchisi Bryus Dijan-Jonsni qiz do'stining Dallasdagi kvartirasi deb o'ylab, eshikni tepganidan keyin kvartira fuqarosi otib o'ldirdi.

Aktyor Kerroll Beyker 90 yoshda, prodyuser-rejissyor Irvin Vinkler 90 yoshda. Mashhur basketbol zali Jerri Uest 83 yoshda, Nyu-York shahri sobiq meri Rudolf Juliani 77 yoshda, qo'shiqchi Gladis Nayt 77 yoshda, qo'shiqchi Billi Vera 77 yoshda, xonanda Jon Fogerti Clearwater Revival) - 76. Country musiqachisi Jerri Duglas 65 yoshda, aktyor Lui Mustillo 63 yoshda. AQSh sobiq gubernatori Mark Sanford 61 yoshda yoshi 59. Country qo'shiqchisi Fil Vassar 57 yoshda, aktyor Krista Miller 57 yoshda, qo'shiqchi-musiqachi Kris Balleu (AQSh prezidentlari) 56 yoshda.

Rapper Chubb Rok 53 yoshda. Xonanda Kylie Minogue (KY'-lee mihn-OHG ') 53 yoshda Aktyor Jastin Kirk 52 yoshda, senator Marko Rubio, R-Fla., 50 yoshda. Olimpiya oltin medalining figurali uchuvchisi Ekaterina Gordeeva 50 yoshda. Televizion shaxs Elisabet Xasselbek-44. R & ampB xonandasi Jaaxim-44. Aktyor Jeyk Jonson-43. Aktyor Jessi Bredford-42. Aktyor Monika Kin-42. Aktyor Aleksa Davalos-39. Aktyor Megalin Echikunvok (e-cheek-uh-WALK'- oy)-39. Pop qo'shiqchisi Kolbi Kaylat (kal-LAY ') 36 yoshda. Aktyor Keri Mulligan 36 yoshda. Aktyor Jozef Kross 35 yoshda


Zamonaviy dalillar

Qayta topilgan erkak skeletlari miloddan avvalgi 480 yilgi mashhur Himera janglarida 2400 yil oldin vafot etgan askarlar edi, lekin hozirgacha hech kim ularning qaerdan kelganini bilmas edi. Tadqiqotchilar "qadimgi yozuvlarda mumkin bo'lgan noto'g'ri xulosani" topdilar, bu ularning fikriga ko'ra, qadimgi yunon tarixchilari Ximera janglarida chet ellik yollanma askarlarning rolini ataylab kamaytirgan.

Miloddan avvalgi 480 yildagi bu janglarda qadimgi Yunonistonning Himera shahri Karfagen armiyasining qator hujumlarini muvaffaqiyatli himoya qilgan. Ga binoan Ellinikord Ma'lumki, Hamilkar boshchiligidagi bu armiya tarkibida "Karfagen, Liviya, Iberiya, Liguriya, Helisikiya, Sardiniya va Korsika sitsillarga qarshi" qo'shinlari bor edi. Biroq, bu ko'p millatli armiya askarlarining aniq parchalanishi har doim ham mavjud dalillarga asoslanmagan.

Endi tadqiqot mualliflari yangi geokimyoviy dalillarni jangning tarixiy voqealari bilan solishtirishmoqda. Doktor Reynberger izotoplarning tahlilini qadimgi yunon tarixchilarining da'volari bilan taqqoslab, ikkita ma'lumotlar to'plami mos kelmasligini aniqladi. Biror narsa noto'g'ri edi, chunki izotoplar Hamilkarning kuchini "yollanma askarlar va chet el askarlari" dan tashkil topganini aniqladi. Ammo yunoncha hisob -kitoblarda bu haqda ko'p narsa aytilmagan.

Himerada qazilgan ommaviy qabr (Davide Mauro / CC BY-SA 4.0 )


4. 1958 yil 4 -noyabr: Dyess havo kuchlari bazasi, Texas

Yadro qurolini tashiydigan B-47 samolyot uchib ketganda, bu muammo. B-47, 1958 yil noyabr oyida Texas va Dyess aviabazasidan termoyadroviy qurilmani boshqa joyga tashish uchun chiqib ketganida shunday bo'lgan. 1500 metr balandlikda u muammolarga duch keldi. Samolyot ekipaji a'zolaridan uchtasi xavfsiz tashlab yuborilgan, biroq samolyot qulashi oqibatida bomba va portlovchi moddalarni ishga tushirib, diametri 35 fut va chuqurligi 6 fut bo'lgan kraterni portlatib yuborish natijasida halok bo'lgan. Voqea joyida barcha yadro komponentlari topilgan.


Mayya tanazzuli

Mayya ’ -ning ajoyib ilmiy yutuqlariga qaramay, ularning madaniyati XI asr boshlarida tanazzulga uchradi. Tanazzulning sababi va ko'lami bugungi kunda munozaralarga sabab bo'lmoqda. Ba'zilar Mayya urushi natijasida yo'q qilingan deb hisoblashadi, boshqalari esa ularning o'limini savdo yo'llarining buzilishi bilan izohlaydilar. Yana kimdir Mayya qishloq xo'jaligi amaliyoti va dinamik o'sishi iqlim o'zgarishiga va o'rmonlarning kesilishiga olib keldi deb ishonishadi. Qadimgi Mayya madaniyatidan qolgan narsalarning ko'pi XVI asrda ispan konkistadorlari tomonidan to'ldirilgan bo'lsa -da, Maya ilmiy yutug'ining merosi arxeologlar bu ajoyib qadimiy madaniyat haqida kashfiyotlarda yashamoqda.


Battle Creekda odam o'g'irlashga uringan erkak hibsga olindi

BATTLE CREEK, Mich. (WOOD) - Bir necha daqiqa oldin shunga o'xshash voqeadan keyin Battle Creekda odam o'g'irlashga uringan odam hibsga olingan.

Battle Creek politsiya boshqarmasi xabariga ko'ra, soat 15.30dan oldin. Juma kuni ofitserlar Urbandale hududidagi Geiger prospekti yaqinidagi W. Michigan prospektining 1600 -blokiga javob berishdi.

Ular kelganida, guvohlarning aytishicha, qizil kompakt avtomashinani boshqarayotgan 38 yoshli erkak velosiped haydab kelayotgan ayolni ushlab olgan. Politsiyaning aytishicha, erkak mashinadan yo'lovchi tomondan chiqib, ayolning orqasiga kelib, velosipeddan tushirib, mashinaga o'tirmoqchi bo'lgan. Politsiyaning aytishicha, boshqa mashinalarda bo'lgan odamlar ayolga yordam berish uchun to'xtashgan. Erkak odamlarni o'ziga qarab kelayotganini ko'rib, ayolni qo'yib yubordi, yana mashinaga o'tirdi va chiqib ketdi.

Ofitser odam va transport vositasining tavsifini oldi. Ular bu odam bilan bir necha daqiqa oldin alohida hodisa yuzasidan muomala qilishganini aytishdi.

Politsiyaning ta'kidlashicha, avvalgi voqea U. Michigan shoh ko'chasi shimolidagi Leysi prospektining 100 -kvartalida, bir necha blok narida, erkak uyning hovlisida topilgan. Politsiya ma'lumotlariga ko'ra, erkak bu hududda mashinada ketayotganini ko'rgan, keyin bir uyga kelgan. Uni hovlida ko'rishdi, bir ayol yordam so'rab baqirdi va akasi erkakni hovlidan quvib chiqardi. Politsiya u erga etib kelganida, mashinani payqab qolishgan va erkak bilan aloqa qilishgan.

Politsiyaning aytishicha, ular Leysidagi voqeadan keyin odamni yurish uchun bilet olgan. BCPD, shu yilning boshida kuchga kirgan qonunlar tufayli zo'ravonliksiz jinoyat sodir etgan odamlar hibsga olinmaydi, aksincha tashqi ko'rinishdagi iqtiboslar chiqariladi.

Erkak ikkinchi hodisa uchun hibsga olinganidan keyin hibsga olingan.

Mualliflik huquqi 2021 Nexstar Media Inc. Barcha huquqlar himoyalangan. Bu materialni nashr qilish, translyatsiya qilish, qayta yozish yoki tarqatish mumkin emas.


Konfederativ qaytish: Urush va xotira tugashi

1864 yil yanvarga kelib, strategik vaziyat shunchalik o'zgardiki, Korinf Ittifoqiga kerak bo'lmay qoldi, shuning uchun federal armiya shaharni tark etdi. Kontrabanda lageri Memfisga, Tennessi shtatiga ko'chirildi va Konfederatsiyaning harbiy qismlari shaharga qaytdi. Ammo ko'p yillik urush va ishg'ol o'z ta'sirini ko'rsatdi va Korinf urushning qolgan qismida katta rol o'ynamasdi. Faqat bitta istisno shundaki, Tennessi Konfederativ Armiyasi 1864-1865 yillar qishda Tennessiga halokatli bosqini va Franklin va Nashvildagi mag'lubiyatlardan so'ng qisqa vaqt ichida u erda lager qurgan edi.

Shunday qilib, fuqarolar urushidagi Korinf haqidagi hikoya jang, ishg'ol va qirg'in haqidagi ertakdir. Ammo bu jasorat va ozodlik hikoyasidir. Fuqarolar urushi voqealarini belgilash va talqin qilish uchun federal hukumat yillar davomida bir necha qadamlarni qo'ydi. Urushdan so'ng 1866 yilda tashkil etilgan yigirma gektarlik Korinf milliy qabristonida Korinfda va uning atrofida jang qilgan olti mingga yaqin Ittifoq askarining qoldiqlari bor. Uning devorlari ichida bir nechta Konfederatsiyalar ham bor, lekin ko'pchilik Konfederatsiyalar shahar atrofida uzoq vaqtdan beri yo'qolgan ommaviy qabrlarga dafn etilgan.

Keyingi yillarda mahalliy saqlash harakatlari qamal va jang bilan bog'liq bir qancha joylarni belgilab berdi, lekin 2004 yilda Milliy Park xizmati Korinfda tarjimonlik markazini ochdi. Yaqin atrofdagi Shilo milliy harbiy bog'i bo'linmasi, bu tashrif markazi Battery Robinettdagi iqlimiy kurash joyida joylashgan va Korinfning fuqarolar urushi haqidagi boy tarixini sharhlaydi. Bu tashrif buyuruvchilarga tarixning chorrahasida joylashgan Missisipi shimoli -sharqidagi urushning turli qirralari haqida tushuncha beradi.

Doktor Timoti B. Smit - Milliy bog'lar xizmatining faxriysi (Shiloh milliy harbiy parki), hozir u Martindagi Tennessi universitetida dars beradi. U Missisipi merosi turkumi uchun fuqarolar urushi paytida Missisipi shtatining uy -joyini o'rganish ustida ishlamoqda, shuningdek, fuqarolar urushidagi Korinfni o'rganish tugash arafasida.


Bog'liq

Karantinning qisqacha tarixi

Jinsiy iktidarsizlik: sabablari va davolash usullari

Bir odam va anoreksiya bilan kurash

Paradoksal tarzda, hatto zamonaviy qasamyod ham ishlatilgan bo'lsa ham, uning mazmuni klassik qasamning asosiy tamoyillaridan voz kechdi. According to a 1993* survey of 150 U.S. and Canadian medical schools, for example, only 14 percent of modern oaths prohibit euthanasia, 11 percent hold convenant with a deity, 8 percent foreswear abortion, and a mere 3 percent forbid sexual contact with patients—all maxims held sacred in the classical version. The original calls for free tuition for medical students and for doctors never to "use the knife" (that is, conduct surgical procedures)—both obviously out of step with modern-day practice. Perhaps most telling, while the classical oath calls for "the opposite" of pleasure and fame for those who transgress the oath, fewer than half of oaths taken today insist the taker be held accountable for keeping the pledge.

Indeed, a growing number of physicians have come to feel that the Hippocratic Oath is inadequate to address the realities of a medical world that has witnessed huge scientific, economic, political, and social changes, a world of legalized abortion, physician-assisted suicide, and pestilences unheard of in Hippocrates' time. Some doctors have begun asking pointed questions regarding the oath's relevance: In an environment of increasing medical specialization, should physicians of such different stripes swear to a single oath? With governments and health-care organizations demanding patient information as never before, how can a doctor maintain a patient's privacy? Are physicians morally obligated to treat patients with such lethal new diseases as AIDS or the Ebola virus?

Other physicians are taking broader aim. Some claim that the principles enshrined in the oath never constituted a shared core of moral values, that the oath's pagan origins and moral cast make it antithetical to beliefs held by Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Others note that the classical Oath makes no mention of such contemporary issues as the ethics of experimentation, team care, or a doctor's societal or legal responsibilities. (Most modern oaths, in fact, are penalty-free, with no threat to potential transgressors of loss of practice or even of face.)

With all this in mind, some doctors see oath-taking as little more than a pro-forma ritual with little value beyond that of upholding tradition. "The original oath is redolent of a convenant, a solemn and binding treaty," writes Dr. David Graham in JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association (12/13/00). "By contrast, many modern oaths have a bland, generalized air of ➾st wishes' about them, being near-meaningless formalities devoid of any influence on how medicine is truly practiced." Some physicians claim what they call the "Hypocritic Oath" should be radically modified or abandoned altogether.

Below, see classical and modern versions of the oath.

*Orr, R. D., N. Pang, E. D. Pellegrino, and M. Siegler. 1997. "Use of the Hippocratic Oath: A Review of Twentieth-Century Practice and a Content Analysis of Oaths Administered in Medical Schools in the U.S. and Canada in 1993." The Journal of Clinical Ethics 8 (Winter): 377-388.

Hippocratic Oath: Classical Version

I swear by Apollo Physician and Asclepius and Hygieia and Panaceia and all the gods and goddesses, making them my witnesses, that I will fulfill according to my ability and judgment this oath and this covenant:

To hold him who has taught me this art as equal to my parents and to live my life in partnership with him, and if he is in need of money to give him a share of mine, and to regard his offspring as equal to my brothers in male lineage and to teach them this art—if they desire to learn it—without fee and covenant to give a share of precepts and oral instruction and all the other learning to my sons and to the sons of him who has instructed me and to pupils who have signed the covenant and have taken an oath according to the medical law, but no one else.

I will apply dietetic measures for the benefit of the sick according to my ability and judgment I will keep them from harm and injustice.

I will neither give a deadly drug to anybody who asked for it, nor will I make a suggestion to this effect. Similarly I will not give to a woman an abortive remedy. In purity and holiness I will guard my life and my art.

I will not use the knife, not even on sufferers from stone, but will withdraw in favor of such men as are engaged in this work.

Whatever houses I may visit, I will come for the benefit of the sick, remaining free of all intentional injustice, of all mischief and in particular of sexual relations with both female and male persons, be they free or slaves.

What I may see or hear in the course of the treatment or even outside of the treatment in regard to the life of men, which on no account one must spread abroad, I will keep to myself, holding such things shameful to be spoken about.

If I fulfill this oath and do not violate it, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and art, being honored with fame among all men for all time to come if I transgress it and swear falsely, may the opposite of all this be my lot.

—Translation from the Greek by Ludwig Edelstein. From The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and Interpretation, by Ludwig Edelstein. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1943.

Hippocratic Oath: Modern Version

I swear to fulfill, to the best of my ability and judgment, this covenant:

I will respect the hard-won scientific gains of those physicians in whose steps I walk, and gladly share such knowledge as is mine with those who are to follow.

I will apply, for the benefit of the sick, all measures [that] are required, avoiding those twin traps of overtreatment and therapeutic nihilism.

I will remember that there is art to medicine as well as science, and that warmth, sympathy, and understanding may outweigh the surgeon's knife or the chemist's drug.

I will not be ashamed to say "I know not," nor will I fail to call in my colleagues when the skills of another are needed for a patient's recovery.

I will respect the privacy of my patients, for their problems are not disclosed to me that the world may know. Most especially must I tread with care in matters of life and death. If it is given me to save a life, all thanks. But it may also be within my power to take a life this awesome responsibility must be faced with great humbleness and awareness of my own frailty. Above all, I must not play at God.

I will remember that I do not treat a fever chart, a cancerous growth, but a sick human being, whose illness may affect the person's family and economic stability. My responsibility includes these related problems, if I am to care adequately for the sick.

I will prevent disease whenever I can, for prevention is preferable to cure.

I will remember that I remain a member of society, with special obligations to all my fellow human beings, those sound of mind and body as well as the infirm.

If I do not violate this oath, may I enjoy life and art, respected while I live and remembered with affection thereafter. May I always act so as to preserve the finest traditions of my calling and may I long experience the joy of healing those who seek my help.

—Written in 1964 by Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the School of Medicine at Tufts University, and used in many medical schools today.

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Caesar's Gallic War

Caesar's Gallic War: Caesar's reports on his conquests in Gaul. The Roman senator Cicero thought it was a splendid text, and although we can recognize the book's bias, it still is a remarkably efficient piece of writing.

Kirish

Caesar's Gallic War consists of seven parts ("books"), each devoted to one year of campaigning. The first book covers the year 58 BCE: it opens with the war against the Helvetians, continues with a victorious battle against a Germanic army, and culminates in the modest remark that Caesar had concluded two very important wars in a single campaign. In the next book, which deals with the year 57, we visit the Belgians, who lived way up north. Again, the book culminates in a triumphant note: when the Senate received Caesar's dispatches, the august body decreed a thanksgiving of fifteen days, "an honor which, until then, had been conferred on no one".

The next books cover campaigns along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean (Book Three), the invasions of Germany and Britain (Book Four) and the second invasion of Britain (Book Five). The sixth book offers descriptions of some hard fighting in the valley of the Meuse and a second invasion of Germany. Finally, the book dealing with the events in 52 BCE, is probably the most exciting one: it deals with the war against Vercingetorix. We read how the Roman lines of communication were almost cut off, about the siege of Bourges, about an unsuccessful attack on Gergovia, and finally about the siege of Alesia, which culminates in a remark about a thanksgiving of twenty days. (Book Eight, which describes mopping-up operations in 51 and 50, was later added by one of Caesar's colonels, Aulus Hirtius.)

The structure of the description of the siege of Alesia illustrates Caesar's method. If we are to believe him, the outcome of the war depended on one single siege. This may have been correct, but the fact that fighting continued for two more years suggests that things may have been more complex. The outcome of the siege was - according to Caesar - decided on one single day during that day, one single fight really mattered and that clash fight was decided by one man, Julius Caesar, who appeared on the scene when things were going wrong. In other words, it was Caesar who personally won the fight, the battle, and the war. This is splendid propaganda.

Stylistic Brilliance

For centuries, the Gallic War has been the first real Latin text, written by a real Roman, for children who were trying to master the ancient language. Caesar's language is not very difficult indeed. Cicero says:

The Gallic War is splendid. It is bare, straight and handsome, stripped of rhetorical ornament like an athlete of his clothes. … There is nothing in a history more attractive than clean and lucid brevity. note [Cicero, Brutus 262.]

But the general was not just writing for Cicero and other senators, who recognized Caesar's artful simplicity. In the Roman political arena, Caesar belonged to the mashhurlar, who sought legitimacy through the Popular Assembly. (The other tactic was that of the optimates, who focused on the Senate.) Although every Roman citizen had a right to vote in the assemblies, in fact only the urban citizens had an opportunity to do so. For Caesar, it was important to impress the craftsmen and wage workers, and the Gallic War was written for them as well. We must imagine that Caesar's half-literate adherents read his annual dispatches to their fellow-Romans.

Still, the simplicity of his style does not exclude dazzling phrases. The following quote, the longest sentence from the Gallic War, is one single period, which evokes the chaos during the Battle of the Sabis, in which Caesar overcame the Nervians. As usual, he speaks about himself in the third person, a trick to make the text look more objective.

When Caesar, who had addressed the tenth legion, reached the right wing, he found his troops under severe pressure and, because all the standards of the twelfth had had been collected into one cramped space, the soldiers packed so close together that they got in each other's way as they fought, while all the centurions of the fourth cohort had been killed - together with the standard bearer: the standard was lost - and those of the other cohorts as well, including the very brave senior centurion, Publius Sextius Baculus, who had so many terrible wounds that he could no longer stand, and when Caesar saw that the rest of the men were slowing down, and some in the rear ranks had given up fighting and were intent on getting out of range of the enemy, while the enemy in front kept pouring up the hill and were pressing us on both flanks, he recognized that this was a crisis because there were no reserves available, so he snatched a shield from a soldier in the rear ranks - Caesar had no shield with him - and went forward to the front line, where he called out to all the centurions by name and shouted encouragement to the rest of the men, whom he ordered to advance and to open out their ranks so that they could use their swords more effectively. note [Caesar, Gallic War 2.25.1.]

It is easy to understand why this sentence is, in most modern translations, divided into three units. However, the chaos of the battle is evoked better if an experienced reader reads these words to his audience in one breath. When the reader runs out of breath, he has reached the climax: Caesar personally intervening and saving the day.

Meanwhile, a more sober analysis of the battle shows that it was not Caesar, but his colonel Titus Labienus who acted decisively. That Caesar in his account of the Battle of the Sabis gives all credit to himself, is unusual: under normal circumstances, he also mentions and praises his colonels and soldiers. Many of them were well-known in Rome and were popular with the masses. Others, like Quintus Cicero and Publius Licinius Crassus, were relatives of well-known senators, who certainly appreciated that their nephews or sons were mentioned.

A Political Geography

It would be exaggerated to say that for the Romans Gaul was terra incognita. Italian merchants and Roman commanders had already visited the valleys of the Rhône and Saône, and Gallic traders had told stories about the territories north and west of Lyon. However, the countries along the Ocean were poorly known. The description of the shores of Gaul by the Greek sailor Pytheas, almost three centuries old, was probably the best there was, and it was probably known only second-hand. Another source was Xenophon of Lampsacus, who believed that up north, one would find people with horses' hooves or ears of an extraordinary size. On the Birds Islands, Xenophon said, people lived on oats and eggs. note [Quoted by Pliny the Elder, Tabiat tarixi 4.95.]

Inevitably, Caesar makes geographical mistakes. When he states that "the Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, passes along the island of the Batavians, and flows into the Rhine about 80 miles from the sea", note [Caesar, Gallic War 4.10.1.] he confuses the river with the Moselle, which has its sources in the Vosges. He follows Xenophon when he states that the people along the Rhine have a diet of fish and eggs. note [Caesar, Gallic War 4.10.2.]

Other mistakes are intentional. Caesar knew that people at home had the most fantastic ideas about the edges of the earth, and he carefully exploited these prejudices. The ancients believed that if you left the Mediterranean and moved inland, you would reach increasingly barbarous people, until, when you reached the Ocean at the edge of the world, where ebb and flood occur, the land was inhabited by absolute savages. They lacked civilization, but were extremely brave. Take the famous opening lines of the Gallic War:

Gaul as a whole consists of three separate parts: one is inhabited by the Belgae, another by the Aquitani and the third by the people we call Gauls, though in their own language they are called Celts. … Of all these peoples, the toughest are the Belgae. They are the farthest away from the civilized ways of the Roman province, and merchants, bringing those things that tend to make men soft, very seldom reach them moreover, they are very close to the Germans across the Rhine and are continually at war with them. note [Caesar, Gallic War 1.1.1, 3.]

The Roman province, the Gauls, the Belgae, the Germans: there is an increase of savagery, and Caesar never ceases to remind his audience of the country he was fighting in. The Ocean shores are often mentioned, even when there is no need to. In an account of an expedition against the Eburones, who lived in the east of modern Belgium, he mentions that some people "fled to the islands that are cut off from the mainland by the high tide". note [Caesar, Gallic War 6.31.3.] This cannot be true. Paleogeologic studies of the Belgian and Dutch coastal area have shown that the Zeeland archipelago did not yet exist the nearest islands were those along the Wadden Sea, more than 300 km away. Still, Caesar seized an opportunity to remind his readers that he was fighting at the edge of the earth, in a barbarous country, against dangerous savages.

The most interesting aspect of his geography is the way he defines his theater of operations: the Rhine is the eastern border of Gaul. He must have known that this is incorrect. The region of the Celtic states continued east of the river, along the Danube, all the way to Bohemia. The language of the Belgae was spoken as far as east as the Ems. Germanic migrants had in Caesar's time settled west of the river. Whatever the Rhine may have been, it was not a border between Celts and Germans.

Cover-up

Caesar's books were intended as an aid for future historians - that's why they are officially called Sharhlarva emas History of the Gallic War - but the author often leaves out information that historians would have found interesting. In his continuation of the Gallic War, Hirtius mentions unsuccessful Roman actions and cruel executions of defeated enemies - information that Caesar, in the seven first books, had repressed. There are no accounts of the looting of the Gallic sanctuaries, which are known to have taken place, nor is there any reference to the sale of POWs. The latter can be explained: if a general sold people into slavery, the Senate received a share of the proceeds. By writing that these people had been killed, Caesar could keep the money himself.

/> Model of Caesar's bridge across the Rhine

Sometimes, lack of success was too well known in Rome to be ignored. Caesar explains his setback at Gergovia by blaming his soldiers, who had been over-eager to attack. On other occasions, an ethnographic digression helps to cover up things. In 6.9-10, Caesar's men build a bridge across the Rhine, and the reader is prepared for the invasion of the country on the east bank. Sections 11-28 are devoted to the customs of the Germans, and in 6.29, we learn that Caesar's enemies, the Suebians, had retreated, so that the legions could return. There is not a word about the campaign, which was obviously a disaster.

As it happens, we know what really happened, because the Greek historian Cassius Dio, a really independent mind and a clever historian, states that Caesar accomplished nothing and retired rapidly out of fear for the Suebians. note [Cassius Dio, Roman History 40.32.2.] In other words, the exact opposite of what Caesar claims that had happened. Dio also gives a description of a Roman attack on a refugee camp during an armistice that makes more sense than Caesar's own description of his fight against the Usipetes and Tencteri. note [Cassius Dio, Roman History 39.47.2 cf. Caesar, Gallic War 4.11-15.]

A third occasion on which Dio offers information that Caesar preferred to hold back, is the siege of Alesia. After the decisive fight, the leaders of the besieged Gauls met, and Vercingetorix said that they ought to decide what to do. They sent envoys to Caesar, who demanded them to hand over their weapons, and waited on his throne for the enemy leaders to arrive. The tribal leaders came and handed over Vercingetorix. At least, this is what Caesar writes, stressing that the Gauls themselves abandoned their leader. But it is probably not what really happened: according to Dio, Vercingetorix remained in charge to the very last moment, and surprised Caesar by appearing unexpectedly.

Xulosa

Cicero may have appreciated Caesar's stylistic qualities, but when he compares the Gallic War to a work of history, he only proves that he is a victim of Caesar's superior literary skills. The books were an instrument to influence public opinion at home. Had it been a history of the conquest of Gaul, the book would at least have contained an explanation about the causes of the conflict, but Caesar never explains why he went to war at all.

However, although Caesar's bias is evident, this does not mean that the work has no value at all. The author concentrates on the military aspects of the war, and for the study of ancient warfare, the Gallic War remains one of the most important sources. On the other hand, one can never use his descriptions at face value.

An earlier version of this article was published in Ancient Warfare , 2.4 (2008)


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